Volume 12 (2021) - Issue 10, October
The essential part of robots in the medical services framework is principal to limit an individual to individual contact, defilement, and to guarantee cleaning, disinfection. Robots can be defined as an artificially intelligent physical system that is capable of interrelating with the environment. The term robot was coined from the Czech what "robota" which implies serf/worker. Robots are classifi...
Since decades, human beings have been utilizing plants to fulfill their food, medicine, and shelter needs. In the modern era plants, plant-derived products are developed as medicine and drug containing phytoconstituents by combining traditional knowledge and modern technologies. The presence of these phytoconstituents is needed to validate qualitatively and quantitatively to serve the purpose of t...
Isatin, a heterocyclic moiety, is a significant scaffold in medicinal chemistry. Isatin contains a nitrogen atom at position 1 and two ketone groups at positions 2 and 3. It consists of two cyclic rings, one of which is a six-membered ring, and the other is a five-membered ring. It is a resourceful nucleus for the synthesis of several pharmacologically active molecules. Isatin itself acquires an e...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE FUNCTION AS WELL AS SOLUBILITY AND ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF NANO-BASED SILYMARIN: A POTENTIAL REVIEW
Silymarin is a mixture of flavonolignan and polyphenolic bioactive natural products found in the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum. It has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antiviral activities potentially useful in treating several liver disorders, such as chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the benefits are curtailed by its extremely poor wa...
Human pharmaceuticals and their metabolites affect the endocrine system and physiology of aquatic wildlife, which is an important global ecological concern. The published data from open-source toxicology and worldwide web resources reveal about 175 pharmaceuticals that can affect estrogen pathways to disrupt the endocrine system and metabolism. Such studies demand additional investigations on fish...
In recent years, the nasal route is gaining increasing importance for systemic administration of drugs and targeting to brain. The drug delivery to the brain is limited due to several factors, including presence of blood-brain barrier, enzymatic degradation, and efflux of drug by P-glycoprotein. Nasal route is employed to target the brain using various direct pathways via nasal mucosa and to bypas...
GREEN SYNTHESIZED GOLD NANOPARTICLE: A NOVEL APPROACH TOWARDS BIOMEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS
Green synthesized gold nanoparticle is one of the most promising drug delivery approaches with biocompatibility and biodiversity. Various plant sources such as Aegle marmelos, Eugenia jambolana, Soursop, Persea Americana, Terminalia chebula, Aloe arborescens, Musa paradisiacal, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Cissus quadrangularis, Sterculia acuminate, Garciniaindica choissy, Eucalyptus globulus, Ros...
The prevalence of infectious diseases in the world, including in Indonesia, has increased significantly. One of the factors of death due to infectious disease is decreasing the human body's immune system. Therefore, studies on immunomodulatory agents need further investigation. Many studies have shown that secondary metabolite compounds contained in plants have immunomodulatory properties. These c...
In recent years, natural products such as Boswellic acids (BAs) have attracted researchers around the globe because of their significant potential against various diseases without any toxic effects. Boswellic acids, which belong to the pentacyclic triterpenes type of class, are extracted from the gum-resin portion of Boswellia serrata and many other different species such as Boswellia sacra, Boswe...
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the third most common cause of death in the world. It is resistant to most chemotherapeutics and associated with a poor prognosis. Unani system of medicine offers effective treatment for various chronic liver diseases. These treatments have shown reversal of inflammation and fibrosis in various clinical conditions. In the present study, we have...
A COMPLETE RECAPITULATION OF A DRUG DELIVERY BASED ON OSMOTIC PRESSURE: AN OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Conventional dosage forms are the systems that don't have complete control on their drug release, and also there is no control over the effective concentration at the target site. So in order to overcome this problem the osmotic drug delivery system was developed for the controlled delivery of drugs. This osmotic drug delivery system includes dosage forms for oral administration and implantable sy...
Solid dispersion extended-release system involves amorphization of drug material that leads to creating an alternative pathway for poorly water-soluble drugs. The drug increases solubility due to an increase in apparent solubility of the particular drug. Crystalline lattices of the drug are disturbed during its manufacture, which minimizes the crystal packing energy for solubilization. Along with ...
Heterocyclic compounds represent the important structural key in pharmaceutical medicinal chemistry. In literature, five-membered heterocycles are reported to be a core moiety of various pharmaceutical drugs. Oxadiazole or furadiazole is a five-membered heterocyclic nucleus and is considered to be derived from furan by replacement of two methane (-CH=) groups by pyridine type nitrogen. Oxadiazole ...
Covid-2019: The pandemic that shook the entire world. There is no sarcasm if one says there will be a Pre and Post- COVID-19 world. Worldwide, millions of cases have been identified, and heaps have died. So many nations worldwide have issued a lockdown to stop the coronavirus's unfolding, which triggered giant financial fallout. Like each and every incident has two dimensions, Covid-19 possesses b...
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, PHARMACOKINETICS AND MOLECULAR DOCKING OF PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM RICINUS COMMUNIS` LEAF EXTRACT
To evaluate the antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetics and molecular interaction of the compounds from Ricinus communis` leaf extract. Antibacterial activity was assessed by using the micro-dilution method. The chemical constituents of the methanolic leaf extract were assessed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The drug-like and toxicity properties of the phytocompounds ...
BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRACTS FROM LOCALLY GROWN BANANA LEAVES INDICATE THEIR POSSIBLE USE FOR WOUND DRESSING IN ARUSHA, TANZANIA
This study assessed the biological properties and safety profile of extracts from locally grown banana leaves in Arusha (Tanzania), to affirm their possible use for wound dressing. Screening for phytoconstituents in extracts from studied banana plant species, ijuhi inkundu (IJ) mlelembo (ML) and kimalindi (KIM), revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites; anthraquinones, alkaloids, fla...
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS CONTAINING PARACETAMOL GRANULES COATED WITH TASTE-MASKING TECHNOLOGY
Orodispersible tablet technology allows tablets to be administered without the need for additional water, which would increase pediatric patient compliance. In this paper, an orodispersible paracetamol tablet formulation with flavor masking technology was developed. For this purpose, the methacrylic acid-derived polymer, Eudragit® E100, has the ability to form films on particles, which are insolu...
Background: During recent years, there has been a large investigation on different classes of thiadiazole compounds, many of which were found to possess an extensive spectrum of pharmacological activities. This study was undertaken to synthesize and evaluate the analgesic activity of [1,3,4]-thiadiazole-[1,3-dione]-isoindole derivatives. Methods: The purity of the synthesized compounds was checked...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TERMINALIA BELLERICA (GAERTN.) ROXB. AGAINST MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS SAPROPHYTICUS
The present study investigates the isolation and identification of Multi-Drug Resistant bacteria from Hospital Effluent and the determination of Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia bellerica (Roxb.) against the isolated Multi Drug-Resistant Bacteria. Hospital effluent was collected and screened for the presence of Drug resistance phenotype against five different antibiotics, and the isolated bact...
EVALUATION OF CORRELATION BETWEEN GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN AND HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS
Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications, out of which CVD affects approximately 32.2% of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus globally. It is predicted that for every 1% increase in HbA1c is associated with a 30% increase in all-cause mortality and a 40% increase in CVD mortality in T2DM patients. This study aims to evaluate the correlation of Hb...
CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL SOFT ROT CAUSING GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA SJCTSSP01 & ITS MANAGEMENT USING PHYTOEXTRACTS
Aim: The present study focuses on studying the soft rot-causing bacteria in Solanum tuberosum and the activity of phytoextracts against the pathogen to prevent/control this infection. Lantana camara and Clerodendrum infortunatum has been well known for their antibacterial activity and widely used in Ayurveda, these plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against the isolated path...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-ANXIETY AND ANTI-DEPRESSANT POTENTIALS OF LEAVES AND ROOT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM ACHYRANTHES BIDENTATA BLUME ON MICE
Anxiety and Depression is the most prominent and crippled Neuropsychiatric Disease. World Health Organization (WHO) reported is the most burdensome disease of society. We therefore aimed at evaluating the Anti-Anxiety and Anti-depressant potential using Achyranthes bidentata Blume (Chinese name Huainiuxi). This study compared Leaves and Root part of Achyranthes bidentata methanolic extract (ABME) ...
ANTIPARKINSONIAN ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF THE STEMS OF CAPPARIS DECIDUA (FORSSK.) EDGEW.
The goal of the research is to analyze the antiparkinsonian activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the stems of Capparis Decidua (HECD). Themost common neurodegenerative condition which stand second is Parkinson. It is reported by dopaminergic neuron loss in the striatum's substantia nigra & dopamine loss (DA). Capparis Decidua plant is used as anti-inflammatory, laxative, anti-diabetic, anthel...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF BIOANALYTICAL METHOD FOR THE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF FAMOTIDINE SNEDDS IN RATS USING RP-HPLC
A selective and high throughput RP-HPLC method was developed to detect and quantify Famotidine in rat plasma using Ranitidine hydrochloride as an internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction, the analyte and the internal standard were chromatographed on Enable 18H (5µ, 250×4.6mm) C18 column using 20 µL injection volume with a run time of 15 minutes. An isocratic mobile phase consistin...
The present study of concurrent process validation delivers an extraordinary degree of quality assurance that a specific process for manufacturing of Glibenclamide Tablets will consistently manufacture a product that meets its predetermined quality attributes and specifications. Glibenclamide is generally suggested for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus and it is mainly a sulfonylurea deri...
Chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study is to determine the effect of troxerutin (TX) on insulin signaling in tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were pre-treated with TX, elastatinal (ELAS) or sodium salicylate (SAL) before exposure to recombinant human T...
Piperazine is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound and has fascinating applications in drug discovery and development. In the present study, novel 4-(benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl) piperazine amide derivative was prepared by acid amine coupling of 1-piperonyl piperazine derivative and benzoic acid. Synthesized compound was characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral studies. Further, in-vitro ...
ANTIGENOTOXIC EFFECTS OF SILYMARIN AGAINST NICKEL CHLORIDE MEDIATED DNA DAMAGE IN CULTURED HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES
DNA damage induced by Nickel chloride in lymphocytes has been studied in-vitro. The sister chromatids exchange and single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), or comet assay were used to measure the level of DNA damage in terms of SCE frequency and comet parameters. Silymarin is a natural protective compound, isolated from Silybum marianum seeds and reported for its anti-genotoxic properties. In this ...
The main aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles of Metoprolol. Metoprolol is an anti-hypertension drug used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and heart failure. Metoprolol belongs to BCS class-I, which has high solubility and high permeability. The drug needs to be administered frequently (2-3 times a day), and it has side effects and poor ...
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA FRUIT EXTRACT AGAINST RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIOUS PATHOGENS
To evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Terminalia chebula, commonly called Haritaki was tested against respiratory tract infection-causing bacteria. The antibacterial activities were assessed by agar well diffusion, broth dilution and time-kill methods. It showed the best antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae among the tested respiratory infection-causing ba...
Traditionally Psidum guajava has been used for the treatment of several kinds of disorders. The component quercetin a flavonoid that is present in the guava leaves, is responsible of having wound healing properties, so the aim and objective of the study was to Develop Herbal loaded Niosomes for the treatment of Wound Healing. To enhance the transport and efficacy of many materials through stratum ...
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF MORINGA CONCANENSIS NIMMO ON ISOLATED FROG’S HEART
Moringa Cocanensis Nimmo is one of the important medicinal plants belonging to the family moringaceae. Moringa Cocanensis Nimmo has antipyretic, antihelmintic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activities. It is one of the most noted systems of medicine in the world. Ayurveda is based on the hypothesis that everything in the universe is composed of five basic elements viz. space, air...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY-INDICATING HPTLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF CELECOXIB AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE FROM SYNTHETIC MIXTURE
The current research paper describes a highly specific, reproducible, and efficient stability-indicating HPTLC method for estimation of Celecoxib and Amlodipine Besylate from its synthetic mixture. Chromatographic separation and quantification carried out on Merck HPTLC aluminum sheets of silica gel 60 F254 using Chloroform: Acetone: Toluene: Methanol in the ratio of 5:3:2:0.5 v/v/v/v as solvent s...
Sustained released dosage form having an advantage over immediately release drug delivery system by continuous release of medicaments for a specific period in a prolonged manner. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common test endocrine issue that influences in excess of 100 million individuals ls around the world. Type II diabetes is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin sec...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CARALLUMA ADSCENDENS WHOLE PLANT IN DITHIZONE INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Ethanolic extract of the whole plant administered at different dosages (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days in Dithizone-induced diabetic rats using Glibenclamide as a standard drug (hypoglycemic drug). For the study, rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group, I served as control, Group II served as diabetic contro...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS AGAINST ARSENIC-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR RATS
The present study was to evaluate Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Hyptis suaveolens whole plant (AEHS) against Sodium arsenite (2.5 mg/kg) induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats for a period of 28 days. Rats were divided into five groups, each with 6 rats. Except for group I, all remaining groups was served with Sodium arsenite oral administration to induce hepatotoxicity prior to s...
RASAGILINE MESYLATE, A BCS CLASS III DRUG; EX-VIVO PERMEATION ENHANCEMENT STUDY THROUGH EXCISED RAT ABDOMINAL SKIN
Rasagiline Mesylate (RM), an antiparkinson drug, belongs to BCS class III drug having high solubility with low permeability. It undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism with oral bioavailability of only 35%. In the present research work, efforts were made to improve its permeation as requisite for the transdermal drug delivery system. RM was authenticated by determination of melting point. Furthe...
INFLUENCE OF ALLICIN ON PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF PIOGLITAZONE: AN HERB-DRUG INTERACTION STUDY IN RATS
Many herbs/phytochemicals are proved to have anti-diabetic properties and patients in the treatment of diabetes increased their usage. Administration of herbs and allopathic drugs has a chance of interaction between them, leading to alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug. The present study was aimed to know the influence of phytoconstituent (Allicin) on the pharmacokineti...
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMIN IN TEN WILD EDIBLE FRUITS CONSUMED BY THE TRIBAL PEOPLE OF NORTH-EASTERN REGION IN INDIA: SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC) METHOD
The present study aimed to develop a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantitation of water-soluble vitamins like ascorbic acid (C), thiamine (B1), riboflavin(B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6) and folic acid (B9) in ten potent wild edible fruits named Artocarpus gomezianus, Baccurea sapida, Cyclanthera pedata, Flacourtia jang...
PHENOLIC ACID DERIVATIVES AS PRESERVATIVES: SYNTHESIS, ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL AND THEIR PRESERVATIVE EFFECTIVENESS
Natural phenolic acids alkyl esters viz methyl, ethyl, propyl was synthesized and characterized by spectral means FTIR, 1HNMR, and 13CNMR. All the synthesized esters were examined for their antimicrobial potential, preservative efficacy and antioxidant potential. Among the synthesized ester derivative caffeic acid and gallic acid, derivatives were displayed excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial ...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OLANZAPINE AND FLUOXETINE FROM BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY Q-ABSORBANCE RATIO METHOD
Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, decreased energy, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite and poor concentration with anxiety. Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) or atypical antipsychotic. It has attracted considerable interests due to its wide range of therapeutic and pharmacologica...
A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON CORTICOSTEROID USAGE AND INCIDENCE OF CORTICOSTEROID-INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Corticosteroids are a widely used class of drugs for respiratory, autoimmune, gastrointestinal, and dermatological conditions. Despite the efficacy of steroids, they have a wide variety of side effects. However, SIH remains the most misdiagnosed side effect. Undiagnosed SIH will precipitate DM, increases the morbidity and length of hospital stay, especially when pre-existing risk factors are prese...
Cow urine is considered a Sanjeevani–a medicine capable of curing any disease according to ancient manuscripts from Vedic times. The present study was conducted to validate the medicinal properties of cow urine in a scientific manner. The cow urine sample was procured from Indian indigenous cow Bos indicus from Bombay Panjrapole, Bhuleshwar, Mumbai, and commercial gaumutra from the local market....
AN IN-VITRO INVESTIGATION INTO THE DOSE-DEPENDENT ACID-NEUTRALIZATION EFFECT OF ANTACID FORMULATIONS ON THE GHANAIAN MARKET
The recommended doses of antacids by some manufacturers are in ranges. However, dosing decisions on antacids should be based on acid-neutralizing capacities (ANCs). This study evaluated the ANCs of different doses of antacids. Twenty-two antacids (3 granular, 5 tablet and 14 suspension formulations) were evaluated for their ANCs at half, minimum, and double their recommended adult doses. All the p...
The main goal of this work is to formulate nanosponges and access its suitability to deliver Luliconazole for topical application, to improve its therapeutic effect, better dispersion and good storage. Nanosponges are water-soluble, which does not mean that molecules are chemically decomposed in water but that nanosponge particles are mixed with water and used as a carrier fluid. Compared with tra...
A STUDY ON THE ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SCUTELLARIA DISCOLOR COLEBR IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
The genus Scutellaria has many species. But only a few species are investigated for the treatment of many ailments. Despite the extensive use of traditional medicine against several diseases, scientific studies of Scutellaria discolor are less. The present study is taken up to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of the acetone extract of S. discolour (SDA)using tail flick met...
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition characterized by insulin resistance, or poor secretion, or both. There are several side effects associated with drugs available to cure diabetes. The most common side effect is neurodegenerative. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the efficacy of Cuminum cyminum seed against diabetes and also to evaluate its nephroprotective power in th...
Pioglitazone is an oral anti-diabetic agent used in treating class – II diabetes mellitus. T1/2of pioglitazone was 3-6 hrs and is eliminated rapidly. Hence sustained release is needed to prolong its duration of action and to increase its oral bioavailability. The main aim of the study was formulation and evaluation of an in-situ gel system of Pioglitazone to increase its bioavailability as a con...
DOCKING ANALYSIS OF SUBSTITUTED 2-PHENYL-1H-INDOL-3YL GLYOXYLAMIDE AS INHIBITORS OF TUBULIN POLYMERIZATION- POTENTIAL NEW ANTICANCER AGENTS
Indibulin (N-(pyridin-4-yl)-[1-(4-chlorbenzyl)-indol-3-yl]-glyoxyl-amid; ZIO-301 or D-24851) is a novel synthetic, orally active anti-mitotic agent that binds tubulin, destabilizes microtubulin polymerization, and arrests tumor cell growth at the G2/M phase. Its tubulin binding site is distinct from that of other microtubulin inhibitors such as taxanes, colchicines, and vinca alkaloids. Many resea...
CYTOTOXICITY OF EXTRACTS FROM THE PHILIPPINE MARINE SPONGES: PARATETILLA SP., STYLISSA SP. AND PETROSIA (STRONGYLOPHORA) NIGRICANS
This paper reports the cytotoxic activities of the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions of the marine sponges: Paratetilla sp., Stylissa sp., and Petrosia (strongylophora) nigricans, collected from the Island waters of Lipata, Surigao del Norte, Philippines, using the enzymatic reduction of a yellow tetrazolium salt, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium...
Objective: To correlate the pharmacognostic appearance and physiochemical specification of the leaves of Amaranthus viridus and Amaranthus spinosus. Methods: Pharmacognostical features were scrutinized using fresh and dried powder, and physicochemical assessment was done by WHO guidelines. The phytochemical screenings were adopted for disclosing the existence of phytoconstituents in extracts. Resu...