Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 5, May
IMPORTANT HUMAN GENES: THEIR LENGTH, LOCATION, PRODUCT, IMPORTANCE IN PROPER BODY FUNCTIONING AND INVOLVEMENT IN GENETIC DISORDERS
There are up to 25000 genes encoded by our genome however among them only some are being expressed on mass level. Some of these important genes are; ABO genes located at chromosome number 9, ALB genes located at chromosome number 4, BCL-2 genes located at chromosome number 18, CCR-5 genes located at chromosome number 3, CD4 genes located at chromosome number 12, CD8 genes located at chromosome num...
RECENT ADVANCES ON NOVEL DUAL-ACTING PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA AND GAMMA AGONISTS
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors, and play a central role in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. PPAR -γ appears to improve glycaemic control by increasing peripheral insulin sensitivity and reducing hepatic glucose production, thereby helping to preserve beta-cell function. However, they have modest beneficial effects on l...
Rapid rising population has caused serious problems in the economic growth and all around human development especially in developing countries like India. Our future well-being depends on increased access to family planning and reproductive health services and decreased consumption by people. Family planning has been promoted through several methods of contraception. But due to series adverse ef...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. It is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children. ADHD includes some combination of problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Children with ADHD also...
The current scenario was to study Polyelectrolyte complex. Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) represent a special class of polymeric compounds consisting of oppositely charged polyions that can have either cationic or anionic charges. Due to their charges they are hydrophilic, and normally water soluble, and can be used in a variety of applications, such as drug delivery, coatings, shampoos, or as f...
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY: TRANSFER OF PROCESS FROM DEVELOPMENT TO COMMERCIALIZATION
Appropriate technology transfer is both integral and critical to drug discovery and development for new medicinal products and is also important to upgrade drug quality designed during research and development and to final product during manufacturing as well as to assure stable quality transferred. Successful development and commercialization of innovative technologies is always fraught with diff...
Escalating social evil and global problem for pharmaceutical scientist world-wide is counterfeiting of drugs. Fraudulent representation of medication with an intention to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity and effectiveness is a counterfeited faked drug which is a potential massacre. The prominent role of drug is patient life-saving, but a drug being counterfeit encounters additive dan...
Postpolio syndrome (PPS) may affect survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis and is characterised by a complex of neuromuscular symptoms leading to a decline in physical functioning. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and rehabilitation management in PPS is not yet established. To review systematically the effects of any treatment for PPS compared to placebo, usual care or no treatment. Po...
Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is on the increase but in the past few decades this problem raised a deepening concern among scientific community in terms of the clinical management of infectious diseases. In this review, the common gram negative clinically significant pathogenic bacteria who have acquired resistance with passage of time like Shigella dysenteriae, Sh. Boydii, Sh. Flexneri, List...
Recent findings from culture-dependent and culture independent methods have demonstrated that indigenous marine actinomycetes exist in the oceans and are widely distributed in different marine ecosystems. There is tremendous diversity and novelty among the marine actinomycetes present in marine environments. Progress has been made to isolate novel actinomycetes from samples collected at different ...
ANTI-TUMOUR POTENTIAL OF ACTIVE COMPOUNDS (POLYSACCHARIDES) OF WILD MUSHROOMS FROM RAJOURI DIST. OF JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA
Natural products have been closely linked through the use of traditional medicines and natural poisons. Mushrooms have an established history of use in traditional oriental medicine, where most medicinal mushroom preparations are regarded as a tonic, that is, they have beneficial health effects without known negative side-effects and can be moderately used on a regular basis without harm. Mushroom...
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a metabolic disorder of the liver that may progress to fibrosis or cirrhosis. In the present study, we examined the possible preventive effect of an extract of Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae), a plant with high flavonoid content and antioxidant activity, on experimental NASH. To induce NASH, a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet was given to N-Mary ra...
Incorporation of drugs into non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) during their manufacture affords a possible method of achieving controlled release. The aim of this study is to formulate niosomes as carriers for delivery of diclofenac sodium (DCS). Niosomes are prepared with a series of sorbitan monoesters (Span 20, 40, 60, and 80) and sorbitan tri-oleate (Span 85) and co-surfactants of polyox...
ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ROOT OF DECALEPIS HAMILTONII IN DALTON’S LYMPHOMA ASCITES (DLA) BEARING MICE
The antitumor activity of methanolic extract of Decalepis hamiltonii was evaluated using Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) tumor model in Swiss albino mice. Methanolic extract of Decalepis hamiltonii was administered at a dose of 200mg and 400mg/kg b.wt once daily for 14 days after 24h of tumor inoculation. Cyclophosphamide was used as a standard drug at a dose of 25mg/kg b.wt. The result showed t...
Andrographolide is one of the main active principles in Andrographis paniculata .It exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. Due to this immense value it required more level in pharmaceutical to satisfy the global need. Because it present in a very low level in normal regenerated plant of Andrographis paniculata. Micro propagation is a proven method for efficient invitropropagation of medicinal ...
Two simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous analysis of Paracetamol (PCM) and Tapentadol (TAP) in their combined dosage form. Method A, First order derivative method involves measurement of absorbance at 257.060 nm (for TAP) and 289.406 nm (for PCM) in first order derivative spectra. Method B, Second order derivative method involves measu...
Purpose of present research work was to develop mouth dissolving tablets of loperamide using superdisintegrants. Mouth dissolving tablets of loperamide were prepared by direct-compression method after incorporating superdisintegrants Ac-Di-Sol, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG), and Crosspovidone in different concentrations. Effect of superdisintegrants on disintegration and dissolution behavior of ta...
Vernonia amygdalina, commonly called bitter leaf, is a perennial shrub that belongs to the family Asteraceae and grows throughout tropical Africa. Traditional medicine practitioners use the plant as in treatment of several disease conditions especially diabetes mellitus. In this research, the feasibility of tableting Vernonia amygdalina leaf was examined using three binders. Tableting of the leaf ...
COMPARISON OF BLUMEA DENSIFLORA AND SALVINIA CUCULLATA LEAVES FOR THEIR ANTHELMENTIC ACTIVITY BY USING PHERETIMA POSTHUMA
Plant derived drug molecules are frequently showing their role in treating the disease conditions with minimal side effects comparing to the synthetic molecules. Forest and trees are natural assets that provide a variety of benefits to the mankind. Currently available anthelmintic drugs require improved management, high cost and also worms developing resistance to these drugs. So, there is a need ...
ASSESSMENT OF CYTOTOXICITY, ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF THE ETHYLACETATE EXTRACT OF CALLIANDRA PORTORICENSIS ROOT BARK
Calliandra portoricensis a medicinal plant, is widely use in the treatment/management of various diseases in Nigeria. The ethyl acetate extract of the Calliandra portoricensis root bark were tested to evaluate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant (in vitro) and free radical scavenging activity. The different assay methods, including total antioxidant activity, free radical (nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical...
SELF-MEDICATION WITH ANTIBIOTICS: GENERAL PERSPECTIVE AMONG PEOPLE IN PESHAWAR AND MARDAN (TWO MOST POPULATED CITIES OF KHYBER PUKHTOONKHWA-PAKISTAN)
Self-medication is global problem but in developing regions, where drugs are available to customers easily it arises greater risks and challenges. Peshawar and Mardan are two big and heavily inhibited cities of a developing country, Pakistan hence in this study we aim to find the level of self-medication and general knowledge about antibiotics of the people in these two cities. We conducted our st...
Medicinal plants have been used as a source of medicine and in widespread use of herbal remedies and healthcare preparations. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial potentiality of methanol solvent extracts of mature leaves of Costus igneus against five pathogenic bacterial isolates viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp, Klebsiella pneumonia sp, Bacillus subtil...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPLC ASSAY METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PHENOBARBITONE IN BULK DRUG AND TABLET FORMULATION
The objective of the current study was to develop simple, precise and accurate stability indicating by isocratic RP-HPLC assay method and validated for determination of Phenobarbitone in solid pharmaceutical dosage forms. Isocratic RP-HPLC separation was achieved on a analytical C18 R column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) using mobile phase of Acetonitrile: Methanol (65:35, v/v) at a...
TRANSLATION AND VALIDATION OF HINDI VERSION OF THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE (MDQ) FOR QUALITY OF LIFE ASSESSMENT IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS IN INDIAN POPULATION
The present study was conducted to perform the translation and validation of Multi-Dimensional Questionnaire (MDQ) instrument for use in Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Validated English version ofMDQ instrument was selected for the study. The instrument was subjected to forward and back translation to generate final version in the Hindi language. The instrument consists of three sections: Sectio...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE TABLETS OF MIGLITOL USING COMBINATION OF HYDROPHILIC POLYMERS
In the present study, Miglitol 25 mg controlled release matrices were prepared by direct compression and in vitro drug dissolution studies were performed to find out the drug release rate and patterns. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, Hydroxypropylcellulose and Hydroxyethylcellulose were used as rate controlling polymers. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was used as primary rate controlling polymer and e...
Objective: To formulate and evaluate the Levosalbutamol sulphate loaded microspheres of Chitosan and microspheres of Flax seed Mucilage in which both the polymers were checked as potential mucoadhesive agents and crosslinking was done with Glutaraldehyde for prolonging drug release for asthma therapy. Material and Method: Chitosan and Flax seed mucilage (by drying in Hot Air Oven) were used in ...
ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXICITY POTENTIAL OF ALCOHOL AND PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACT OF BORASSUS FLABELLIFER LINN.
This study was subjected to investigate antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of Borassus flabellifer Linn, expressed as BFA and BFP respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging method, total flavonoid, total phenol, total antioxidants and reducing power of the two extracts were assessed for antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity potentials were assessed by th...
Oceans and its ecosystem comprise an untapped source for many potential drugs. Marine sponges which inhabit mainly in the saline ocean water are considered as one of the oldest form of life. Due to intense concentration of various sponge species and other organisms co- existing in limited extent marine habitats, necessarily makes them highly competitive and complex. Hence most of the sponge specie...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF GLIPIZIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
A selective, simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Glipizide in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Glipizide is a second generation sulfonylurea which lowers blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus type II. The drug obeyed the Beer’s law and showed good correlation. It showed absorption maxima at 276 nm in 0.1N NaOH. The d...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF RABEPRAZOLE SODIUM AND CINITAPRIDE HYDROGEN TARTRATE IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
Three simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous analysis of Cinitapride Hydrogen Tartrate (CNT) and Rabeprazole Sodium (RAB) in their combined dosage form. Method A, Simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method) applies measurement of absorptivities at two wavelengths, 265.6 nm (λmax of Cinitapride Hydrogen Tartrate) and 282.6 nm, (λm...
Bioequivalence studies should be conducted for two products marketed by different licensees, containing same active ingredient(s), must be shown to be therapeutically equivalent to one another order to be considered interchangeable. The bioequivalence of two formulations of the same drug can be determined based on the absence of significant differences in primary pharmacokinetic properties of bioa...
ASSESSMENT OF DEPRESSION PREVALENCE AND ITS DETERMINANTS AMONG ADULT PATIENTS ADMITTED IN GOVERNMENTAL HOSPITALS, MEKELLE, TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA, 2012. ; A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Background: In Ethiopia, study about prevalence and determinants of depression among adultadmitted patients is scanty. Depression in adults aged 18 years and older who also have physical health problem at hospital setting is high risk factor for psychiatric disorder. Objective: to assess prevalence of depression and determinants among adultpatients admitted in governmental hospitals, Mekelle, T...
: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the ink extracts of different specis of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis female, Sepia pharaonis male, Sepiella inermis female, Sepia aculeata female) and squid (Loligo duvauceli female). The ink extracts were prepared by delipidation with acetone and extracted by Tris HCl buffer. The cytotoxic effect of the drug was studied using ...
ASSESSMENT AND QUALITY BASIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM) GENETIC VARIABILITY AND VIRAL DISEASE IN LAKHIMPUR, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA
The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in India for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is important for its medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of India nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was ...
SIMULTANEOUS UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF HYDROCORTISONE ACETATE AND SULPHACETAMIDE SODIUM IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
Two simple, precise and accurate methods were developed and validated for the Simultaneous estimation of Hydrocortisone acetate and Sulphacetamide sodium in the combined dosage forms. The first method involves the usage of Simultaneous equation for the determination and the second method employed is the Multicomponent mode. For both the methods the wavelengths selected were 241.5nm and 271.0nm whi...
ASSESSMENT OF DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN DURING PREGNANCY IN ADAMA RIFERRAL HOSPITAL, OROMIA REGION, ETHIOPIA
Background: Rational drug use in pregnancy requires the benefits and potential risk associated with the use of the drug. The adverse effect of drugs on the fetus varies temporarily with time. The fetus susceptibility to injury depends on its period of development of different organs have different critical periods through the span from gestational day 15 to day 60 is critical for many organs. ...
In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare fast dissolving tablets of Sumatriptan Succinate to improve dissolution rate of the drug in oral cavity & hence better patient’s compliance & effective therapy. Sumatriptan Succinate is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D) receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. It has low bioavailability due to its ...
PATTERNS OF MATERNAL MORTALITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS; A CASE-CONTROL STUDY AT PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN TIGRAY REGION, ETHIOPIA, 2012
Background: Maternal mortality is one of the indicators in the millennium development goal that is raising concern in achieving the set target of reducing the rate by three-fourth by 2015. Women who die due to pregnancy-related causes are in the prime of their lives and are responsible for the health and well-being of their families. Objective: To assess patterns of maternal mortality and assoc...
The present study was carried out to determine the presence of phytocomponents in the aerial parts of Cleome burmanni using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The mass spectrum of the crude chloroform extract was compared with the available library sources (NIST08 LIB, WILEY8 LIB). Sixteen components were identified. Sterols, terpenoids and hydrocarbons were the most prominent...
Various locally available vegetables were screened for the enzyme peroxidase. The screening was performed mainly on daikon, cabbage, cauliflower; tomato and sweet potato etc. The juices of these vegetables were extracted and subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis to remove any adhere salts. The partially purified enzymes were then subjected to peroxidase assay. All the e...
ASSOCIATION OF OCT1 GENE POLYMORPHISM WITH GLYCEMIC STATUS AND SERUM METFORMIN LEVELS IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS
Aim: To investigate the possible association of OCT1 rs122083571 polymorphism (C/T allele) with glycemic status and serum metformin levels in type II Diabetes mellitus. Methods: Sixty already diagnosed T2DM patients on metformin monotherapy (500 mg, bd) were recruited for the study and the genotypes for SLC22A1 rs122083571 C/T polymorphism using PCR assay were done. Serum fasting plasma glucose...
The ethanolic extract of barks of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Family- Caesalpiniaceae) was evaluated for anti-diarrhoeal and analgesic activities in animal models. The crude ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima showed considerable anti-diarrhoeal activity on castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice and it increased mean latent period and decreased the frequency of defecation significantly (P<0...
REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS IN BIOAVAILABILITY / BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDIES
Bioavailability / Bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies are conducted as a part of regulatory requirement to establish that the generic drugs are equivalent to the innovator drugs and are usually carried out in healthy human volunteers. They are nontherapeutic studies without any direct benefit to the participants. In spite of the lack of any direct personal benefit what makes some individuals to volunte...
ASSESSMENT OF INFANT FEEDING EXPERIENCE OF HIV POSITIVE MOTHERS UTILIZING PMTCT SERVICES: THE CASE OF TIKUR ANBASSA HOSPITAL, ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA
Introduction: Mother to Child Transmission of HIV can occur during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding and it accounts for more than 90% of pediatric AIDS. Various studies indicate that the rate of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV is high among infants who were on mixed feeding. UNICEF UNAIDS and WHO recommended that, all women have the right to choose exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive re...
EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PLANT DESMODIUM TRIFLORUM FOR POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of aqueous and methanolic extracts of plant Desmodium triflorum for potential antibacterial activity. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis of Desmodium triflorum belonging to family Fabeacea was examined using aqueous and methanolic extracts. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plant were investigated individually for antibacterial activity by agar...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NOVEL SUBSTITUTED CIS-STILBENE DERIVATIVES
In the present study, novel derivatives of substituted cis-stilbene were prepared from benzyl (chloro) triphenyl phosphorane, substituted phenyl acetic acid and In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan- induced rat paw edema assay model. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and Mass analyses. The results revealed that all the test compounds protec...
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TAMARINDUS INDICA LEAVES. ON EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODEL
The main objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indicaL. on mice. Analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of the Tamarindus indica leaves at a dose of 200mg/kg & 400mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug Diclofenac-Na at a dose of 25mg/kg. Adult Swiss albino mice of either sex of divided in to 4 groups comprisi...
Oral controlled release pellet formulations of glipizide were prepared using extrusion spheronization technique. Pellets provide specific advantages in controlling the drug release and increasing the absorption of the active ingredient. The major drawback for these systems is dose dumping which is very prominent in presence of alcohol. In the present study, attempt was made to prepare alcohol resi...
Aim: To evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of losartan in experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Materials and Methods: Adjuvant induced arthritis model is used in this study. Albino-Wistar rats of either sex were used. Arthritis was induced by single intra-plantar injection of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) suspended in oil in right hind paw. Rats were divided in to three groups...
Effervescent tablets or granules are uncoated and generally contain acidic substances and carbonate or bicarbonate which reacts rapidly to release carbon dioxide when dissolved in water. There are various advantages of effervescent formulations such as fast onset of action, good stomach tolerance, improves palatability, enhanced permeability, but a major problem which is associated with these form...
Nystatin is bacterial originated polyene antifungal agent. The aim of the study is to develop the niosomal nystatin gel for transdermal administration. Formulations were developed using thin film hydration technique. Developed formulations were characterized for particle size, shape, % entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, etc. After analyzing the results, best formulation is optimized and...