Volume 5 (2014) - Issue 4, April
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: AN AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVE
Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine explains well about joint disorders like vatarakta, sandhivata, amavata etc. Among these, amavata is a disease which is caused due to hypo-functioning of digestive fire. Rheumatoid arthritis is the disease which keeps clinical similarity with amavata. Ama is main pathogenic factor in the disease amavata. Factors causing formation of ama have direct impact on...
GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN APPROACH TO ENHANCE GASTRIC RETENTION FOR PROLONGED DRUG RELEASE
Oral route has been the most convenient and accepted route of drug delivery. Owing to tremendous curative benefits of the oral controlled release dosage forms are being preferred as the interesting topic in pharmaceutical field to achieved improved therapeutics advantages. Gastroretentive drug delivery system is novel drug delivery systems which has an upper hand owing to its ability of prolonged ...
FACILE METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM THE PLANT SPECIES – A REVIEW
Essential oils are a diverse group of natural products. Oils are the important source of aromatic and flavoring chemicals in food, industrial, and pharmaceutical products. Essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds derived from the different parts of the plants. Various extraction methods are used in the manufacture and extraction of essential oils from ...
REVIEW ON THE CONCEPT OF IMMUNOMODULATION IN AYURVEDA WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON PRAKARA YOGA
An immunomodulator can be defined as a substance, which can influence any constituent or function of the immune system in a specific or nonspecific manner including both innate or adaptive arms of the immune response. The Ayurvedic system of medicine details the concept of immunomodulation by the term Rasayana. The use of herbs for improving the overall resistance of body against common infections...
1, 3, 4-OXADIAZOLE NUCLEUS WITH VERSATILE PHARMACOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS: A REVIEW
Oxadiazole is a heterocyclic compound containing an oxygen atom and two nitrogen atoms in a five membered ring. It is derived from furan by substitution of two methylene groups (=CH) with two pyridine type nitrogens (-N=). It is also termed as a lead compound for designing the potent bioactive agents. It has been reported as a surrogate of carboxylic acid and an important synthons in organic che...
ETHNO-MEDICINAL CLAIMS, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF SPONDIAS PINNATA: A REVIEW
Spondias pinnata is a well-known plant indigenous to South East Asian countries. The plant has been used intensively in many traditional herbal medicines across the globe. This plant has been known to possess antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, ulcer-protective, anti-cancerous, anti-diarrhoeal, anthelmintic, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activity. It has also been reported that different parts of the p...
MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM – A COMPREHENSIVE AND PROMISING NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY
Since Dr. Tsuneji Nagai of Hoshi University, Japanin the early 1980’s used the concept of bio adhesion for the delivery of insulin across the buccal mucosa in beagle dogs; several researchers tried a large number of drugs for administration through buccal mucoadhesive dosage forms. The potential of these dosage forms have been found to be tremendous because of their ability to improve the bioava...
SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: AN EFFECTIVE AND PROMISING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM- A REVIEW
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been reported to be an alternative system to emulsions, liposomes, microparticles and their polymeric counterparts for various application routes since the early 1990s due to their advantages. Solid lipid nanoparticles colloidal drug carrier system gained a lot of popularity among researcher as colloidal drug carriers for incorporating hydrophilic or lipophilic...
THUJA OCCIDENTALIS L. (CUPRESSACEAE): REVIEW OF BOTANICAL, PHYTO-CHEMICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Thuja occidentalis called the tree of life is an endemic plant in eastern North America and cultivated in northern Europe and in Brazil as ornamental tree. According to the popular use of this plant has been used in herbal and homeopathic preparations for acute and chronic infections of the upper respiratory tract, warts, as adjunctive antibiotic, immunostimulant. However, these and other data are...
ROLE OF N-ACETYLCYSTEINE IN RESCUE OF MICE HEART
An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants generates the oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is the major cause of many diseases like cardiovascular, respiratory disease, renal diseases, neurological diseases, cancer, and aging. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality in patients so the purpose of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in ...
ROLE OF INTERFERONS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
Interferons were the first cytokines to be used therapeutically as naturally derived and as recombinant forms in humans. Their broad biological activity has resulted in clinical benefits in diseases ranging from infectious (such as viral hepatitis), autoimmune (in particular multiple sclerosis) to neoplastic (lymphomas and carcinomas). Since Interferons enhance the immune system in many ways, they...
HERBAL IMMUNOMODULORS: A REVIEW
The traditional Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) describes different modalities involved in the prevention and treatment of disease and stresses upon the role of diet, life style and drugs as cornerstones of therapy. Medicinal plant products are known to modify different aspects of human physiology and exert an alleviating influence on several pathophysiological states, and concepts of immunit...
A STUDY ON FEASIBILITY OF OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN FORMULATION OF DISPERSIBLE TABLETS BY FACTORIAL DESIGN
In the present research work an attempt was made to study the effect of formulation variables in the development of dispersible tablet by using various super disintegrants. Instead of normal trial and error method an optimization technique was adapted. Amount of Crosscarmellose sodium, SSG and MCC were included as independent variables and hardness, percentage friability, disintegration time and w...
BOX-BEHNKEN DESIGN FOR DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF ACETAZOLAMIDE MICROSPHERES
This study describes a Box-Behnken experimental design to optimize the formulation of Acetazolamide (ACZ) loaded microspheres by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a polymer. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for their production yields, particle size distribution, morphology, entrapment efficiency % and drug release characteristics. Box-Behnken design produced fifteen formu...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK EXTRACT OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS
The effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica in Carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury were investigated. In vivo animal models using Wistar albino rats was used in this experimental study. Carbon tetrachloride was successfully induced by significantly (P<0.001) increasing serum parameters AST, ALT, and ALP and decreasing serum total proteins and albumin levels (P<0.05). S...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AND TOTAL TANNIN CONTENT FROM THE LEAVES OF BACOPA MONNIERI (LINN.)
The methanolic leaf extract of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Family: Scrophulariaceae) was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity, and total tannins content in different in-vivo and in-vitro methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of the methanol extract. At the dose of 400 mg/k...
STABILITY-INDICATING SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NALBUPHINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN RAW MATERIAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION
A Simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for selective determination of nalbuphine hydrochloride (NAL) in presence of its oxidative degradate in bulk powder and in pharmaceutical preparation. The proposed method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of NAL in acetonitrile at 337 nm after excitation at 285 nm. All variables that affect f...
EVALUATION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY FROM TEUCRIUM POLIUM L. CAPITATUM EXTRACTS (LAMIACEAE) IN RATS
The present study was carried out to investigate the diuretic activity of the ethanolic extract of Teucrium polium L. Capitatum (Lamiaceae)in normal albino rats. The diuretic activity of extract was evaluated by determining the urine volume and electrolyte concentration in albino rats (n=4). Furosemide (20 mg/kg) was used as the reference diuretic drug while normal saline (0.9%) was used as contro...
USE OF COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE IN THE POPULATION OF KEDAH DARUL AMAN, MALAYSIA
Aim: To determine the use of Complementary and Alternate Medicine (CAM) for health issues and health maintenance among the population of Kedah state, Malaysia. Method: A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of three months in Kedah state, Malaysia. The questionnaire was prepared in English and Bahasa Malaysia and distributed to the randomly selected participants...
PATIENT- REPORTED ADVERSE EFFECTS TO ANTI RETROVIRAL DRUGS IN A SPECIALIST HOSPITAL, NORTH WEST NIGERIA
Patients experiencing adverse effects are less likely than those not experiencing it to adhere to treatment. However little is known about the adverse drug reactions to many HIV programme in developing countries, indicating the need for Antiretroviral (ART) safety surveillance. The study is a retrospective analysis of records of adverse reactions by patients initiated on ART. A total of 1870 patie...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTS OF TUBEROSE (POLIANTHES TUBEROSA LINN.) FLOWERS AGAINST COMMON PATHOGENS
Tuberose flower extracts were obtained by green technology of Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and solvent extractions (using n-hexane and petroleum ether of b.p. 60-80 °C). Antimicrobial activities of these extracts were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Candida albicans. No activity w...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF HYDRALAZINE, ISOSORBIDE DINITRATE IN BULK AND TABLET FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC
A simple, sensitive, linear, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Hydralazine, Isosorbide dinitrate in bulk and tablet formulation was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation of the three drugs was achieved on Zodiac C18 (250 mm ´ 4.6 mm) 5µ column in an isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisting of 0.01M 0.01 M Ammonium acetate : Acetonitrile : Met...
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BILAYERED MUCOADHESIVE FILM OF CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL
The objective of the present work was to formulate and evaluate a sustained release gastroretentive dosage form. A mucoadhesive bilayered film was prepared consisting of an Immediate Release (IR) and a Controlled Release (CR) layer. The film is folded into a Hard Gelatin Capsule which after administration into GIT unfolds and adheres to the GI mucosa. Cefpodoxime Proxetil is an antibiotic of BCS C...
EVALUATION OF EFFECTS OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L., LEAVES EXTRACTS AGAINST MILK-INDUCED EOSINOPHILIA IN MICE
Parthenium hysterophorus L., compositae, also known as congress weed, carrot weed, star weed, reaching a height of 2 m in weeks of germination, is believed to have entered India accidentally in the mid 1950's and is now available abundantly all over the India. Leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of asthma and allergy, leavas of the plant were extracted successively using aqueous and...
ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION OF CLOPIDOGREL MINI-TABLETS IN INTESTINAL FLUIDS WITH THE AID OF IN-SITU ACIDIFYING AGENT
The main objective of the present study is to enhance the dissolution of clopidogrel bisulphate in intestinal fluids by formulating into mini-tablets with in-situ acidifying agent mini-tablets. The solubility data reveals, Clopidogrel bisulphate is freely soluble in pH 2.0 and the solubility decreases with increase in pH. Whereas, with weak acid, the solubility of clopidogrel is increased at pH 5....
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CHOLINE FENOFIBRATE IN BULK AND ITS PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A simple and precise RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Choline fenofibrate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on Agilent make Zorbax C18 column (4.6 mm x 15 cm), 5 µ particle size using a mobile phase of phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) : acetonitrile (70 : 30 % v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The analyte was monitored using UV detector at...
ESTIMATION OF FLAVONOID, PHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF INDIAN SCREW TREE (HELICTERES ISORA L.)
Helicteres isora (L.), a South-Asian plant, is a rich source of medicinal and antioxidant compounds and has been widely used in traditional medicine. Antioxidants are important to neutralize damaging free radicals in the body, especially when the systemic defence mechanisms prove insufficient. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant potential of its fresh and dry plant parts i...
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET OF DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDE BY USING HYDROPHILIC POLYMERS
The objective of the present study was to develop Sustained release matrix tablets of Dicyclomine hydrochloride to reduce the dosing frequency to twice daily thereby increasing patient compliance and therapeutic efficacy. Twelve batches of tablets were fabricated using hydrophilic polymer guar gum alone or in combination with xanthan gum and pectin. All the batches were formulated by wet granulati...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF STIMULI SENSITIVE pH TRIGGERED IN-SITU GELLING SYSTEM OF FLUCONAZOLE IN OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY
The present research finding focuses with the formulation and development of in situ gelling system of fluconazole using stimuli sensitive hydrogels. The quick elimination of the drug in the pre-corneal region thereby reducing the bioavailability of conventional ophthalmic solutions may overcome by means of in situ gel forming systems. These are instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol-...
GQSAR APPROACH TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS GROUPS ON SUBSTITUTED QUINOLINES SHOWING ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS ACTIVITY
In this paper, an attempt was made to develop a Group-Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (GQSAR) model on a series of substituted Quinoline derivatives as anti-Tubercular agents. The dataset was fragmented based on substitution points on the quinolone ring. Various 2D descriptors were calculated and used in the present analysis. For model validation, the dataset was divided into various ...
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF METHOTREXATE LOADED MULTILAYERED TABLET FORMULATION FOR TREATMENT OF COLON CANCER
The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeted directly into the colon, thereby reducing the systemic side effects. The aim of the present research work was to develop sustained release multi-layered formulation of Methotr...
CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SYRIA
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a public health problem in Syria call for this parasite’s epidemiological and evolutionary investigation. Evaluation of its population structure by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), current gold standard for classification, has some drawbacks ,such as the lack of discriminatory power below species level, it is labour intensive and time-consuming. In this...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCULAR NIOSOMAL IN SITU GELS OF LINEZOLID
Niosomes, an emerging class of novel vesicular systems, are non-ionic surfactant vesicles which can entrap both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. Niosomes are incorporated into in situ gels for sustained release of drug and to prolong the residence time. The aim of present study is to formulate and evaluate ocular niosomal in situ gels of Linezolid. Linezolid is a potent synthetic oxazolidinone de...
MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF BMS-378806 ANALOGS AS NOVEL HIV-1 GP120/CD4 INHIBITORS
AIDS, a pandemic disease caused by HIV has a high mortality rate. Therapeutic failures have risen due to the emergence of resistant viral strains and adverse side-effects of Anti-HIV drugs. Thus, there arises a need to develop novel and promising anti-HIV drugs. BMS-378806 (BMS-806) inhibits the initial stages of HIV-1 infection by blocking the binding of viral gp120 protein to host-cell CD4 recep...
SENSITIVE, HIGH-THROUGHPUT AND ENANTIOSELECTIVE QUANTITATION OF ZOPICLONE IN HUMAN PLASMA BY LCMS/MS: APPLICATION TO A HUMAN PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Zopiclone (ZPC), a cyclopyrrolone derivative, is a short-acting hypnotic agent. Its pharmacological properties include hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and muscle-relaxant actions. ZPC has a single chiral centre, and its enantiomers are S-zopiclone (S-ZPC) and R-zopiclone (R-ZPC). S-ZPC was adjudge to possess two- fold enhanced pharmacological activity than racemate (ZPC) while its o...
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SOME MICROSPONGE LOADED MEDICATED TOPICAL FORMULATIONS OF ACYCLOVIR
Skin has to bear various external traumas like wounds, burns, blisters, irritation etc. as well as topical diseases like psoriasis, vitilago, cancer and herpes. Various drug delivery systems like vesicles, microspheres, transdermal patches, nanoemulsions, microemulsions, microsponges etc. are available which are better than conventional drug delivery methods because these bypass systemic circulati...
EVALUATION OF DIURETIC EFFECT OF LYCIUM BARBARUM LINN. (GOJI BERRY) IN RATS
Wolf berries or Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L. Solanaceae) have a long tradition as food and medicinal plant. The bark of Goji berries is generally harvested in the winter season and then dried to be used for diuretic purposes. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the possible diuretic effects of powdered L. barbarum. The study was conducted in saline primed Wistar albino rats (n=6) using ...
STUDIES ON ALLERGENS CAUSING BRONCHIAL ASTHMA AND ALLERGIC RHINITIS
The studies on allergen causing bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis were done by testing Immunoglobulin E level and absolute Eosinophil count to clinical patients in JEBI laboratory. The patients were from urban and rural areas, comprising both males and females in all age groups. Out of 613 patients, 523 patients were having markedly increased IgE level and 147 patients were found increased ...
HYPER ACCUMULATION OF CADMIUM IN SOLANUM NIGRUM L. AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PHYTO-CHEMICALS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES
In the pot experiment, Solanum nigrum L. treated with different concentration of Cd showed high accumulation of Cd in plant. Growth of plant was not significantly affected up to ≤ 50ppm Cd treated plant, The trends of Cd accumulation in plant were leaf>shoot>root with increasing concentration of Cd and DAS. Plant accumulates 298, 92 and 58 ppm of Cd after 60DAS in leaf>shoot>root re...
SUPPRESSION OF ELEVATED REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES BY ACORUS CALAMUS (VACHA) A SWEET FLAG IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER UNDER STRESS FULL CONDITIONS
Reactive Oxygen Species is a phrase used to describe a number of reactive molecules and free radicals derived from molecular Oxygen. The production of Oxygen based radicals is the bane to all aerobic species where its excessive levels intern induces oxidative stress. The present study is to evaluate the anti-stress property of Acorus calamus (vacha), where the fruit flies in different groups are a...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLET OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE WITH SYNTHETIC SUPERDISINTEGRANT
The present work was designed to formulate floating tablet of Metoprolol Succinate with synthetic superdisintegrant as swelling agent. Various formulations of Metoprolol Succinate were prepared by direct compression method using the different concentrations of superdisintegrant ranging from 10% to 15%. The selected batches were evaluated for various parameter like weight variation, thickness, diam...
COMPARATIVE POWDER MICROSCOPICAL SCREENING OF THE RHIZOME AND LEAF OF ALPINIA CALCARATA AND ALPINIA GALANGA
The therapeutic use of herbal medicine has gained considerable momentum in the world during the past decade. Hence, Quality control standards for various medicinal plants used in indigenous systems of medicine are becoming more necessary. Adulteration and misidentification of medicinal plants can cause serious health problems to consumers and pose legal problems for pharmaceutical firms. So, the a...
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE FLAVONOID “QUERCETIN” FROM TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN.
Tridax procumbens (Linn.) is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Asteraceae. It is known for a number of pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity.Flavonoid “Quercetin” was isolated from the flowers of this plant. Dried flowers were Soxhlet with petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol...
EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HERBAL PLANT EXTRACTS
This work has been undertaken to study the antimicrobial efficiency of Hexane, Ethyl acetate, Ethanolic extracts of herbal plants (Anthocephalus cadamba, Allium sativum, Origanum vulgare, Ocimum sanctum) against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-3160), Escherichia coli (MTCC-1652) and fungi Aspergillus niger (MTCC-282) by using agar well diffusion method. All the plants showed signi...
NEW SIMPLE RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A new simple, rapid, accurate, precise and sensitive RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of sildenafil citrate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation of sildenafil citrate was achieved on a Phenomenex C18 Column (150 X 4.6 mm i.d, 5µ particle size) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and Buffer (50:50 % v/v). The flow rate was 1.5 ml/min and photodiode array det...
DESIGN AND FORMULATION OF NOVEL PHARMACEUTICAL CAPSULES OF HERBAL ORIGIN FOR DIABETES MELLITUS
Onion, garlic and fenugreek are widely cultivated in Egypt and many reports confirmed their antidiabetic activities as used separately. Current study focused on these three herbs when present together in a mixture. All dried herbs were finely powdered to obtain homogenous mixtures. Pre-formulation studies were conducted on each individual herb including determination of foreign matter, loss on dry...
SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL HESPERETIN OXIME ESTERS: A NEW DISCERNMENT IN TO THEIR ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL
A series of novel hesperetin oxime esters (3a-l) were synthesized and there in vitro antioxidant potential was examined. Hesperetin oxime 2 was furnished by oximation of hesperetin then subsequently upon esterification with substituted benzoyl chlorides to obtain hesperetin oxime esters (3a-l) in good yields. The structure of compounds was elucidated by elemental analysis, IR, NMR (1H, 13C) and ...
BIOLOGICAL STUDY TO ASSES HEALTH OF NARMADA RIVER IN JABALPUR
Present studies was undertaken to find out of aquatic fungi in river Narmada. Fungi are eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms, including both single-celled yeasts and multi-cellular filamentous fungi. Many fungal species can survive in oligotrophic environments, through scavenging nutrients from the substrate which they colonies, or the air or water in which they live. Fungi also produce secondary m...
IN SILICO CHARACTERIZATION OF GlmU ANTIGENIC MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS PROTEIN
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs. Tuberculosis is a global health threat and infecting about one third of the human population. Despite having a variety of anti-tuberculous drugs and availability of effective chemotherapy and Bacille-Calmette –Guerin (BCG) vaccine, tuberculosis remains a leading infect...
TREATMENT OUTCOMES OF TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS IN DEBRE MARKOS REFERRAL HOSPITAL, NORTH WEST ETHIOPIA (JUNE 2008-AUGUST 2013): A FIVE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
Background:Tuberculosis is the second most common cause of death due to an infectious disease after human immunodeficiency virus. According to World Health Organization 2010 report, 9.4 million incidents and 14 million prevalent cases were occurred. Ethiopia has been one of the 22 high TB burden countrieswith an incidence and prevalence rate of 300 and 470 cases per 100,000 populations respective...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF FENUGREEK SEEDS ON RATS
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepato-protective activity of methanol extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG)in CCl4 induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Seeds of TFG were collected, and subjected to continuous cold maceration in a macerator, for 72 h with solvents like petroleum ether (60 – 80) and methanol separately. Hepatic injury in rats was induced separatel...
ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF MIMOSA RUBICAULIS LAM AGAINST EHRLICH ASCITES CARCINOMA IN SWISS ALBINO MICE
The antitumor activity of the methanol stem extract of Mimosa rubicaulis lam (MEMR) was evaluatedagainst Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) tumor model in Swiss albino mice. After 24h of intraperitonial inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, MEMRwas administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg per kg body weight orally for 13 consecutive days. After 24 h of the last dose and followed by eighteen...
WHAT SUITS BEST FOR ORGAN WEIGHT ANALYSIS: REVIEW OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGAN WEIGHT AND BODY / BRAIN WEIGHT FOR RODENT TOXICITY STUDIES
Organ weight analysis is an important endpoint for identification of potentially harmful effects of test compounds in toxicology studies. Organ weight differences are often accompanied by differences in body weights between treatment groups which make the organ weight interpretation more difficult. We have evaluated the relationship between organ weight and body/brain weight based on statistical a...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE DELIVERY OF TIZANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING NATURAL POLYMERS
The present investigation concerns the design and evaluation of floating tablets of Tizanidine hydrochloride, which after oral administration are designed to prolong the gastric residence time and increased drug bioavailability. It is a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist. It is used in the treatment of migraine headaches, spasms and anticonvulsant. The dosage was designed by using natural pol...
KNOWLEDGE ON MEDICATION TAKING BEHAVIOUR, BALANCED DIET AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY – A SURVEY AMONG THE ADOLESCENTS
ABSTRACT: The main objective of the study is to promote awareness and assess the knowledge of adolescents on medication use, importance of balanced diet and physical activity. The study was conducted among the adolescents’ aged from16-18 years in regions of Guntur. The volunteers are allowed to fill their informed consent to be a part of the study. The questionnaire was distributed to all the vo...
ANALYSIS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF IBUPROFEN TABLET
A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of the best conditions that allow us to calibrate the ibuprofen in drug is presented. This approach uses high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detector, which is a separation method most used because it is fast, easy, and maintains the nature of the mixture to be separated. The spectra of ibuprofen were recorded using several mobil...
IMPROVEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL BY SOLID DISPERSION IN POLYVINYL PYRROLIDONE
The aim of the present study was to characterize solid dispersion (SD) of Candesartan cilexetil (CC) prepared with polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP) for enhancing its solubility and bioavailability. The SDs of Candesartan was prepared by solvent evaporation method. The prepared SDs were evaluated for saturation solubility, practical yield, drug content, and in vitro dissolution study, IR-Spectroscop...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME TARTARATES AND TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES
Metal complexes having two or more different metal ions not only possess excellent catalytic applications but also have many biological activities. In the present work, some ligand tartarate based mixed transition metal complexes of type [MxMI1-x (C4H4O6)]. XH2O [Where M and MI are Cu and Ni, and x= 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8] have been successfully synthesized and were characterized by different sophi...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL AND POTASSIUM CLAVULANATE IN TABLET FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC
A new Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method was developed and validated for the quantitation of Cefpodoxime proxetil (Cef) and Potassium clavulanate (Pot. clav.) in pharmaceutical formulations. Determination was performed using a Hypersil-BDS (C-18) column (5 μm, 250 mm 4.60 mm), a mobile phase containing phosphate buffer (5.5 pH): acetonitrile (51:49 v/v), in iso...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF ROOT OF MENTHA ARVENSIS L. FROM KASHMIR REGION
To evaluate phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potential of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of root of Mentha arvensis L from Kashmir region. The antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Mentha arvensis L was evaluated by using 1, 1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and nitrous oxide scave...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE DIFFERENT APPROACHES USED FOR MANUFACTURING OF ANTIDIABETIC ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS
Diabetes mellitus basically a chronic metabolic disorder that results in boosting up blood glucose level to higher concentrations. It is associated with bunch of diseases. To overcome patient’s common problems i.e. throat pain, vomiting, non-compliance, inconvenience and ineffective therapy plan or to enhance patient compliance and effectiveness of therapy scientists have launched orodispersible...