Volume 7 (2016) - Issue 9, September
CURRENT AND NOVEL TECHNIQUES IN THE OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
For human survival, vision or sight is extremely important. Ocular drug delivery has been a major challenge to pharmacologists and drug delivery scientists due to its unique anatomy and physiology. There are both conventional and novel drug deliveries available as topical administration for the treatment of diseases related to the eye. Conventional dosage form includes ophthalmic solutions, suspen...
AUTISM: AN EARLY-ONSET NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER
Autism is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication, and the repetitive interests or restricted interests and behaviors. Approximately 67 million people are affected by autism around the world. Autism has increased to epidemic proportions, affecting four times as many males and females. The exact etiology of autism remains larg...
HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF MECHANISMS AND CLINICAL ASPECTS
Millions of people today use herbs either as food or in the form of medicine along with prescription and non prescription medications. Although considered natural and safe, many of these herbs can interact with other medications, causing either potentially dangerous side effects and/or reduced benefits from the medication. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms are involved in these i...
A REVIEW ON THE ROLE OF PHARMACOGENOMICS IN DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT
Pharmacogenomics (constitute both branch i.e pharmacology and genetic) is the study of the role of genetics in drug response. It deals with the effect of genetic variation on drug response in patient by correlating the gene expression with the pharmacokinetic parameter i.e absorption, distribution metabolism and excreation. The Pharmacogenomics is used in the research to increase the safety and ef...
ANTIBIOTIC DE-ESCALATION IN THE INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT- A REVIEW
An antibiotic may be defined as a substance or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of, bacteria. Antibiotics belong to the broader group of antimicrobial compounds, used to treat infections caused by microorganisms, including fungi and protozoa, viruses. Antibiotic de-escalation is a mechanism whereby the provision of effective initial antibiotic treatment is achieved while avoiding unneces...
A REVIEW ON HERBAL PLANTS AS IMMUNOMODULATORS
Herbal immunomodulator is substance which stimulates or suppresses the components of immune system including both innate and adaptive immune responses. The modulation of immune system by various medicinal plant products has become subject for scientific investigations currently worldwide. A number of Indian medicinal plants and various ‘Rasayana’ have been claimed to possess immunomodulatory a...
BIOCIDAL EFFICACY OF SYNTHETIC COPOLYESTERS HAVING CHALCONE MOIETY
Two chalcone diols (2E)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3(4-hydroxy, 3-ethoxy phenyl) prop-en-1-one and (2E)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl)-3(4-hydroxy, 3-ethoxy phenyl) prop-en-1-one were synthesized by acid catalyzed ClaisenSchmidt reaction. The synthesized chalcones were made to undergo polymerization using three aliphatic dichlorides namely glutaryl, succinyl and oxalyl chlorides. The polymers were random...
NEW SAPONINS FROM ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L) BENTH FLOWERS
Two new oleanane triterpene type saponins named lebbeckanin I (1) and lebbeckanin II (2), in addition to a new isomer of methyl inositol, D-1-O-methyl-cis-inositol (3), were isolated from butanol fraction of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth flowers. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including MS, 1H & 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC & HMBC. The fraction contain...
POSSIBLE TRANSMISSION OF DRUG-RESISTANT SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM AND LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES WITHIN THE BEEF INDUSTRY IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
Background: Widespread use of antibiotics in livestock production in large-scale across the globe has become of public and veterinary health importance because of its implication in antibiotic resistance. Adequate data in this area of research is not readily available in Nigeria; this study was undertaken in view of the possible link between antimicrobial resistance in farm animals and humans. Met...
DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL MOSQUITO REPELLENT FORMULATIONS
The present study reports the studies directed towards the development of safe and efficient herbal mosquito repellent formulations obtained by mixing hexane extract of Azadirachta indica seeds, hexane/ethanol extract of Vitex negundo leaves, essential oils from Ocimum sanctum leaves, Curcuma longa rhizomes and Citrus sinensis peels and essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus leaves, Eucalyptus globul...
ELICITOR AND PRECURSOR MEDIATED ANTHRAQUINONE PRODUCTION FROM CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES OF OLDENLANDIA UMBELLATA L.
Enhanced production of anthraquinones from cell suspension cultures of Oldenlandia umbellata were established through elicitor or precursor treatment. Stock cell suspension cultures were developed in liquid MS medium supplemented with 2.5 µM NAA using friable calli. Standardization experiments of suspension cultures revealed that 10 µM NAA added liquid MS medium was optimum for the growth and AQ...
ASSESSMENTS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA IN DIABETIC MICE
Very little knowledge about use of papaya leaves is available in the literature, the leaves of papaya are bitter to taste which explains its therapeutic benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess anti diabetic effects of leaves extracts of Carica Papaya and Glucophage on streptozotocin –induced diabetic mice. Results indicates that hyperglycemic level in diabetic mice was normali...
ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF FOMITOPSIS DOCHMIUS (BERK. & BROOME) RYVARDEN
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of various solvent extracts of Fomitopsis dochmius, a polypore found in Western Ghats of Kerala, India were investigated. Petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), 70 % aqueous ethanol (ETH) and hot water (AQ) extracts of the fruiting bodies of the mushroom were examined for their antioxidant activities. PE was found to show activity against hyd...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-ARTHRITIC POTENTIAL OF THE HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF THE STEM BARK OF PLUMERIA RUBRA IN FREUND’S COMPLETE ADJUVANT-INDUCED ARTHRITIS IN RATS.
To investigate the anti-arthritis effects of hydro-alcoholic stem bark extract (HSBE) of Plumeria rubra in Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model in wistar albino rats. Paw edema was produced by sub-plantar injection of 0.1 ml of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and paw volume was measured with plethysmometer. HSBE of the plant P. rubra (250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg body weight)...
MODIFIED TSBB CULTURE MEDIA ENHANCE FASTER GROWTH OF STREPTOCOCCI MUTANS AS COMPARED TO EXISTING CULTURE MEDIA
There are various studies on growth of Streptococcus mutans which was done by different scientists on different media but it has been found that there is still some deficiency in existing medium. In our study we have tried to prepare a modified, less laborious and more selective medium for Streptococcus mutans which is specific for their growth. We studied 10 plaque samples from caries active scho...
ASSOCIATION OF TLR2 AND IL-8 POLYMORPHISMS AND THEIR EXPRESSION IN GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of peripheral nervous system. Association of TLR2 and IL-8 polymorphism with higher expression level has already been studied in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the possible role of TLR2 and IL-8 polymorphism in GBS remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated the TLR-2 (Arg677Trp & A...
IN-SILICO DOCKING STUDIES OF PHYTO-LIGANDS AGAINST E. COLI PBP3: APPROACH TOWARDS NOVEL ANTIBACTERIAL THERAPEUTIC AGENT
Emergence of antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem worldwide. The extensive and uncontrolled use of antibiotics increases the number of multi drug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. The major mechanisms that bacteria evolve to develop resistance against β-lactam class of antibiotics are the production of β-lactamases and expression of low affinity penicillin binding proteins (PBPs)....
EFFECT OF INGREDIENTS OF A LOCAL ANTIDIABETIC FORMULATION IN ENHANCING THE ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF SALACIA RETICULATA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Salacia reticulata, used in traditional and local medicines in Western Ghats of Southern India for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely used for its sugar lowering activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of roots of Salacia reticulate (EESR) and an ethanolic extract of local formulation (EELF) made by mixing roots of Sala...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DOXOFYLLINE AND AMBROXOL IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
A new, simple, accurate, linear, precise, efficient and reproducible Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of Ambroxol and Doxofylline in combined tablet dosage form. The chromatographic method was standardized using a Kromosil C18, 150mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 ? (particle size), Thermo scientific from Germany with isocratic conditions, an...
EFFECT OF ALOE VERA JUICE ON THE TOXICITY INDUCED BY ISONIAZID AND RIFAMPICIN DRUGS ON COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT IN MALE WISTAR RATS
Male Wistar rats were procured from ‘The Bombay Veterinary College’, Parel, Mumbai. The animals were maintained and housed in cages and were acclimatized in laboratory conditions for ten days prior to the experiment. The experimental rats were fed orally with isoniazid 300 mg/ 70 kg body weight / day; rifampicin 450 mg / 70 kg body weight / day and Aloe vera extract 50 mg/ kg body weight / day...
THE VERTEX SZEGED INDEX OF TITANIA CARBON NANOTUBES TiO2 (m,n)
Let G=(V,E) be a simple connected molecular graph in chemical graph theory, where the vertex set and edge set of G denoted by V(G) and E(G) respectively and its vertices correspond to the atoms and the edges correspond to the bonds. A topological index of a graph G is a numeric quantity related to G which is invariant under automorphisms of G. In this paper, the vertex Szeged index of Titania carb...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL AND LEVOFLOXACIN HEMIHYDRATE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
A simple, accurate, precise, rapid and economical RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Cefpodoxime Proxetil (CPD) and Levofloxacin hemihydrate (LVX) in tablet dosage form. In Agilent – 1100/1200 Series, using C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5μ) column and with mobile phase composition of Phosphate buffer: Acetonitrile (pH 6.0) (50:50 v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min was used. Detection was car...
EVALUATION OF IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF POLYSACCHRIDE FRACTION OF INULA RACEMOSA, BOMBAX CEIBA AND ALLIUM SATIVUM
Inula racemosa, Bombax ceiba and Allium sativum are important class of drug known as “Rasayana”. The Polysaccharide fraction of all the three Drugs was isolated from hot water extraction yielding about 50-60% of fructan fraction (Polysaccharide). The polysaccharide fraction was evaluated for immunomodulatory activity by antibody titer and cellular immune response. The immunosuppressant drug az...
SALVIA VIRGATA JACQ. AND SILIBUM MARIANUM L. GAERTN DISPLAY SIGNIFICANT IRON-CHELATING ACTIVITY
In some disease like thalassemia major long-term transfusion alone inexorably produces the clinical problem of iron overload. Danshen and Milk thistle has been widely prescribed in traditional folk medicine for treatment of liver diseases. In this study we selected eight medicinal plants whose efficiencies had been previously demonstrated in treatment of liver diseases in ancient medicine were stu...
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE MATRIX TABLETS BY USING NATURAL POLYMERS
The purpose of present study was to design and evaluate matrix tablets of Matrix tablets of Diltiazem hydrochloride were prepared by using natural polymers like Gum karaya and Gum kondagogu. The pre formulation study was performed on combination of drug with polymers by FTIR suggested that drug and polymers were compatable. The matrix tablets were prepared by using by wet granulation method. ...
DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO CHARACTERISATION OF ORAL SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF GEMIGLIPTIN
This project involves in the development of sustained release matrix tablets of Gemigliptin. Which is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent designed for the management of non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The basic goal of therapy is to achieve a steady sate blood level that is therapeutically effective and non toxic for an extended period of time. The objective in dosage form design is ...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF CELIPROLOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET FORMULATION
Simple, specific, accurate and cost economic UV spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for determination of Celiprolol Hydrochloride. Instead of using organic solvents, mixture of dilute hydrochloric acid and water was used during method development and validation. The drug was extracted from tablet formulation with a mixture of water and hydrochloric acid. Stability of drug solut...
VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM PROPHYLAXIS IN MEDICAL INPATIENTS AND ADHERENCE TO GUIDELINE RECOMMENDATIONS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY
Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication during and after hospitalization for medical patients. Previous studies have shown that only about one third of high risk medical patients receives VTE prophylaxis. Guidelines such as the one produced by the American college of Chest Physicians (ACCP) are aimed at reducing hospital associated VTE. The objective of this study was to ...
EVALUATION OF ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF ACHYRANTHUS ASPERA LEAVES IN FEMALE MICE
Present study was conducted to know the antifertility potential of Achyranthus aspera leaves in female mice and has shown promising results of antiovulatory activity, estrogenic and constant teratogenic activities. Administrations of A. aspera leaves methanolic extract at the dosage 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body weight were subjected for testing their antiovulatory, estrogenic and teratogenic activit...
MOLECULAR DOCKING AND SITE DIRECTED MUTAGENIC APPROACH TO INVESTIGATE THE ROLE OF trp86 OF HUMAN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE WITH ORGANOPHOSPHATES
Docking and site directed mutagenesis approach was used to explore mode of binding and inhibition for human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and organophosphates (OPs). More than 200 OP molecules were investigated using Glide docking module of Schrodinger suit as co-crystal structure between two are not available in Protein Data Bank. In initial screening Trp86 was found to be involved in maximum Pi-C...
UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SALT AND EPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM
The present paper describes a new, simple, accurate, environmentally friendly, economic spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Diclofenac salt and Eperisone HCl in bulk and Capsule Dosage Form. Acetate buffer pH5.5 was used as solvent. The wavelength selected for analysis is 276nm & 261.20nm for estimation of Diclofenac Salt and Eperisone HCl respectively. Beers law was obeye...
EVALUATION OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF CHLORAMPHENICOL FOR SALMONELLA SPP. ISOLATED FROM ENTERIC FEVER CASES IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN IMPHAL
Chloramphenicol was introduced as the effective antibiotic in the treatment of typhoid fever. Resistance started to develop within two years of its introduction. The emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria is closely linked to the irrational use of antibiotics. The sensitivity/resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. had been varying with time and geographical locations. Changing trends...
EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIBIOTICS IN INCREASING THE FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND REDUCING THE ECONOMIC BURDEN IN FEMALE URINARY TRACT INFECTION PATIENTS
Background: Urinary tract infection is a common medical problem for women throughout their lifetime. Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extra urinary sources such as rectum or vagina. The treatment of recurrent urinary tract infection also inflicts an economic burden on the patient’s life. Henc...
PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND ITS LINK BETWEEN VARIOUS DISORDERS IN A SEMI URBAN DISTRICT IN KERALA
Overweight and obesity rates have been increasing sharply over recent decades in all industrialized countries, as well as in many lower income countries. According to the WHO World health statistics report 2012, globally one in six adults is obese and nearly 2.8 million individuals die each year due to overweight or obesity 1. Obesity is a close marker of important aspects of individual life style...
EVALUATION OF DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN IN INDOOR PATIENTS OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT AT TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN RAJASTHAN
Aims: To study and evaluate the pattern of drug utilization by using WHO/ INRUD indicators in medicine indoor patients. Methodology: A prospective cross sectional observational study was done on patients admitted in medicine indoor. Information regarding age, gender, occupation, income group, diagnosis, patient’s present/past medical history, number of days of hospitalization, treatment, any ADR...
PROPORTION OF THYROID DISEASES IN JHARKHAND
Thyroid disorders are an important public health issue in India and across worldwide. Earlier it has been reported that around 42 million people in India are suffering from thyroid disease. Although easy to detect and not very expensive to treat, this disease often remain undetected and untreated and thus affects other systems of the body. Studies from various research workers discuss the proporti...
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NATIVE AND MUTANT RHIZOBIUM ON GROWTH OF VIGNA MUNGO L.
The present study, carry out the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, were used to improve the yield in crop. The Rhizobium strains isolated from legumes plant Mimosa pudica L and this strain was mutated by using UV radiation. The plant growth hormones were detected by native as well as mutant Rhizobium strains by paper chromatography techniques. The same strains use in conducted to green ...
ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SELECTED MANGROVE PLANTS
Anti cancer activity of four selected mangrove plants Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Aegiceras corniculatum, Aegialitis rotundifolia and Lumnitzera racemosa against HepG2 cell line was studied. During the present investigation, crude methanol extracts of selected mangrove plants were prepared using soxhlet apparatus. In vitro anti cancer activity of mangrove plant extracts at various concentrations (10 to...
ANTIHAEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS AND PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA IN RED BLOOD CELLS OF HUMAN SUBJECTS RECEIVING CHRONIC ALCOHOL AND CIGARETTE SMOKING
Medicinal plants are natural gift to human lives to promote disease free healthy life. Worldwide believe that herbal remedies are safer and less damaging to the human body than synthetic drugs. The heartwood of Pterocarpussantalinus (PSB) and the fruit of Phyllanthusemblica (PEF) are important medicinal parts with several ethnomedicinal properties. Keeping in view their importance, this work was c...
EFFECT OF COMBINED VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION AND TREADMILL EXERCISE ON SPECIFIC HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE SEDENTARY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Background: Hemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen from the respiratory organs (lungs or gills) to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues). There it releases the oxygen to permit aerobic respiration to provide energy to power the functions of the organism in the process called metabolism. Several research studies have pointed out the role of vitamin supplementation and amelioration from exercise i...
EFFECTIVENESS OF TENDER COCONUT WATER (COCOS NUCIFERA L) AGAINTS PARASITEMIA INDEX AND HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS IN MALARIA INFECTION
Red blood cells (RBCs) is the primary target of human Plasmodium. Species. Occurs oxidative stress on uninfected and infected RBC and lead to hemoglobin (Hb) level decreased. The mechanism of decreased hemoglobin level are reduced survival time, diserythropoiesis and increased erythrolysis. Ascorbic acid and phenolics of TCW effectives to prevent RBCs from oxidative damage. Methods: The post test ...
STUDY OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has emerged as a common endocrine disorder in the world and the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is increasing at the same time. The thyroid hormones control insulin secretion. In hypothyroidism there is a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion by beta cells, and during thyrotoxicosis the insulin resistance will be increased. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with s...
PROFILE AND AWARENESS OF BLOOD DONORS: A STUDY IN BLOOD BANK OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF KOLKATA
Introduction: Blood is the only oxygen transporter in the body and is crucial in saving lives. Research has failed to find a true substitute for blood and blood components The attitude, beliefs, and level of knowledge associated with blood donation will determine whether potential donors will donate blood or not. Methodology: A descriptive epidemiological study with cross sectional study design wa...
PLATELET DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR IN DIABETIC LOWER EXTREMITY ULCER: A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE BLIND, PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY IN INDIAN CONDITION
Background-In September 2012, the world health organization reported a global prevalence of diabetes exceeding 300 million people, predicting a further 60-70% increase by the year 2030, which means India alone will have 100 million people by year 2030. Wound healing is problematic in diabetic patients. Encouraging results have shown that PDGF application is better than good wound care alone. But t...
EVALUATION OF LEVOFLOXACIN VS. NORFLOXACIN; EFFECT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE PROFILE IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Flouroquinolones (FQ) used commonly for treatment of community and hospital-acquired infections, has been prefixed with multiple adverse effects. Amongst them the glycemic variability has been attention seeking. Drug induced dysglycemia can be acute or persistent and severe too. The present study is designed to evaluate and compare the actions of Levofloxacin vs. Norfloxacin in altering blood gluc...
A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR THE TREATMENT OF DANDRUFF & ASSOCIATED ALOPECIA WITH EMULSION BASED GEL CONTAINING KETOCONAZOLE AND MINOXIDIL
Many antifungal drugs are used topically in order to treat fungal diseases. Among them Ketoconazole is used widely among these topical antifungal drugs for eradication of dandruff. Scalp with dandruff causes more hair fall than normal scalp and hair fall is treated by topical Minoxidil formulation. Aim of present work is to prepare a topical formulation containing both ketoconazole and minoxidil i...