Volume 6 (2015) - Issue 11, November
RECENT TARGET BASED DISCOVERY OF ANTI-DIABETIC AGENTS
Diabetes is the most common lifestyle disease associated with many serious worries including diabetic ketoacidosis, cardiac problems, kidney failure, non ketotic hyperosmolar coma, foot ulcers, eye damage etc. All these complications develops due to abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and insulin synthesis resulting in high blood sugar with symptoms such as elevated hunger and thirst, polyuri...
INVESTIGATION OF THE BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE PREVENTION OF CANCER
The safe use of medicines is a critical issue for all health care professionals, Background: Cancer refers to a group of diseases that are associated with a disturbance in the control of cell growth and metabolism. Indeed, the unbalanced control of cellular proliferation is a primary characteristic of cancer cells and, as such, any molecule capable of inhibiting cancer cell proliferation may also ...
ETHNO MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY: A REVIEW
Diabetes is a complex and multifarious group of disorders characterized by hyperglycemia that has reached epidemic proportions in the present century. Several drugs such as biguanides and sulfonylureas are presently available to reduce hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. These drugs have side effects and thus searching for a new class of compounds is essential to overcome these problems. Managemen...
MICROSPHERES AS DRUG CARRIERS FOR CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY: A REVIEW
Microspheres play a very important role as particulate drug delivery system because of their small size and other efficient properties. Microspheres have been proved to be a suitable bridge to scale the distance over to formulate an effective dosage form, to simulate controlled drug release. Microspheres are characteristically free flowing solid powders, which consist of proteins or synthetic poly...
REVISITING THE ROLE OF PHYCOCYANIN IN CURRENT CLINICAL PRACTICE
C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a biliprotein found in edible blue-green algae. Its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant activities has been evidenced by many in vitro and in vivo studies. Anti-inflammatory activity of C-PC demonstrated by free radical scavenging, inhibition of DNA damage, and decreased ROS. Here, the effects of C-PC on cytotoxicity and cell signaling throug...
KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
The safe use of medicines is a critical issue for all health care professionals, including physicians, pharmacists and nurses as well as public. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are unwanted effects that are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in whole world also has prolongation of hospital stay and increase visiting of emergency department. The present review dealt to assess the knowledge, a...
A REVIEW ON POLYMER DRUG CONJUGATE – WHAT, WHY AND HOW?
It is well known that polymeric prodrug or polymer-drug conjugate is an effective and fast growing technique for improved use of drugs for therapeutic applications. Polymer conjugated drugs generally exhibit prolonged half-life, higher stability, water solubility, lower immunogenicity and antigenicity and specific targeting to tissues or cells. Polymers are used as carriers in polymeric prodrugs/m...
NATURAL EDIBLE COLOURS AND FLAVOURS USED AS HUMAN HEALTH
Colour is a molecule that absorbs certain wavelengths of visible light and transmits or reflects others whereas colourant is the activity of that molecule. Natural food colour is any dye, pigment or any other substance obtained from vegetable, animal, mineral, or source capable of colouring food drug, cosmetic or any part of human body, colours come from variety of sources such as seeds, fruits, v...
EFFECT OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON ACETAMINOPHEN TABLET PROPERTIES PREPARED BY DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES USING POLYVINYLPYRROLIDINE DERIVATIVES AS BINDER
Amount of moisture content present in solid dosage forms plays a major role in influencing the physicochemical properties of tablets such as dissolution rate, disintegration time, hardness, etc. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of relative humidity (RH) exposure on various properties of acetaminophen tablets manufactured by direct compression and wet granulation methods. ...
STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF MYRSINOIC ACIDS A AND B IN RAPANEA FERRUGINEA EXTRACTS AND NANOEMULSIONS
Rapanea ferruginea Mez. stem barks and fruits extracts have demonstrated anticholinesterasic and antimicrobial activities assigned to myrsinoic acids A and B (MAA and MAB), compounds that have also proven anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. To stablish the quality control of nanotechnology-based herbal medicines, the aim of this study was develop and validate a stability indicating H...
COMPARISON OF RETABOLIL, 4-THIAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVE (LES-2222) AND TESTOSTERONE ACTION ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE ANTIOXIDANT DEFENCE ENZYMES IN RATS UNDER FOOD DERIVATION
The manuscript devoted to investigation of some patterns of the mode of action of retabolil, compound LES-2222 (new thiopyrano[2,3-d]thiazole derivative (2-(2-Oxo-5a,11b-dihydro-5H,6H-7-oxa-1,4-dithia-3-aza-cyclopenta[c] phenanthren-3-yl)-N-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-acetamide) – synthesized at the Department of Pharmaceutical, Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry) and testosterone in rats under foo...
THE CLINICAL EFFECTS OF NITAZOXANIDE IN HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY PATIENTS: A PILOT STUDY
Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a brain dysfunction caused by liver insufficiency and/or portosystemic shunting. It is associated with poor survival and high risk of recurrence along with reduced quality of life (QOL) of patients and their caregivers. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is an oral antimicrobial that improved mental status and QOL score in HE patients and is well-tolerated. Aim: To evalu...
FORMULATION, ASSESSMENT AND COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT POLYMERS LOADED MICROSPHERES BY NON AQUEOUS SOLVENT EVAPORATION TECHNIQUE: IN VITRO-IN VIVO STUDY OF GLIBENCLAMIDE AS A MODEL DRUG
Glibenclamide is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent designed intended for the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In certain conditions conventional drug release pattern is not suitable similar to Diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and many more diseases, this present study has taken a challenge to formulate controlled release microspheres by using different polyme...
VALIDATION OF NOVEL AND COST EFFECTIVE SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF KETOROLAC
Sophisticated analytical methods like HPLC and Mass spectroscopic methods which being employed for analysis, are relatively expensive and hence there is a need for developing simple analytical methods. In the proposed work, such methods have been developed and applied for routine determination of ketorolac in pharmaceutical formulations and bulk dosage forms. These methods were based on the form...
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF DIPTERACANTHUS PROSTRATUS NEES. AND ITS PROBABLE MECHNISM OF ACTION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The present study was aimed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the Dipteracanthus prostratus nees. And it’s probable mechanism of action in Streptozotocin induced diabetes. Wistar albino rats were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of toluene (TEDP, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, body weight) and methanolic (MEDP, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, body weight) extract of D. prostratus. C...
THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF BIOACTIVE PHYTOCHEMICALS BY INHIBITING β-LACTAMASE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT CLINICAL ISOLATES
β-lactams have been widely used as antibiotics for treatment of nosocomial and community acquired infections for the last five decades. Under selective pressure from the extensive use of cephalosporins in 1980s and 1990s, many bacteria have emerged as resistant against these antibiotics. The resistance to β-lactam antibiotics can be due to any of the following three mechanisms i.e. decreased acc...
ANTI-INFLUENZA POTENTIAL OF ALKALOIDAL MOLECULES OF JATROPHA CURCAS LEAVES
Background: The Influenza viruses are major etiologic agents of human respiratory infections, and inflict sizable health and economic burden. Methods: The present study reports the in-vitro antiviral effect of isolated alkaloidal compound of Jatropha curcas leaves against Influenza virus by Hemagglutination (HA) reduction assay in two different layouts of simultaneous and post-treatment assay. The...
EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC FRUIT PULP EXTRACT OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS
The study was aimed to investigate the activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cucumis sativus in gastric ulcerated rats. Anti ulcer activity was evaluated via oral administration of HACS at the dose 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg thrice in a day for 5 days before pyloric ligation ulceration, indomethacin and ethanol induced ulceration. Various parameters such as ulcer index, gastric volume, pH of gastric j...
A STUDY ON DRUG DOSE ADMINISTRATION IN GERIATRICS WITH RESPECT TO CREATININE CLEARANCE RATE
Objective: The objectives are to assess the drug dose administration and reduce the dose toxicity in geriatric patients. Method: A Prospective interventional study has been carried out on drug dose administration in geriatric patients with respect to creatinine clearance rate at a tertiary care hospital for about 6 months. A total number of 204(47 baseline+157study) geriatric patients are included...
VALIDATED UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM
Montelukast sodium is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies1-2. Montelukast comes as a tablet, a chewable tablet, and granules to take by mouth3. Montelukast is usually taken once a day with or without food3. The present study describes a simple, accurate reproducible and precise uv spectrophotometric met...
EVALUATION OF HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN HAEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Patients undergoing Haemodialysis are mostly affected with their physical and mental function. Assessing Health Related Quality Of life is mainly to challenge these conditions in patients and provide a better quality of life. An observational prospective study was conducted in the dialysis ward of a tertiary care hospital for a period of 6 months using KDQOL, consisting of 36 valid items focusing ...
EFFECT OF AGMATINE ON 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE INDUCED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE IN RODENTS
The core finding of the present preclinical study demonstrated that, administration of increasing doses of Agmatine is remarkably neuroprotective in male wistar rats against 6-Hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease with multiple motor and non-motor features that contribute to the impairment of health-related quality of...
ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL EVALUATION OF NEWLY SYNTHESIZED OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES BEARING 2, 4, 5-TRIPHNENYL IMIDAZOLE MOIETY
A series of Oxadiazole derivatives (4a-d) have been synthesized from (2, 4, 5-triphenyl-imidazole-1-yl)-acetic acid hydrazide under various reaction conditions. Elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. All the synthesized Oxadiazole derivatives have been investigated for their anti-fungal and antimicrobial activity showing mo...
ANTIPARKINSONIAN EFFECTS AND MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS OF SOME INDIGENOUS HERBAL FORMULATIONS
Objective: The anti-parkinson’s potential of the formulations containing roots of Withania somnifera family Solanaceae, leaves of Ocimum sanctum family Lamiaceae, and rhizome of Curcuma longa family Zingiberaceae, was investigated in reserpine and haloperidol induced parkinson’s model. Materials and Methods: Parkinson’s was produced by Reserpine and Haloperidol administration (1mg/kg i.p and...
SCREENING OF UNIQUE BINDING SITE SPECIFIC LIGAND FOR CARBONIC ANHYDRASE IX
Cancer is a common and widespread cause of human death in the world. Treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy facilitate in prolonging the patient’s life however in some cases cancer can be prevented. Cancers like breast, prostate, colon, renal cell carcinoma are caused by the overexpression of an enzyme termed Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CAIX). In 2015, 60,290 new cases of breast cancer alone a...
MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GREATER PALATINE FORAMEN IN DRY SKULLS
Introduction: Greater palatine foramen is located at the either posterior angle of hard palate. It helps for the transmission of the descending palatine vessels and greater palatine nerves. Location of greater palatine foramen varies in different skulls in some it is present near the 3rd molar teeth or near 2nd molar or between 2nd and 3rd molar. Aim: To study about the morphometric analysis of th...
A CASE STUDY ON GLYCEMIC INDEX AND DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY
The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months. Diabetic neuropathy is generally assessed in clinical practice by a combination of objective and subjective measures. Nerve conduction studies, the distal sural sensory nerves and the...
EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO DI-BUTYL PHTHALATE ON REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY IN ADULT FEMALE MOUSE
Di-butyl phthalate (DBP) is an environmental contaminant used in the production of plastics, cosmetics and medical devices. In the present study, the effects of exposure to DBP on reproduction of female mice were investigated. Adult female mice given DBP through gastric intubation at 0 (control), 250 (low dose) and 1000 (high dose) mg / Kg BW/ day for 10 days. After treatment, body weight and ovar...
FORMULATION AND COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF LOVASTATIN LOADED POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES PREPARED BY IONIC GELATION AND SOLVENT EVAPORATION TECHNIQUE
Nanotechnology mediated drug delivery has been reported to enhance the drug efficacy, bioavailability, reduced toxicity and improve patient compliance by targeting the cells and tissues to elicit the desired pharmacological action. Low oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs poses a great challenge during development of drug delivery systems. The purpose of the present work was to com...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-DIARRHOEAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. IN EXPETIMENTAL RATS
Diarrhoea is a condition that involves frequent passing of loose or watery stools. According to the WHO, approximately 3.5million deaths each year are attributable to diarrhoea. Medicinal plants have been used as traditional remedy for diarrhoea for years long and there is renewed interest from the discovery of novel compounds from plants to flight against diarrhoea. WHO also encourages studies on...
A STUDY ON PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF DRUGS IN GERIATRICS USING BEERS CRITERIA AT A PRIVATE CORPORATE HOSPITAL
The prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use is high among geriatrics, affecting up to 40% of patients. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the prescription pattern in geriatrics and to identify potentially inappropriate medications using Beers Criteria 2012. The data were collected and recorded in standard data entry format. The prescriptions were analyzed for appropri...
GC-MS ANALYSIS OF LEAF EXTRACT OF GYNOCHTHODES UMBELLATA (L.) RAZAFIM. AND B. BREMER (RUBIACEAE)
The present investigation was carried out to determine the presence of volatile, bioactive, phytocomponents in the leaf ethanolic extract of Gynochthodes umbellata (Syn. Morinda umbellata) belonging to the family Rubiaceae, using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Gynochthodes umbellata is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional system of medicine. Literature...
UV- VIS, GC- MS AND FT-IR ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LYCOPENE FROM CITRULLUS LANATUS
Lycopene makes up the majority of carotenoids in watermelon. Carotenoids are thought to be responsible for the beneficial properties of fruits and vegetables in preventing human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer and other chronic diseases. They are important dietary sources of vitamin A. Lycopene extraction from the fruit juice was done individually by using various organic solven...
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GLORIOSASUPERBA
In this study, acute Poloxamer (P-407) and chronic cholesterol and cholic suspension (CCS) models were used in rats to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic potential of methanolic extract of Gloriosasuperba(MEGS). Two different doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg were used in acute model.Acute model was used to confirm the prophylactic antihyperlipidemic properties of extract, and further most effective d...
A COMPERATIVE STUDY OF VANADIUM PENTOXIDE AND CHROMIUM OXIDE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETES IN ALBINO RATS
Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of vanadium pentoxide and chromium oxide in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats. Methods: Diabetes was experimentally induced by injecting intraperitoneally with a single dose of 60mg/kg. The animals were considered as diabetic, if their blood glucose values were above 300 mg/dl on the 10th day afte...
BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF BLOOD CULTURE ISOLATES WITH THEIR ANTIBIOGRAM FROM A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Introduction: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Emerging antimicrobial drug resistance among bacterial pathogens causing BSI can limit therapeutic options and complicate patient management. Objective: To encourage the prudent use of appropriate antibiotics in our tertiary care Hospital, we studied the prevalence and antibiogram patterns of blood...
HUMAN CARTILAGE GLYCOPROTEIN 39 (YKL-40): A VIEW IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Background: Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Type 2 diabetes causes the combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. The degree of hyperglycemia sufficient to cause pathologic and functional changes in various target tissues, but ...
PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR CELLULASE USING BACILLUS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM RED SOIL AND OPTIMIZATION OF CELLULASE ACTIVITY
Enzymes plays a major role in industries like textile, leather, sugar, paper, rubber, tea etc., Microbes plays important role in enzyme production due to their fast growth rate, easy to manipulate for getting highly stable enzymes through genetic engineering and requires shorter time for production and purification steps. In our present study, we concentrated on the enzymes used in textile industr...
KARANJIN AMELIORATE DSS INDUCED COLITIS IN C57BL/6 MICE
Background: Karanjin a furanoflavanoid from Pongamia pinnata (L.) Seeds, has gastroprotective, anti-arthritic properties rendering it a natural drug having prophylactic and therapeutic property. But, the effect of Karanjin on colitis till not known. Objectives: To evaluate the beneficial effect of karanjin for the treatment of experimental colitis. Method: Colitis were induced in the C57BL6 mice b...
TOTAL CAROTENOID CONTENT IN SOME MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA) VARIETIES OF BANGLADESH
The present study investigated total carotenoid content of twelve mango varieties of Bangladesh. Change in the total carotenoid content at various stages of maturity was also determined. Carotenoids are bioactive substances in food with powerful antioxidant activity. It has role in enhancement of the immune response and reduction of the risk of degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular ...
BIO EFFICACY OF MICHELIA CHAMPACA LINN ON MEMBRANE BOUND ENZYMES IN CCl4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of flower extract of Michelia champaca on membrane bound enzyme (serum ATPase) levels on male albino rats. The membrane bound enzymes (Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase) levels of methanolic flower extract of Michelia champaca at a dose of 300 mg/kg was evaluated during exposure to CCl4. There was a significant decrease i...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF MINOXIDIL AND FINASTERIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD
A simple, precise, rapid, accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Minoxidil and Finasteride in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on ODS C18 column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 µ particle size) using a mobile phase comprising methanol: water along with 0.5 % triethyl amine (TEA), pH 6.38 adjusted with ortho phospho...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ACETYLCYSTEINE AND CEFIXIME IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
This paper describes a simple, precise, and validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of Acetylcysteine and Cefixime in pharmaceutical formulation in the presence of degradation products. The separation was achieved using a Kromasil C8 reverse phase column (25X 0.46mm I.D, 5µ particle size) at room temperature with an isocratic mixtur...
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF -MEMBERED DIOXA DIAZA NAPTHALDEHYDE BASED MACROCYCLIC LIGAND AND ITS COMPLEXES OF Co(III), Ni(II) AND Cu(II) PERCHLORATE IONS
An hitherto new unreported -membered dioxadiazanapthaldehyde based macrocyclic ligand (L) 2,11-dioxa-23,30-diaza heptacyclo [126.96.36.199 4, 9.0 12, 21. 0 14, 19. 0 24, 29. 0 34, 39]-tetraconta-12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40-pentadecaene, has been synthesized by two different synthetic routes each involving two stages. 2-Hydroxy-1-Napthaldehyde in the presence of potass...