Volume 8 (2017) - Issue 10, October
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW, DEVELOPMENT AND NEW APPROACHES IN DESIGN OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS AND ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS PART II
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in pathogenesis of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. In addition to a discussion of the current understanding of the chemical structures and the modes of action of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor (ATR) antagonists, review includes their SAR analysis and chemical modif...
Contraceptive agents are drugs or devices used by women and men in the reproductive age group, to prevent unintended pregnancies. Although various contraceptive agents are available for women and men, they are associated with health risks or lack of efficacy, and thus are insufficient to cater to the needs of the diverse target population with varying contraceptive requirements according to their ...
The skin has been used as a medium for systemic delivery of therapeutic agents. The resistance provided by the stratum corneum is the major barrier in delivering of the agents through skin. Due to this the number of drug molecules used under this category is limited. Iontophoresis is an efficient technique for physically enhancing conveyance of molecules across skin for local and systemic effects....
Hypertension is a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases and has emerged as one of the largest death causing diseases for mankind. There are number of medicines useful for treatment of high blood pressure but the main obstacle for the oral delivery of antihypertensive drugs is low bioavailability due to first pass metabolism. Also, if there is sudden increase in blood pres...
INFLUENCE OF LEVETIRACETAM ON AGGRAVATION OF MEMORY IMPAIRMENT BY VALPROATE: A STUDY ON PILOCARPINE MOUSE MODEL OF TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY
Association of memory impairment (MI) with epilepsy, majorly in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is considerably a tricky condition where existing treatment options involving the administration of anti-epileptic drugs (AED’s) tend to worsen the stated incidence. This study evaluates the aggravating effect of valproate (VAL) at normal and reduced doses on MI associated with TLE and additionally asses...
VIRTUAL SCREEENING AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEWER BTK INHIBITIORS AS POTENT ANTI-RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIC AGENTS
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting 1% of the world wide population. Recent researches suggested that the need for discovery of new therapeutic disease modifying anti-rheumatoid arthritis drugs (DMARD’s). BTK (Bruton’s tyrosine kinase) is cytoplasmic, non receptor tyrosine kinase and it is efficient target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This encouraged us...
Apples are rich of vital components to the human health, such as the amino acids, but their presence differ according to the type and colour of the apples. In this study we compared the concentrations of amino acids in the peels and pulps of red and green apples, by using the HLPC for analysis. 16 amino acids were found with different concentrations according to the locality in which they exist in...
RENO-HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAVES CHLOROFORM EXTRACT (MKCE) AGAINST LEAD-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MICE
Lead induced oxidative stress implies morphological dysfunctions and physiological deformation in the liver. The aim of present study was to establish the protective effect of chloroform extract of Murraya koenigii leaves against the lethal effects of lead on the antioxidant status of mice. Murraya koenigii Chloroform Extract (MKCE) was prepared by maceration. Male Swiss albino mice were divided i...
EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ROOT EXTRACTS OF AEGLE MARMELOS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Herbal medicines are effective in the treatment of various ailments. Very often these drugs are unscientifically exploited and / or improperly used. Therefore plant drugs deserve detailed studies in the light of modern science. The detailed investigation and documentation of plants used in local health traditions and pharmacological evaluation of these plants and their taxonomical relatives can le...
IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF LEAD COMPOUNDS AGAINST HIV-1 INTEGRASE ENZYME USING ADMET PREDICTION AND DOCKING ANALYSIS
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most challenging diseases world-wide is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), member of human retrovirus family. Various therapies and treatments of HIV are provided, but these are rapidly drug resistance in recent decades. After the explosion of HIV integrase (enzyme essential for the replication of DNA virus in the host genome), phar...
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF A STANDARDIZED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF THE FRUITS OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS ON MENTAL STRESS INDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR CHANGES IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS
Introduction: Experimental studies have found that acute stress leads to pathophysiological changes in cardiac risk profile and thereby more directly explain a link to cardiovascular disease. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Emblica officinalis versus placebo on mental stress induced changes in cardiovascular hemodynamic parameters and arterial wave reflection properties ...
The objective of this study was to design and develop poly herbal cream based formulation using combination of aqueous poly herbal extracts of Rosa damascena flowers (RDW), Clerodendrum paniculatum leaves (CPW), Murraya koengii leaves (MKW) and Annona squamosa leaves (ASW) which increased the collagen content in human dermal fibroblast thereby showing skin anti-ageing property. The presence of col...
FORMULATION OF EICHHORNIA CRASSIPPES DERIVED LUTEIN: COCONUT OIL MICRO-EMULSION FOR SUSTAINED OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY
Lutein is a lipid soluble, oxygenated derivative of hydrocarbon carotenoid, from xanthophyll family which is naturally present in egg yolk, vegetables and several dark green plants. In human eyes, Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only two carotenoids present in the macula region to filter the harmful ultra violet rays. They protect the eye from oxidative damage associated with diseases such as cancer...
MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS IDENTIFIED IN CINNAMOMUM VERUM AND CORIANDRUM SATIVUM ON HMG CoA REDUCATSE – AN ENZYME TARGET FOR ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY
Obesity refers to abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in the human body which results in health risk. The aim and objective of the present study is to perform in-silico docking analysis of the phytoconstituents identified in two medicinal plants namely Cinnamomum verum (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, cinnamyl acetate, caryophyllene and cinnamic acid) and Coriandrum sativum (nerolidol, geranyl acetate...
HEMAGGLUTININ PROTEIN 35.7 kDA ACTS AS AN ADHESION MOLECULE IN THE OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN (OMP) OF SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE
Shigellosis becomes a major health problem of developing countries. It is caused by Shigella spp. Shigella dysenteriae causes the most severe; prolonged and fatal Shigellosis by its ability in producing Shigatoxin (Stx). Unfortunately, there has not been any effective vaccine available in worldwide and using antibiotic is no longer effective. Adhesion molecule of bacteria can be used as component ...
A simple, rapid and sensitive method using an isocratic Liquid chromatography coupled with Tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the assay of nitrofurantoin in the Human Plasma. The Mass transition of nitrofurantoin and losartan (Internal standard) were M/z 237.1/151.9 and M/Z 421.300/ 179 in ESI Negative ionization. Linearity was observed between the nitrofurantoin concentratio...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PYRUS PASHIA BUCH.-HAM. EX D. DON AGAINST CCl4 INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE
The study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 30% in olive oil (1ml/kg i.p.). Mice were treated with aqueous extract of P. pashia at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 14 days. There were two group pre-treatment (once daily for 1...
In this research work, a well established method was used to synthesize of stannane of 2, 4-hexadienoic acid and its characterization was carried using ultraviolet (UV)-visible and 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Our research aimed at developing a potent multi-target drug which could act as antibacterial agent and also peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists that i...
Verapamil Hydrochloride is phenyl alkyl amine derivative, Calcium channel blocker: Class IV, antiarrhythmic drug having short half-life of 2.8 – 7.4 hours so requires frequent dosing of 40 -120 mg thrice for treatment of arrhythmia and 80 -120mg thrice a day for treatment of angina and hypertension. It degrades at neutral and alkaline pH. So, study was taken up to Formulate, Optimize and Evaluat...
DESIGN, FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF MICROSPONGES BASED GEL FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF KETOCONAZOLE
The aim of the present study was to formulate topical microsponge-based delivery system containing ketoconazole for controlled release of the drug for proficient treatment of fungal infections. Ketoconazole loaded microsponges were prepared by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method using ethyl cellulose N22 polymer with varied drug polymer ratios. The prepared microsponges were characterized by S...
SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF MESOPOROUS SILICA NANOPARTICLES (MSN) LOADED COX-II INHIBITOR – MELOXICAM FOR TARGETED COLORECTAL CANCER TREATMENT
Polymer functionalised mesoporous silica nanoparticles hold great promise to enhance drug targeting and cell internalisation for cancer cells. Since the presence of abundant folate receptors on cancer cells, folic acid functionalised mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) were used as folate marker and polyethyleneimine was used to improve cell internalisation. Meloxicam was loaded into the pores o...
DETERMINATION OF NON-TOXIC DOSE OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF LAWSONIA INERMIS LEAVES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS ON THE BASIS OF HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS
Medicinal properties in Lawsonia inermis are due to the presence of bioactive compounds and can also show adverse effects at high concentrations. In the present study we have determined the nontoxic concentration of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of plant leaves. 50 wistar albino rats of both sexes were used as experimental animal and were randomly divided into 4 groups viz. Group 1 ...
PREPARATION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CISPLATIN CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES BY ZETA NANOSIZER “PRIME STEP FOR FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT”
The ultimate aim of this research work is to develop a cisplatin loaded chitosan nanoparticle system (CCNP) to facilitate the release of cisplatin in a more sustained manner to improve therapeutic efficacy via the reduction of its toxicity. As a step-in formulation studies the work has been limited to studying the various physical characters of CCNP using a zeta nanosizer. The chitosan polymer was...
POLYSACCHARIDE-MICROSPONGE BASED MATRIX TABLET FOR COLON TARGETING OF KETOPROFEN: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EVIDENCE
The present research was aimed to formulate erosion based matrix tablets of ketoprofen micro-sponges for spatial-colon targeting. For the optimization, the effects of independent variables like solvent volume and concentration of chitosan were studied on the mean particle size, percent entrapment efficiency (% EE) and in vitro drug release. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image of the micro-spo...
PHYTO-FABRICATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY DIFFERENT PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETRES USING PETREA VOLUBILIS L. LEAF BROTH AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY
The present study instantiates the phyto-fabrication of silver nanoparticles by utilizing Petrea volubilis L. leaf broth which were instantaneously synthesised, eco-friendly, and cost-effective. The influence of physico-chemical parameters viz. contact time, leaf broth quantity, pH, temperature, and silver nitrate concentration were investigated and optimised to engineer infinitesimal nanopartic...
PREVENTION OF GASTRIC EROSION IN INDOMETHACIN ADMINISTERED RATS BY SELECTED ANTIOXIDANTS, VITAMINS AND MINERALS
This investigation was aimed to study the effect of few selected antioxidants, Vitamins and minerals for prevention of gastric erosion in indomethacin induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing between 200 -250 g were divided into 9 groups of 6 animals each (n = 6). The groups were treated respectively as follows Group I normal control and Group II disease control received ...
Algae are extensively used in cosmetics, supplements and pharmaceutical industries. Researches support their hypotensive, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and many other biologic effects. In the present study, the cytotoxic, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of two brown algae, Padina tetrastromatica and P. australis, have been evaluated. Total extract was prepared using metha...
IN VIVO PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF NEEM GILOY-TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (WILLD.) MIERS EX HOOK. F. AND THOMS LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL FOR GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA) SEEDS
The mycological analysis of stored seed of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) through agar plate as well as blotter paper methods of study revealed presence of 16 fungal species viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, A. Niger, A. ochraceous, A. phoenicis, A. tamari, A. terreus, A. sydowi, Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum F. solani, P. glabrum, Rhizopus nigricans, Trichod...
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the risk factor for dry eye disease (DED) and known factor for diabetic retinopathy (DR). There are few studies have been already reported the prevalence of DED nevertheless studies shown prevalence of DED and DR by sex in patients with T2D. The study was carried out with 100 T2D patients. DED was assessed with Tear break up time and Schirmer tests. All the subjec...
INVESTIGATION OF EFFECT OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS ON PHYSICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PACLITAXEL LIPOSOMES
The present study was assessed to determine the effect of various grades of phospholipids on liposomes. The various grades of synthetic phospholipids such as Phospholipon 90G® (PL90G), Phospholipon 80H® (PL80H) and Phospholipon 90H® (PL90H) were used along with cholesterol in stoichiometric ratio (1:0.25, 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3). Using these ratios the paclitaxel liposome was formulated by film h...
ALKALIPHILIC BACILLUS FLEXUS: A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF LIPASE PRODUCER FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MEDICAL APPLICATION
Microbial enzymes such as amylase, lipase and protease are commercially significant and have widespread applications in many industries like pharmaceutical, leather, detergent, textile and other industries. Many haloalkaliphilic Bacillus species in hyper saline environment produces various types of commercially important enzymes such as lipase. A total of twelve Bacillus strains were isolated from...
The present work was undertaken to justify that Vigna radiate (green moong bean) is helpful in reversing signs of memory loss in aged mice. Passive Avoidance Paradigm (PAP) and Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) were employed as exteroceptive behavioural models and ageing- induced amnesia served as interoceptive behavioural model. Moong bean sprouts (2% and 4% w/w MBS) were administered to mice along with ...
Medicinal plants continue to be an important therapeutic aid for alleviating the ailments of human kind. The plant Dalbergia sissoo contains various chemical constituent with specific value in ethno-medicinal practices and has significance in the field of health care system. The main objective of this study involves the evaluation of anti-bacterial activity of D. sissoo leaves and barks extracts o...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM SUBSTITUTED AND UNSUBSTITUTED IMIDAZOLIUM IONIC LIQUIDS
Nanotechnology is an innovative and escalating field that has made its contribution to all spheres of human life. Conventional synthesis of nanoparticles suffers from serious problems like high temperature, poor yield, longer reaction time, and use of toxic and highly sensitive compounds. Green synthesis of nanoparticles is an emerging field which is known to eliminate / minimize the aforementione...
EVALUATION OF ANTIOBESITY EFFECT OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE AND ACORUS CALAMUS ON DIET INDUCED MODEL OF OBESITY IN RATS
Introduction: Obesity is a morbid condition characterized by abnormal or excess deposition of body fat to an extent that it adversely affects health. The basic etiology behind obesity is the disparity between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Lifestyle modifications and drug treatment is the mainstay of treatment. Unfortunately the benefits are for short term that might be because of cessa...
GLYCOPROTIEN 11b/ 111a RECEPTOR INHIBITOR (TIROFIBAN) FOR FAILED THROMBOLYSIS IN ACUTE ST ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
We studied the feasibility, safety, clinical benefit, efficacy and 30 day outcome in 50 patients receiving tirofiban in patients with failed thrombolysis in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction, and compared with 50 patients for age, gender and infarct location, who did not receive rescue treatment for different reasons. Tirofiban resulted in an overall ST segment elevation, resolution, at 240...
IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHYLACETATE FRACTION OF ALLIUM CEPA (EAFAC)
In this study, GC-MS analysis shown that ethyl acetate fraction of Allium cepa (EAFAC) (band one) consists of 55 compounds which shown antileishmanial activity. (IC50 73.1 ± 2.1 ug/ml) is the inhibitory concentration which is observed for ethyl acetate fraction of Allium cepa (EAFAC) (band one). Leishmania major is the specie used for this leishmanicidal assay. In this bioassay, Amphotericin B (I...
Stress plays a major role in various pathophysiological processes related with neurodegenerative diseases and mental disorders. Zebrafish has emerged as a promising model organism in inducing Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS). In the present study, we have attempted to understand the molecular basis of neuronal changes underlying CUS in zebrafish model. An evidence for a connection between CUS an...
Objective: To examine anxiety levels and depression level of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to compare these with glucose-tolerant (GT) women at similar stages of pregnancy. Research Design and Methods: Prospective longitudinal study conducted on 50 women with GDM and 50 NGDM women at 24 – 36 weeks of pregnancy. We are depended on Taylor anxiety Scale the Arabic ver...
PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF SPILANTHES OLERACEA LINN. SHOOT: A MEDICINAL FOOD HERB USED AMONG TRIBAL PEOPLE OF ARUNCHAL PRADESH, INDIA
Herb is an indispensable food ingredient for the tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh. They practices innumerable traditional food recipe to maintain good health. Spilenthes oleracea L. is one of such medicinal food plant used by tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh. The study was carried out to find out the phytoconstituents of S. oleracea shoot. Ethanolic extract of the sample was subjected to GC-MS...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FLAVONOID BASED CREAM FORMULATION FOR TOPICAL APPLICATION USING IN VITRO MODEL
Biologically active compounds identified as flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids and polyphenolics from plant extracts possess health promoting properties. The use of natural antioxidants in the treatment of various skin diseases has gained utmost importance in recent years. Therefore, present study was designed and conducted with the aim to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activi...
AUS - Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha is the traditional system of medicines in India more than 3000 years old and still practiced extensively in India and neighbouring countries. Assurance of the safety margin, potency of medicinal plants that make the herbal products has now become a key issue in industrialized with developed countries. Pharmacological studies is a science relating to the screening, ...
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR PHYTOSTEROLS OF THE LEAVES OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.
Bombax ceiba Linn. is one of the important plant species used in various system of medicine. Almost every part of plant is used as medicine and its roots and flowers are used for curing maximum number of ailments. Leaves of the plants are also containing different important secondary metabolites. For the use as safe herbal medicine the plant material (leaves) has to be standardized with the establ...
In present study total 2352 samples were collected out of that 21.04% were positive for Typhoid fever while 78.95% were negative. The sex wise distribution results showed male are more effected (12.71%) as compare to female (8.33%). However, the age wise distribution showed that 10.45% in 6-10 years, 6.54% in 3-6 years and 4.03% in 1-3 years. Moreover, the Typhoid fever cases were significantly hi...
The threats and risks of the invalid drugs as expired, counterfeit (cheated drugs), Substandard, spurious, falsely labeled, falsified) .The risks and threats of the invalid drugs are many and wide vary, and the countries are trying to prevent these threats by some efforts as the regulatory institution's efforts and the recorded expire date on the drug container, but that are not enough to prevent ...
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effect of the extracts of five Iranian medicinal herbs on Histomonas meleagridis protozoan parasite. Methods: This study was conducted in the following three phases in Khorramabad, Iran, in 2016: 1) preparing and extracting the 5 medicinal herbs Dracocephalum kotschyi, Satureja khuzestanica, Pulicaria gnaphalodes, Olea europaea, and Echinopho...
Among topological descriptors connectivity indices are very important and they have a prominent role in chemistry. One of them is Sanskruti index defined as , where Su is the summation of degrees of all neighbours of vertex u in G. In this chapter we compute this new topological index for TURC4C8(S) nanotube....
The reporting of medical safety data (especially medical data related to drug effectiveness and patient safety) and the supplying of the health education and general medical culture are very important issues in any society. And as we all live in one world, so, we should deal with these issues as international issues not only as local issues, and there are reasons and problems make that only a few ...
Clerodendrum phlomidis is a shrub common in India and Sri Lanka. It is one of the highly traded medicinal plants from tropical forests, as the leaves and roots are used in folk-lore, Ayurveda, Siddha and Unnani medicines. In this study preliminary phytochemical screening, cytotoxic, antioxidant and GC - MS study of leaf of C. phlomidis was evaluated. Successive extraction of the leaf of C. phlomid...
INCIDENCE OF HUMAN RHINOVIRUS COINFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG HIV PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM FLU LIKE ILLNESS
Background: Influenza and influenza like illness (ILI) is a common respiratory illness among HIV patients. ILI is caused by various respiratory viruses and bacteria other than influenza virus. The symptoms of ILI recover within a few days, but in HIV patients ILI with opportunistic coinfections may lead to serious complications and hospitalization. Objective: To determine the incidence of human rh...
ASSESSMENT OF HEART HEALTHY PRACTICES AND CLINICAL RISK FOR COMPLICATIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AT SELECTED HOSPITAL IN CHENNAI
Background: Hypertension (HTN) is an important public health problem in both economically developed and developing nations. World Health Organization (WHO) data indicate that by 2025 the global burden of hypertension will increase by 60% to be 1.56 billion individuals worldwide and higher in the developed nations. Hence the present study is aimed to assess the heart healthy practices among patient...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPTLC ASSAY METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE
An Accurate, sensitive, precise and stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for the estimation of SITA-P. The method was developed using TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase using ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (8.5:1:0.5 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of SITA-P w...
SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SUBSTITUTED N-(3-FORMYL-4-OXO-4H-CHROMEN-2-YL)-N- PHENYLBENZENESULFONAMIDE AND ITS DERIVATIVES
Modification of a drug molecule of a series having optimal activity is widely used and continues to be an important factor necessary for new drug discovery. Infectious diseases which increase dramatically by resistant and multi resistant microbes are now a days the second major cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause of death in the developed countries. Although, the search for new le...