Volume 2 (2011) - Issue 7, July
Nitric oxide (NO), the most potent natural vasorelaxant, has close relation to cardiovascular physiology, inspite of its complex chemistry; it is a signal-transducing radical. Aspects of NO biology critical to gastrointestinal health and, consequently, nutritional status are increasingly being recognized. Cross-talk between NO and micronutrients within and outside the gastrointestinal system affec...
Pulmonary route have been used to treat various respiratory diseases for centuries. Ancient inhalation therapies included the use of leaves from plants, vapors from aromatic plants, balsams, and myrrh. The pulmonary route has gained increasing importance in the recent times due to its unique properties such as a large absorptive area of up to 100m2; extremely thin 0.1 μm – 0.2 μm absorptive mu...
Aspirin became a cornerstone in the treatment of coronary artery disease and widely used in the secondary prevention of vascular events. Aspirin resistance remains a poorly defined term though clinical definition is failure of the drug to prevent an atherothrombotic event despite the regular intake of appropriate doses is a relatively common problem. Various laboratory parameters assessing its eff...
Alopecia is the medical term for hair loss or baldness. It is a health condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body, usually from the scalp. Hair loss can be caused due to different reasons, such as genetic tendencies, environmental triggers, exposure to chemicals, medicines, nutritional deficiency, extreme stress or long illness etc. On the basis of hair loss pattern and c...
Counterfeit drug is a pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness. It may contain inappropriate quantities of active ingredients, may be improperly processed within the body or may contain ingredients that are not on the label, and is often sold with inaccurate, incorrect, or fake packaging and labeling. It is...
Herbal medicines are widely used since time immemorial indicating that herbs are a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine.India has an ancient heritage of traditional herbal medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of the populations living in the developing countries rely almost exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. The use of herbal ...
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Kovilpatti, Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India, for the documentation of important medicinal plants used for the treatment of rheumatism. The plants were collected according to their family, local name, vernacular name and useful parts and medicinal uses. There are eight plants are mostly used in this area to treat rheumatism...
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BRASSICA OLERACEA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The study was undertaken to investigate the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of the different fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform) of ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea. The different fractions of extract were administered intraperitoneally as a single dose of 150 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced diabetic rats and found to reduce blood lipid level (Total chol...
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF RHEUM RHAPONTICUM, OLEA EUROPAEA, AND VIOLA ODORATA ON ESBL PRODUCING CLINICAL ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE
The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of three selected Lebanese plants (Rheum rhaponticum, Olea europaea, and Viola Odorata) against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and to identify the specific plant fraction responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The plants were extracted with ethanol to yield the cr...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM AND UBIDECARENONE TABLET BY RP-HPLC
A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin calcium and ubidecarenone in tablet formulation. The separation was achieved by 250x4.6 mm, 5µ, L-7 pack (peerless C-8) column and Methanol : Acetonitrile (80:20) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The objective of this validation of an analytical procedure is t...
The present work describes a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method without use of buffer in mobile phase for the simultaneous estimation of Lornoxicam and Paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Chromatography was performed on Chromasil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm i.d. and particle size 5 μm) column in isocratic mode with mobile phase containing acetonitrile: 0.2% triethylamine ...
ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND PHYTOTOXIC SCREENING OF SOME PREPARED PYRAZINE DERIVATIVES IN COMPARISON TO THEIR RESPECTIVE α- DIKETO PRECURSORS
Antibacterial, antifungal and phytotoxic activities of the prepared pyrazine derivatives of benzil (A), 4, 4’-dibromobenzil (B) and α-diketones of triterpenoids skeleton e.g. 2, 3-diketolupene (C) and 2, 3-diketomethyl- dihydrobetulonate (D) were studied. The prepared 1, 4-pyrazine derivatives (E, F, G & H respectively) have been characterized by UV, IR, NMR (1H and 13C), optical rota...
The plant Kalanchoe pinnata is widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine as astringent, analgesic, carminative and also useful in diarrhea and vomiting. Naturalized throughout the hot and moist parts of India. And lots of phytochemical and pharmacological work has done on leaves of plant but the root part is not focused. Hence we have selected roots for phytochemical analysis which will support ...
ANTIBACTERIAL, RADICAL- SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES AND CYTOTOXICITY PROPERTIES OF PHALERIA MACROCARPA (SCHEFF.) BOERL. LEAVES IN HEPG2 CELL LINES
Antibacterial, and radical scavenging activities of four crude extracts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves extracts and its active crude cytotoxic properties in HepG2 cells were investigated. The susceptibility bacteria tests were performed by the Mueller Hinton agar well diffusion method. The Radical scavenging activity was measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method...
Methanol extract of leaves of Spilanthes calva (DC) was examined for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. To determine antibacterial activities, the extract was tested against four gram-positive and six gram-negative bacteria at three concentrations (500, 800, 1000 µg disc-1) through disc diffusion method. The extract showed moderate antibacterial actions and that was increased by increa...
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE AND LISINOPRIL IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine and lisinopril in marketed formulation is developed. The determination was carried out on a Phenomenex C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column using a mobile phase of 0.02 M phosphate buffer solution: methanol (75:25v/v, pH 7.0). The flow rate was 1.0ml/min with detection at 212 nm. The ...
Background: Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. It results from insulin resistance, a condition in which the body cells fail to use insulin properly. In Ayurveda Sesamum alatum L. (Pedaliaceae) has been used for the treatment of Diabetes. In this study, the antidiabetic activity of the Methanolic leaf extract of S. alatum was investigated, and the ren...
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA LEAVES IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The present study carried out to investigate the antihyperglycemic, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and antihyperlipidemic (Total cholesterol and triglycerides) effects of the different fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform) of ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The different fractions of the extract were administered orally as a single dose of 150 mg/kg body weig...
ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION RATE AND FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF RITONAVIR TABLETS EMPLOYING STARCH PHOSPHATE- A NEW MODIFIED STARCH
The objective of the study is to prepare, characterize and evaluate starch phosphate, a new modified starch as a carrier in solid dispersions for enhancing the dissolution rate of ritonavir. The feasibility of formulating solid dispersions of ritonavir in starch phosphate into compressed tablets with enhanced dissolution rate was also investigated. Starch phosphate was prepared by reacting star...
LARVICIDAL EFFECT OF THE PET. ETHER, CHLOROFORM FRACTIONS AND METHANOL EXTRACT OF BUCCHOLZIA CORIACEA ENGLE SEED
Buccholzia coriacea Engle (Capparidaceae ‘wonderful cola’) a tropical plant is used in traditional medicine in the management of diabetes, malaria and hypertension. This study aims to investigate the larvicidal activities of the Petroleum ether, chloroform fractions and methanol extract of B. coriacea seed as a potential agent in vector control for malaria. Third and fourth instar larvae of ...
In the present study, toxicity was developed by oral administration of AFB1 at a dose of (2µg/kg body weight) for 45 days in male mice. Curcuma longa (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) and Curcumin (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) were given individually and in combination with AFB1 for 45 days. At the end of 45 days, the blood samples were collected from various groups by heart puncture in eppendroff...
The purpose of the current work was to conduct phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of different extracts of Leucas aspera. The dried powder of the whole plant was extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol which were subjected to various chemical tests to ascertain the main constituents of the plant. The results revealed the presence of significant amounts of alkaloids, glycos...
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF APIGENIN ON 7, 12- DIMETHYLBENZ (A) ANTHRACENE INDUCED GLYCOCONJUGATES IN THE PLASMA AND BUCCAL MUCOSA OF GOLDEN SYRIAN HAMSTERS
Present study investigated the protective effect of apigenin on cell surface glycoconjugates abnormalities in 7, 12-dimethyldenz(a)anthracene(DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. DMBA painting in the hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks developed oral squamous cell carcinoma. The levels of glycoconjugates (Protein bound hexose, Hexosamine, Lipid bound sialic acid, T...
ASSESSMENT OF INJECTION USE PRACTICES AND COMPLETENESS OF PRESCRIPTIONS: THE CASE OF AYDER REFERRAL HOSPITAL, MEKELLE, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA
Back Ground: Overuse of injections is considered as an important indicator of irrational prescribing pattern in a given health care setting owing to the invasive nature of such drug delivery system. Moreover, blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through unsafe injections due to poor injection practices and injection overuse. If the use of injectio...
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of permeation of drug into skin by taking three different vesicle size niosomal formulations. The combined influence of 3 independent variables in the preparation of venlafaxine niosomes by the Ether Injection Method and it was to derive a second order polynomial equation and construct contour plots to predict responses. Seventeen batches were pr...
The present study outlines a systematic approach for Formulation and Evaluation of Immediate release Tablets of lamivudine and Zidovudine , Nevirapine- HAART triple therapy. The objective of this regimen is, To delay disease progression, To increase the duration of survival by achieving maximal and prolonged suppression of HIV replication, To restorate and preserve immunological function. Combinat...
ORTHOSIPHON STAMINEUS INCREASES METABOLISM OF AMINOPYRINE IN FEMALE RAT HEPATOCYTES BY INHIBITING PROTEIN KINASE- A
Orthosiphon stamineus (Family: Lamiaceae) has becoming one of the popular medicinal plants in Malaysia due to its high beneficial effects in treating diabetes mellitus, hypertension and kidney stones. The present study was conducted to evaluate the mechanism of O. stamineus in affecting metabolism of aminopyrine in female rat hepatocytes via second messenger pathway. Liver perfusion was used to is...
The study is aimed towards studying synergistic antimicrobial effect of cow urine and Azadirachta indica against bacterial, fungal and yeast strains. Mother Nature is the best healer. Last few decades have seen tremendous development in pharma sector. Even though these industries have produced a large number of new drugs and new antibiotics and so does the resistance among microbes is growing. B...
Nowadays there has been considerable interest in developing new routes alternative to injection for delivering macromolecules such as proteins and peptides. However, peptides and protein drugs are degraded before they reach the blood stream and can not cross the mucosal barrier. The mucoadhesive polymer coated nanoparticles can solve these problems. They were prepared by emulsion polymerization. M...
STUDY OF BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE OF AIR- BREATHING CATFISH MYSTUS CAVASIUS (HAMILTON) EXPOSED TO ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT CHROMIUM
In the present experiment effect of electroplating industrial effluent chromium on the behavioral responses of freshwater air-breathing cat fish Mystus cavasius was studied. The toxicity of chromium to aquatic life is strongly influenced by the form of chromium and quality of water. The two most prevalent chromium forms found in plating industry waste water are hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) and triva...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a deadly infectious disease, there is rising death of humans every year because of this disease, availability of genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has provided tremendous amount of information that can be useful in drug target and new vaccine development. Sequence similarity provides accurate annotation for genes in newly sequenced genomes. In this pres...
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES, ANTIBACTERIAL, IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI (L.) SEED EXTRACT
Phytochemical constituents present in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini seeds were investigated which were found to be responsible for its medicinal efficacy. The major phytoconstituents present in S. cumini seeds were further determined by GCMS analysis which showed the presence of polyphenols, sesquiterpenes, n-alkanes. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of S. cum...
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate Reverse Phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Teicoplanin in Parenteral dosage form. An Xterra RP C18, 250x4.6 mm, column with 5 µm particle size and the mobile phase consisting of 0.02M Potassium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate + 0.02M Dipotassium Hydrogen Orthophosphate + 0.5% Triethyl Amine in water pH: 3.2 adjusted with Orthophosphoric Acid: Ace...
Purpose: The present study was undertaken to investigate diuretic effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried seeds of erythrina indica in normal rats. Method: Aqueous and methanol extracts of erythrina indica seeds were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 25 and 30 ml/kg p.o. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as positive control in the study. The diuretic effect of the extr...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to underline the process of ageing and the pathogenicity of various diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. The use of traditional medicine is widespread and plants still present a large source of natural antioxidants that might serve as leads for the development of novel drugs. In this study, an ethanolic extract of leaves from Dillenia ...
Cassava ((Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaf stalk is a renewable raw material and it is a major industrial crop in Tamilnadu rich in antioxidant compounds. To utilize this source, an environmentally sustainable procedure has been developed for the extraction of anthocyanin and to analyze its antioxidant properties. So, the present research was focused on cassava for total phenol contents, flavanoids,...
EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF PICRORHIZA SCROPHULARIIFLORA PENNELL IN HIGH FAT FED DIET WITH STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED TYPE II DIABETIC RATS
High energy-intake is a major factor revolved in type 2 diabetes. The objectives of this study is to set up a suitable animal model, which is similar to the human type 2 diabetes, 6 - 8 weeks old Sprague Dawley rats weighing 220 - 250 gm were consumed high fat diet (HFD) of 20% fat, 46% carbohydrate and 20% protein (w/w). Two weeks later the animals were given with intraperitonial injection of str...
New drugs are a great need for clinical conditions but unfortunately development costs are rising and number of drugs receiving marketing approval has fallen. Microdosing is a new experimental approach that offers a faster and potentially less expensive approach for obtaining human in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) data in early stages of drug development. The concept of microdosing involves the use of...
Numerous herbal agents have been claimed to having antipyretic property. One up-coming botanical fruit of Morinda citrifolia, whose Polynesian name is Noni, is unique in view of the large number of medical indications that characterize claims for its efficacy. Researchers at an independent research facility found that Noni was a selective inhibitor of COX-2 enzyme. The analgesic efficacy of the No...
SUBTRACTIVE GENOMICS APPROACH FOR IN SILICO IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL DRUG TARGETS AND EPITOPES FOR VACCINE DESIGN IN TREPONEMA PALLIDUM SUBSP. PALLIDUM STR. NICHOLS
In silico differential genomics helps to identify genes that encode for unique metabolism with relation to human. The genomic database provides a vast amount of useful information for the drug target identification. The subtractive dataset obtained comparatively between the human and the pathogen genome, differentially provides information about the genes that are likely to be essential to the pat...
QUALITY CONTROL OF VARUNA KWATHA CHURNA, AN AURVEDIC FORMULATION AND ITS COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH MARKETED FORMULATIONS
Pharmacognostic standardization of the Varuna Kwatha Churna an ayurvedic formulation formulated from various medicinal plants as bark of varuna, pashanbheda rhizome, fruit of gokshura and rhizome of sunthi which is used to treat urolithiasis. The varuna kwatha churna manufactured by the formula in the ratio as specified in the ayurvedic formulary of India given in specified quantities as cited in ...
DEVELOPMENT & VALIDATION OF AN IN VITRO DISSOLUTION METHOD WITH HPLC ANALYSIS FOR BETAMETHASONE ACETATE AND BETAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE IN FORMULATED DOSAGE FORM
The intended purpose of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for betamethasone acetate and betamethasone sodium phosphate injectable suspension using a reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method. After testing sink conditions, dissolution medium and stability of the drug, the best conditions were: flow through cell of diameter 22.6 mm, 2.0 ml per minutes flow rate for 120 minut...