Volume 8 (2017) - Issue 11, November
PHYTOTHERAPY IN FUNGI AND FUNGAL DISEASE: A REVIEW OF EFFECTIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS ON IMPORTANT FUNGAL STRAINS AND DISEASES
Infectious diseases are among the most important common diseases worldwide that bring stupendous costs for human community. Medicinal plants are considered a rich source of antimicrobial agents and therefore can be used as antimicrobial remedies because of producing secondary metabolites. This article was designed to review the effective medicinal plants on fungi and fungal disease. In this study,...
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is viral respiratory illness that was lately recognized in human. It was first testified in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and has since spread to numerous other countries, as well as the United State. Record people well-known as infected with MERS-CoV developed numerous acute respiratory illnesses, including fever, cough and shortness of breath. Middle East Respirato...
Now a day’s world health organisation encourage, recommends and promotes traditional, herbal remedies in health care science, because these drugs are easily available at low cost and are safe but herbal medicines are not a simple task since many factor influence biological efficacy and reproducible therapeutic effect. These day’s colonic diseases are commonly seen and needs lifelong medical at...
Cancer is a deliberating disease affecting people worldwide. Treatment of cancer has become a number one priority among medical specialists and different modes of treatment are being pursued. Various factors are involved in the proliferation of cancer thereby complicating its treatment. Certain enzymes or protein products within the cell can be up-regulated or down-regulated as the cancer progress...
Drug delivery via the oral mucous membrane is considered to be a promising alternative to the oral route. Sublingual dosage form is to be placed under the tongue and produce immediate systemic effect of enabling the drug absorbed directly through the mucosal lining of the mouth beneath the tongue which is very rich to vascular blood supply. Sublingual spray is useful when rapid onset of action is ...
Lagerstroemia speciosa is commonly known as crape myrtle belonging to the Lythraceae family. Lagerstroemia speciosa or Banaba is a medicinal tree traditionally used to lower blood sugar in the body. Its high content of corosolic acid makes it an effective anti-diabetic drug. Banaba is also recommended for kidney, bladder problems and hypertension. Leaves of the species have been traditionally used...
Swarna has been used all through these ages in various forms such as raw gold, pure metal, gold foils, red colloidal solution, Swarna Patra, Swarna Parpati and bhasma and other forms in varying dose and stands time tested. The procedure in which Swarna along with herbs are taken in the form of liquid, semi-solid or paste form by children orally is referred as Swarnaprashana. Swarnamritaprashana is...
DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND STABILITY STUDY OF NANOMETRIC SYSTEMS CONTAINING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE FOR DENTAL BLEACHING
The appreciation of appearance is increasingly widespread in the media and involves a smile-related beauty standard. Any change in teeth compromises the appearance and may reflect on the psychological and social behaviour of the human being. Consequently, there has been technological advance in aesthetic and technical restorative materials, such as dental bleaching, as well as the development of m...
A COMPARISON STUDY OF GRANULE AND DRY POWDER PROPERTIES OF CO-PROCESSED LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE AND CELLULOSE EXCIPIENTS USING THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES WITH WATER AS THE BINDER
Poor flow and cohesion are the most common problems encountered during manufacturing of a tablet. Tablets are produced by compression of formulation ingredients including the drug and excipients that improve processing properties of the product. Excipients may include fillers, diluents, binders, lubricants etc. which are added to impart good flow. Cellulose and Lactose have been widely used in Pha...
MICROWAVE – ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF FLAVONOIDS AND PROFILING FLAVONOID CYTOTOXICITY AGAINST Hep-G2 HUMAN CANCER CELL LINE
Hepatic cancer is one of the most causes for cancer death in the world. The aim of this work was to compare and survey the cytotoxic activity of a group of differently classed flavonoids and three plant extracts known for their high antioxidant activities against Hep-G2 human cancer cell line. Also to isolate some flavonoids from the plant extracts using easier, modified methods of higher yield an...
PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FERULIC ACID AGAINST LIVER CHOLESTASIS INDUCED BY ETHINYLESTRADIOL IN ADULT FEMALE RATS
The aim of the present article was to examine the protective effect of ferulic acid against liver cholestasis in female rats treated with ethinylestradiol (EE). The daily oral administration of the ferulic acid at a concentration of 40 mg/kg body weight for 15 days to rats treated with EE (100 µg/kg body weight for 5 days) resulted in a significant protection against EE-induced decrease in plasma...
DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION IMPURITY IN GRANISETRON DRUG SUBSTANCE
The objective of the present study is to identification of the oxidative degradation impurity in the Granisetron hydrochloride active ingredient and also the novel method developed based on the forced degradation studies performed on Granisetron Hydrochloride to well resolve the impurities from the API. Forced degradation studies were conducted as per ICH technical requirements prescribed stress c...
Arsenic is a well known pulmonary irritant and has been found associated with lung cancer in smelter workers exposed to arsenic via inhalation. The recent findings suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated during arsenic metabolism in inducing arsenic toxicity. Thus present work was designed to establish a correlation between arsenic induced oxidative stress, histopatholo...
The present study on Embilica officinalis, a common household remedy and the present study describes the inhibition of enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) with in vitro analyses and assenting in silico study to produce an effective phytoconstituents. The results explained the ethanolic extract of Embilica officinalis (EOEt) exhibited antioxidant and defensive oxidative stress and allied with its total ph...
THE EFFECTIVE ROLE OF URSOLIC ACID AND OCIMUM SANCTUM (LINN.) LEAF EXTRACT ON SOME MARKER CARBOHYDRATE METABOLITES IN MALE ALBINO RATS
Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpinoid compound, the major constituents of the Tulsi leaves, has been suggested to possess anti-fertility effect in rats of both sexes. This study has attempted to investigate the anti-fertility potentials of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract and ursolic acid in male albino rats. Three groups of male albino rats were taken, first group as control, second group were ad...
Pyrazinamide is an important anti-tubercular drug which shortens the course of TB chemotherapy. A direct injection liquid chromatographic method is developed for the determination of pyrazinamide in pharmaceutical formulation. The method includes a micellar mobile phase containing 0.15M sodium dodecyl sulphate and 1% butanol (v/v) buffered at pH3, a Princeton SPHER-100 C18 column (250mm × 4.6mm, ...
A PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SAFETY OF LENALIDOMIDE PLUS DEXAMETHASONE COMBINATION THERAPY VERSUS VAD (VINCRISTINE, DOXORUBICIN AND DEXAMETHASONE) REGIMEN IN THE TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE MYELOMA
Background: Lenalidomide plus Dexamethasone (Len-Dex) and VAD (Vincristine, Doxorubicin and Dexamethasone) regimen are the two common drug therapies involved in the treatment of Multiple myeloma. These two groups of drugs act by different mechanisms and their safety profile also varies. Objectives: To compare the safety of Len-Dex versus VAD regimen based on World Health Organization toxicity crit...
Surgery is one of the best options to treat cystic echinococcosis (CE, hydatid cyst). To date, surgeon used different protoscolicidal drugs to eliminate of protoscoleces during CE surgery, but most of these agents have some serious side effects. The current study aims to explore the in-vitro protoscolicidal effects of Pistacia atlantica leave extract against hydatid cyst proto-scolices. Proto-sc...
In the present study Terminalia bellirica seeds, were evaluated for the In vitro anti-oxidant activity and phytochemical evaluation using different solvents such as methanol, ethylacetate, chloroform and aqueous. The in vitro antioxidant activity of Terminalia. bellirica is screened by standard antioxidant assays such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydroxyl radicals and Total an...
PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 3-CYANOPRIDINASE RESPONSIBLE FOR PRODUCTION OF NICOTINIC ACID
A thermostable bacterial 3-cyanopyridinase enzyme has been identified that catalyze 3-cyanopyridine to nicotinic acid and ammonia. Nicotinic acid is mainly used in food, pharmaceutical and biochemical industries. This study was undertaken to optimize the purification of 3-cyanopyridinase enzyme and characterization of its various kinetic properties. The partial purification of enzyme has been carr...
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF DREGEA VOLUBILIS (LINN. F.) BENTH EX. HOOK.F.
Over time, ethnomedicinal plants have been praised hugely for the presence of diverse pharmacologically active phytochemicals and have been used traditionally in primary medication to cure various human diseases or disorders. In the present study, different phytochemical constituents were analysed and free radical scavenging activities of Dregea volubilis stem bark (DvSB) extracts were assayed. Di...
FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF LIQUISOLID TABLETS OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL USING 32 FACTORIAL DESIGN
Olmesartan medoxomil, a BCS class II drug, is an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hypertension. A liquisolid tablet of Olmesartan medoxomil was developed to improve its dissolution and flow properties. The commonly used carrier Avicel was compared with Neusilin. Because of higher liquid load factor, Neusilin was selected as a carrier for further optimization study using...
Liver manage different critical metabolic functions. The point of this review is to think about hepatoprotective movement of lycopene and non lycopene containing part of tomato concentrate to investigate the likelihood that a few constituents other than lycopene may be in charge of hepatoprotective action. Writing uncovered that plant containing Carotenoids, Lycopene, Carotene, Xanthophylls, Xanth...
DRUG DESIGN OF CORTICOTROPHIN RELEASING FACTOR RECEPTOR-1 ANTAGONIST FROM DERIVATIVES OF α ASARONE BY MOLECULAR DOCKING
Stress is one of the most significant health problem in modern society. This paves way for the researchers to focus and investigate into the biological pathways linking stress and health. Hence the goal of the present study is to discover novel drug derivatives from the active principle α asarone of the plant Acorus calamus Linn. (ACL) which was found to have antioxidant &antidepressor effect...
COMPARATIVE HPLC ANALYSIS OF CAMPTOTHECIN AND QUERCETIN CONTENTS IN ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF GRACILARIA CORTICATA (J. AGARDH) J. AGARDH
To investigate the content of polar auxin transport inhibitor flavonoid quercetin (Q) and topo-isomerase I-DNA inhibitor alkaloid camptothecin (CPT) from Gracilaria corticata (GC), red seaweed from Surathkal beach, Karnataka a comparative study was carried out. Methods: The content of Q and CPT was quantified in the ethanolic extract of GC using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a micro-emulgel formulation for topical delivery of Terbinafine. Terbinafine showed highest solubility in propylene glycol among the available oil phase. Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 400 were used as surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Using pseudo-ternary phase diagram 1:2 ratio of surfactant: co-surfactant was selected. ...
The present investigation was under taken to evaluate the anti-urolithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis leaves in experimental animals. Ricinus communis Leaves were evaluated for anti-urolithiatic activity using Urolithiasis is a common disorder with higher recurrence rate in men. Super saturation of crystals with imbalance between levels of promoters and inhibitors of stone ...
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACTS OF TRANSFORMED SOYBEAN IN 3T3-L1 PRE-ADIPOCYTES CELL LINE
The present study was initiated to quantify the Isoflavones content that accumulated in soybean transgenics with RnPPARγ gene by using high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of methanolic leaves extract of transformed soybean in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. The RnPPARγ transgenic soybean variety JS335 was developed and transgenics were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot techniques. T...
ANTI-BIOFILM ACTIVITY OF MIXED ‘TRANSITION METAL (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu AND Zn) – CALCIUM TARTARATE’ COMPLEXES
A series of six new, mixed transition metal and alkaline earth metal complexes of the general formulation [MM/(C4H4O6)2.xH2O] (where M= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, M/ = Ca ) are synthesized by using bidentate tartarate ligand and are characterized by different analytical techniques such as elemental analysis, TGA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, magnetic susceptibility study, UV-visible spectroscopy etc. All synth...
TARGETING INFLAMMATORY PROTEINS USING IMMUNOMODULATOR FOR REGULATION OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA MICROENVIRONMENT
Inflammation plays fundamental role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation, progression and metastasis. The over expression of pro-inflammatory factors like Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), selectin, (IL)-6, nuclear factor-κB, TGF-β can alter the hepatic microvasculature. Natural products such as polyphenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, and flavonols have the ability to interface microenviron...
Usnic acid is lichen metabolite. Lichen species are the source of usnic acid. It has Antitumor and Anti-proliferation activity. Usnic acid is poorly water soluble drug. So its dissolution and bioavailability is poor. To enhance dissolution and bioavailability of usnic acid nanotechnology has been adopted. So in this study usnic acid powder was formulated as a nanoparticle with the help of PLGA pol...
TERBINAFINE INCORPORATED SODIUM HYALURONATE MICROSPHERE MUCO-ADHESIVE SYSTEM FOR VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS
The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate novel bioadhesive vaginal microspheres containing Terbinafine (TBH) in order to provide long-term therapeutic activity at the site of infection and prove the same using in vitro anti fungal activity of the same using Candida albicans. Microspheres were prepared by the Solvent extraction technique using sodium hyaluronate and Arlacel ...
Naproxen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug suggested for the long term treatment of disease conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis poses an immediate risk of stomach ulceration. To avoid this risk, a proton pump inhibitor is often prescribed along with it. In the present study, Naproxen (500mg) is prepared in combination with Pantoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor as a mul...
The present work deals with formulation of topical gels containing aqueous extract of P. acerifolium seeds and also evaluation of prepared gels against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of various P. acerifolium seed extracts was measured through determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by cube dilution method and zone of inhibition by disc diffusi...
SOLID DISPERSION OF ORAL CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL TABLETS FOR HYPERTENSION: DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERISATION
The main aim of this study was to prepare solid dispersion of Candesartan cilexetil so as to improve its solubility and dissolution characteristics in order to enhance its oral bioavailability. Solid dispersion was formed by fusion method. 9 formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using different carriers i.e. Sorbitol, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 6000) and Poloxamer 407 at different ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1...
In present study antiproliferative activity of Rutin was evaluated on HeLa cell line induced cervical cancer in rats. For this study, 30 rats were divided into 5 groups and each group containing 6 rats each. Group I- normal saline treatment for 45 days, Group II- cancer cells (1×106 cells in 0.1ml/rat), Group III– 5-Fluorouracil (20mg/kg + 1×106 cells in 0.1ml/rat), Group IV- Rutin (50mg/kg + ...
EFFECTIVENESS OF AMLA, JAGGERY AND PUMPKIN LEAVES EXTRACT ON THE LEVEL OF HAEMOGLOBIN, VITAMIN C AND IRON AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
Background: Iron deficiency anaemia poses a burden on the limited health care delivery system. Current pharmacological anti anaemic agents cause undesirable side effect like nausea, vomiting dark stool etc. Herbal remedies offer the potential for alternative treatment strategies. This study was therefore conducted in an effort to formulate a food based extract prepared from plants products. Object...
ETHNOBOTANICAL AND ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA, LYONIA OVALIFOLIA, SARCOCOCCA SALIGNA AND TARAXACUM OFFICINALE
Indian medicinal plants and traditional knowledge have been an integral part of our lifestyle since ages and now became an important source for natural product research (NPR) and development. Due to its knowing ability and applications, this knowledge has long been used as a thriving source for discovery of new drug molecules. This study was conducted under the routine drug development program of ...
Pomegranate fruits are a very rich source of antioxidants, Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), potassium, flavonoids and have numerous health benefits. It may help decrease the risk of having a heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes. These characteristics of pomegranate have great impact on the quality of wines. So there might be a scope for large scale manufacturing of the pomegranate wine as it ha...
Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard) is a large native earthworm which is commonly used as fish bait and feed of chicken in Tripura. Eutyphoeus tissue comprising of both body wall and gut wall contains 63.98% protein, 15.79% carbohydrate, 7.78% fat, 1.90% crude fiber and total ash 10.55%. The result showed that essential amino acid of earthworm tissue was dominated by lysine (1.45 g /100 g), methionine (1...
GLYCINE AND GOLD NANOPARTICLES FOR THE ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF AN ANTI-PARKINSON’S DRUG IN A TERTIARY MIXTURE
A sensitive sensor for the electrochemical determination of anti-Parkinson’s disease drug; entacapone (EN) was constructed using carbon paste electrode modified via electro-polymerization of glycine (GL) incorporate gold nanoparticles (GNP) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Different voltammetric techniques, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) te...
In the present study, the inhibitory effect of crude ethanolic extracts from four plants viz. Bauhinia racemosa Lamk (stem bark and roots), Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch. (roots), Kirganelia reticulata (Poir) Baill. (Stem bark) and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. (whole plant) were undertaken against some test bacteria and test fungi using Disc Diffusion Method. The screening data indic...
Multiple causes of liver diseases that will affect the health related quality of life and are dispersed globally. It is difficult to diagnose the different stages of liver disease. Scores like Child Pugh Score(CPS), Model For End Stage Liver Disease(MELD), Monoethylglycinexylidine(MEGX), Von willibrand factor (vWF) etc are used to detect the progression of liver disease like hepatitis, cirrhosis, ...
Betel leaves have been eaten traditionally as a quid in many South East Asian countries. Its taste and aroma is because of the presence of essential oils, namely eugenol. Eugenol is an important phytochemical with analgesic, anti inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Eugenol further finds applications in cosmetics and food industry. Betel leaves being perishable, become a major concern for agro...
PERCENTAGE OF PATIENT AFFORDABILITY AND ELIGIBILITY FOR ANTIVIRAL THERAPY ACCORDING TO CHILD PUGH SCORE IN HEPATITS “C” VIRUS (HCV) POSITIVE PATIENTS
Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. Acute HCV infection is usually asymptomatic and is only very rarely associated with life threatening disease. About 15-45% of infected persons spontaneously clear the virus within 6 months of infection without any treatment, whereas remaining 55-85 % were develop chronic HCV infection and risk of cirrhosis occur. A prospective, observ...
LEISHMANICIDAL EFFECTS OF OLEA EUROPAEA LINN. EXTRACT AGAINST PROMASTIGOTE AND AMASTIGOTE FORMS OF SOME LEISHMANIA SPP
Here, we evaluated the in vitro antileishmanial activities of Olea europaea linn. leave extract (OLE) on some Leishmania spp. OLE (0–160 ?g/mL) was considered against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MHOM/IR/2002/Mash2) and L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macrophage model, respectively. The obtained findings demonstrated that OLE significantly (?&l...
The present work concern the production of activated carbon of reasonably good properties from cheep sources. The results of preparation of activated carbon from compressed wood sheets residues used in the furniture industry are presented. The preparation method entails the conversion of the wood sheets to a small size pellets and reacting these pellets with the activating agent FeCl3 (3% w/w). Th...
CHARACTERISTICS OF DIGESTION IN HIGH-PRODUCING COWS: DEPENDENCE ON THE FAT CONСENTRATION IN THE RATION DRY MATTER
Lipid metabolism in animals has recently gained growing interest among researchers. Among organic compounds, it is only protein and nucleic acids that for a long time have remained in primary focus of research, though lipids are now known to be essential for the origin of life and development of organic forms. Metabolic processes are very active in the bodies of high-producing cows. Large amounts ...
COMPARISON OF INCIDENCE, RISK FACTORS, OUTCOME AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY BETWEEN CANDIDA ALBICANS AND NON-ALBICANS CANDIDA SPECIES IN PATIENTS OF CANDIDEMIA IN INTENSIVE CARE SETTING
Candidemia is associated with a high mortality. The most common cause of candidemia is Candida albicans, though infections by non-albicans Candida are being increasingly reported. The present study was conducted to determine the incidence of candidemia, the risk factors and antifungal susceptibility in intensive care unit (ICU). This study was conducted from January 2012 to June 2013 and prospecti...
The present study is based on the evaluation of preliminary phytochemical screening, antitumor, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of leaf oil of Wrightia tinctoria (Oil B). The oil B from Wrightia tinctoria leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening tests by using standard procedures. The free radical scavenging activity of both the extracts was measured by using the 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picry...
EFFECT OF PARTIAL FISTULECTOMY WITH KSHARASOOTRA APPLICATION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BHAGANDARA (FISTULA-IN-ANO) – A CASE REPORT
Management of fitula-in-ano by fistulectomy is a surgical challenge due to its high re-occurrence rate. Application of Ksharasootra has been indicated in ano-rectal disorders particularly in the management of Bhagandara (Fistula-in-ano) in Indian system of medicine. Ksharasootra, a medicated thread, was prepared with Apamarga Kshara (Ash of Achyranthus aspera Linn.), latex of Snuhi (Euphorbia neri...