Volume 2 (2011) - Issue 12, December
Tablet that disintegrate rapidly in the mouth are convenient for patient who have difficulty in swallowing conventional dosages forms. Although various formulation technologies like Zydis Technology, Durasolve Technology, Orasolve Technology, Flash Dose Technology, Wow Tab Technology, Flash Tab Technology, Quicksolv Technology, Lyos Technology, Fast Melt Technology and Zip-lets Technology are used...
Depression is a heterogenous mood disorder that has been classified and treated in variety of ways. Although a number of synthetic drugs are being used as standard treatment for clinically depressed patient, they have adverse effects that can compromise the therapeutic treatment .Thus, it is worthwhile to look for antidepressant from plants with proven advantage and favorable benefit to risk ratio...
Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadv...
In pharmaceutical industry, various controlled released dosage forms like solid formulation, semi solid formulation and topical preparation have more importance due to efficacy and patient compliance. Topical preparations have some disadvantages like unpleasant odour, greasiness and skin irritation and fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. This problem is overc...
Artemisia pallens Walls. ex DC, commonly known as Davana, is an aromatic herb found abundantly in humid habitats in the plains all over India. Artemisia pallens is found in Nilgiri hills, and has been used by the tribal people for various ailments. It has been widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This plant is accredited with antihelmintic, antipyretic and to...
ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (FAM: MENISPERMACEAE)
Tinospora cordifolia (Fam: Menispermaceae) has been investigated for evaluation of the biological activities. The stem of Tinospora cordifolia were extracted with carbon tetrachloride, n-hexane and methanol were collected and afford 4.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 4.0 mg, respectively for the test. The crude carbon tetrachloride, n-hexane, and methanol extract of the plant were subjected to antimicrobial scre...
RESPONSES OR EFFECT OF CEREBRAL MALARIA ON PLATELET COUNT, PLATELET FACTOR – 3 AND PLATELET AGGREGATE AVAILABILITY IN CHILDREN
Background and Objective: Malaria, a formidable global parasitic infection represent a major health problem in tropical countries in terms of geographical spread, high morbidity, severe mortality especially among children. This study investigated platelet function’s role and its strength to make platelet factor 3 (PF-3) available for coagulation in children with cerebral malaria. Subjects and...
FORMULATION DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF PULSATILE RELEASE TABLET OF ACEBROPHYLLINE WITH SWELLING AND ERODIABLE LAYERS FOR TREATMENT OF NOCTURNAL BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
Acebrophylline is a bronchodilator with mucosecrytolytic and anti-inflammatory activity. It is used to treat the bronchial asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. This work is based on the formulation and optimization of time dependant pulsatile release tablets of Acebrophylline having adequate mechanical strength of tablet and proper drug release of tablet. Pulsatile drug delivery sys...
In vitro dissolution of ten brands of diclofenac sodium sustained release matrix tablets were studied to determine the effect of fruit juice in the bioavailability of diclofenac. Significant reduction was observed in the release rate at all collected brands, where except sample D7 and D8 others were not fulfill the USP in vitro dissolution specification when administered with fruit juice. Therefor...
The quality of education offered by Pharmacy institutions in the country varies widely. There are only a few institutions which maintain internationally recognized standard. A survey was conducted on the one hundred and twenty four (124) undergraduate Pharmacy students to determine their awareness and inclination towards Pharmacy as a career choice. Students were evaluated for the perception on th...
An in-vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four herbal extracts viz., Honey, Nigella sativa, Capsicum frutescens, Brassica oleracea, combination of Honey & Nigella sativa and Honey & Capsicum frutescens along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. And also brine shrimp lethality bio-assay was done using brine shrimp Nauplii ...
Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world which can be classified into early onset sepsis (EOS) which occurs in the first 7 days of life and late onset sepsis (LOS) which occurs ≥7 days of life. E. coli has been reported to be one of the significant and most common nosocomial pathogen which may cause septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis in the ne...
COMPARATIVE IN VITRO DISSOLUTION STUDY OF SOME CIPROFLOXACIN GENERIC TABLETS UNDER BIOWAIVER CONDITIONS BY RP-HPLC
This study is aimed to assess the bioequivalence of five generic ciprofloxacin tablets from different manufacturer using in vitro dissolution study under biowaiver conditions by RP-HPLC. Dissolution media were USP buffer solutions at pH 1.2 (hydrochloric acid solution), pH 4.5 (acetate buffer solution), and pH 6.8 (phosphate buffer solution). Other general quality assessment tests of these tablets...
EFFECT OF PROCESSING AND POLYMER VARIABLES ON INVITRO RELEASE OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS
The present study was aimed to develop an extended release tablet of Metoprolol Succinate for the treatment of hypertension. Four extended release formulations F1-F4 were developed using varying proportions of Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K100M, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and Eudragit L30 D55 by wet granulation. Five extended release formulations F5-F9 containing HPMC K100M and HPMC 5cps ...
SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC, THERMAL STUDIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF A NEW SULFAMETHOXAZOLE SCHIFF BASE AND ITS COPPER COMPLEXES
A new Sulfamethoxazole Schiff base (E)-4-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)-N-(5-methylis-oxazol-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide (C18H17N3O4S), and its copper complex were synthesized and the structures elucidated on the basis of Physiochemical methods. The studies indicate an octahedral structure for the complexes with the (C22H27N3O10SCu) formula. The IR spectra suggest that the ligand act as tridentate (from...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CETRIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE AND AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY A NOVEL HPLC METHOD
A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride and ambroxol hydrochloride has been developed. The chromatography system used a reversed phase C-8 column with UV- Vis detection at 230 nm. Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile – 0.1% triethlamine (50:50 v/v) (pH adjusted to 4.0 using 10% ortho phosphoric acid) at a flow rate of ...
Amaranthus vegetable and seeds are highly nutritious. Four species of Amaranthus were planted in pots in a glass house and leaves were harvested. Fresh leaves were analyzed for protein and carbohydrate content and oven dried leaves for Fe, Ca, K and Na contents. Protein content was varied from 6.10-9.00g/100g of fresh leaves. The amount of carbohydrate in fresh leaves of all four species varied fr...
Ketoconazole (KTZ) is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Resistance to ketoconazole has been observed in a number of clinical fungal isolates, including C. albicans. Thus new effective agents with less toxicity against fungal infection are urgently required. With this view, ketoconazole thiosemi...
ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF THE DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L.) MERR. IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE
The antidiabetic effects of Ethyl acetate (Et Ac), Petroleum-ether (Pet ether), and Chloroform fractions from methanolic extract of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice (AIDM). The effect of these fractions (200 mg/kg body weight i.p) was observed on fasting blood glucose (FBG) level and active fraction was further investigated for its dose dependent ...
The essential oil of the aerial parts of Launaea nudicaulis was isolated using Clevenger's apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS instrument. Different extracts of the aerial parts of Launaea nudicaulis were tested for their activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Seventeen constituents were identified in the essential oil. The major constituents in the essential oil are limonene, Z-...
The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phytochemical constituents of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Nyctaginaceae) dried roots. The root extracts were prepared with chloroform, ethanol and water and screened for in vitro antioxidant activities by using assay of DPPH radical scavenging, antiproteolytic activity, polyphenol oxidase inhibition, hydroperoxide inhibition ...
ROLE OF SOLVENT ACCESSIBLE SURFACE AREA (ASA+) AND BALABEN 3D INDEX (J3D) IN BINDING AFFINITY OF TIBO DERIVATIVES
In present QSAR study of TIBO derivatives, aim of the author is to analysis some different 3D parameter in order to get best QSAR model, which enhance the binding affinity of TIBO derivatives. Solvent accessible surface area (3D) of all atoms with positive partial charge (strictly greater than 0) and Balaben 3D index plays vital role in this concern. This study focuses on some important and differ...
The leaf of the plant Lawsonia inermis was examined for analgesic and anti-diarrhoeal properties. From the study of analgesic activity it was found that ethanol extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited no significant (p<0.3) inhibition of writhing reflex (28.45 % inhibition) while the inhibition of standard drug diclofenac sodium showed 82.7 % inhibition at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. The f...
Aims: Qualitative analysis of a mucoadhesive polymeric (Carbopol940) suspension of Norfloxacin was carried out with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. Methods: The characterization of ultrasonicated formulation was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron micr...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TWO SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METRONIDAZOLE AND OFLOXACIN IN SUSPENSION
Two simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and economical methods were developed for the estimation of Metronidazole and Ofloxacin in two component liquid dosage form. First method is based on the simultaneous equation and second method is based on Q-analysis (absorbance ratio method). Metronidazole has absorbance maxima at 318.0 nm and Ofloxacin has absorbance maxima at 294 nm in acetonitrile and dil...
IN- VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF OUGEINIA OOJEINENSIS (ROXB.) HOCHR (LEGUMINOSAE)
Safer antioxidants suitable for long term use are needed to prevent or stop the progression of free radical mediated disorders. In this study, the antioxidant activity of hydroethanolic extract of stem bark of Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) (HEBO) was studied using various in vitro assays. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay (DPPH...
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND IN-VITRO BIOAVAILABILITY EQUIVALENCE OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE TABLETS MARKETED IN TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA
The availability of numerous brands of co-trimoxazole in our local market today places health professionals in a difficult situation of choice of a suitable brand or the possibility of alternative use. The aim of the study was to predict the physicochemical and in-vitro bioavailability equivalence of six brands of co-trimoxazole tablets marketed in Tigray, Ethiopia. Weight uniformity, friability, ...
Crinum latifolium L. is a rosette-like herb showing promising results as rubefacient, tonic, for treatment of allergic disorders, benign prostatic hyperplasia, cancer and others. The present study deals with pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaves of Crinum latifolium (Amaryllidaceae). The pharmacognostical studies were carried out as organoleptic, microscopic and physic...
PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF VISMIA GUIANENSIS (AUBL.) CHOISY
Studies have been demonstrating that Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Choisy, popularly known as seal, a species native to South America has high anticancer and antimicrobial potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of V. guianensis, and trace its chemical profile. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF ROOTS OF LEEA MACROPHYLLA ROXB.
The ethanolic extracts and its different partitioning fractions of roots of Leea macrophylla (Leeaceae) were evaluated for their analgesic and preliminary cytotoxic activities. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice while the screening of cytotoxic activity was done using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In acetic- acid induced writhing test, the e...
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases causing millions of deaths every year. Phytochemistry has proven that there are potential mosquito control agents and also alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present paper reports Ageratum conyzoides commonly known as Kubhi in Hindi of family Astereacae. The plant after proper identification was collected shade dried and powdered to the fine mesh...
Ventilago calyculata (Rhamnaceae) commonly known as Pitti. Ventilago calyculata is present in hotter parts of India, Burma, Siam, China, in forest region. The plant is antimalarial, Antiviral, stomachic, skin disorder. Phytochemical studies had revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannin, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone. Present study was carried out to determine, the morphological, m...
FORMULA OPTIMIZATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLET OF CLOPIDOGREL BISULPHATE FREE FROM SURFACE IRREGULARITIES
Clopidogrel Bisulphate is an oral, thienopyridine class antiplatelet agent used to inhibit blood clots in coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Immediate release tablet of clopidogrel bisulphate (form II) was prepared by using direct compression technique. Clopidogrel Bisulphate is very hygroscopic and show rapid degradation when processed with alkali s...
The transition in diet has lead to an increase in lifestyle disorders and thereby increased dependency on wonder drugs. With increased drug discovery and marketing, there is a compelling trend towards large drug dosage. However, food is judged not only for its nutritive properties but also for its ability to improve the health and well being of consumers, thus leading to the advent of “FUNCTIONA...
IMPROVED EFFICIENCY AND REDUCED COSTS DURING INFUSION THERAPY WITH PREMIXED PREPARATIONS COMPARED TO FREEZE-DRYING POWDER
Background: An excessive medical expenditure is becoming a main barrier to good health for several people in China. Hence, there is a need to control this rising medical cost to reduce the financial burden placed on family and society in general. Objective: Our aim was to understand the expenses incurred during the use of two forms of infusion therapy- the premixed preparations and the freeze-d...
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES USING VERAPAMIL HYDROCHLORIDE AS MODEL DRUG
The objective of the current investigation is to reduce dosing frequency and improve patient compliance by designing and systematically evaluating sustained release microspheres of verapamil. Frequent administration and variable low bioavailability (40-60%) after oral administration are problems of conventional dosage forms of verapamil can be attenuated by designing it in the form of mucoadhesive...
A simple, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of Itraconazole in capsule dosage form. An inertsil C-18, 5μm column having 250 x 4.6mm internal diameter in isocratic mode with mobile phase containing Tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate buffer solution and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:60v/v w...