Volume 10 (2019) - Issue 7, July
Dementia is a cognitive decline which interferes with normal psychological functioning and behavioral patterns. Dementia is as a group of neurodegenerative diseases, which affects about 1 to 4% of the world’s population over 65 years old. Several aetiologies are involved in the pathogenesis of dementia. Patient suffering or suffered from cardiovascular diseases (like hypertension, hypercholester...
AN UPDATE ON NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES, IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO MODELS FOR TUBERCULOSIS AND TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS
Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection which is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is next to AIDS and causes morbidity and mortality. These bacteria can stay in the host’s body for decades. In this article we have mentioned about the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis followed by the pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis wherein the bacteria first enter to the lungs which...
Breast cancer (BC) is the foremost cause of deaths among women worldwide. Plants contain diverse bioactive phytochemicals which have been explored by researchers all over the world for their cancer preventive potential. The present review tabulates in-vitro tested plants during 2014-17 against breast cancer cell line. We have collected data of 56 angiosperm families (117 plant species) which was s...
A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ACNE, ITS PATHOGENESIS, TREATMENT, IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO MODELS FOR INDUCTION AND EVALUATION METHODS
Acne is a common inflammatory disorder which is common among the adolescent age groups. Even though it is not a life-threatening disease but it affects the patient’s self-esteem. Additionally, they have also gone into depression and suicidal ideation. Based on the severity it can be classified into several types. Various factors are responsible for the occurrence of acne. The main factors are di...
EXPLORATION OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF AN UNDERUTILIZED LEGUME CROP, MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM (LAM.) VERDC. (HORSE GRAM): A REVIEW
Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. also known as horse gram or Kulthi bean has been an underutilized legume crop with immense medicinal importance/potential. It is considered as a rich source of protein, vitamins, and minerals. It is characteristically known for its biotic and abiotic resistance, e.g., resistant to drought, salt, and insects. There are umpteen references available in the traditio...
Costus pictus is rhizomatous medicinal herb, commonly known as “Insulin plant,” well known for its therapeutic properties. Many important and beneficial aspects of C. pictus are reported, which includes anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-fertility, anti-helminthic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory properties. The present review focus on the literature survey based on the...
Benzothiazole derivatives have a wide interest because of their diverse biological activities and clinical use. This bicyclic compound consists of a fusion of benzene nucleus with a five-membered ring comprising nitrogen and sulphur atoms. It is a vital Pharmacophore and privileged structure in medicinal chemistry and exhibits various useful therapeutic activities such as anti-tubercular, antimicr...
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive metabolic disorder affecting nearly 20% females, globally. Though Rotterdam consensus is widely used for assessment, it lacks definite diagnostic guidelines. Absence of PCOS guidelines for adolescent and post-menopausal women might be influencing the prevalence data. The prevalence varied with ethnicities and found high in urban than rural. Amon...
DUAL ROLE OF ARJUNOLIC ACID AND B12 IN MITIGATING SODIUM ARSENITE INDUCED MALFUNCTION OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
The present study was proposed to delineate the curative role of arjunolic acid and vitamin B12 alone or in combination against arsenic induced oxidative stress and female reproductive dysfunction. The Wistar strain adult female rats were treated with sodium arsenite at the dose of 1.0 mg/100 gm body weight orally for first eight days. Next eight days rats were treated with arjunolic acid (1.0 mg/...
NFκβ INHIBITION MECHANISM OF DEOXYELEPHANTOPIN AND ISODEOXYELE-PHANTOPIN WITH QSAR AND MOLECULAR DOCKING
Deoxyelephantopin and isodeoxyelephantopin are member of a group of compounds, sesquiterpene lactones, that include proven anticancer agents against many types of cancer cells. Many sesquiterpene lactones suppress cancers by inhibiting NFκβ. This study explores the inhibitory interaction between deoxyelephantopin and isodeoxyelephantopin on NFκB using QSAR and molecular docking. Physicochemical...
Expansion of secondary metabolites from marine resources mainly from echinoderms has been a subject of intense research due to massive bioactive nature. Isolation of new secondary metabolites from sea stars has been found to be highly polar. An initial assessment and validation of these compounds are necessary to assess human risk. Zebrafish are used as a part of a diverse phase of the drug discov...
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF DRUGS AND PHARMACEUTICALS USING CHLORAMINE-T AND SAFRANIN-O DYE BY AN OXIDATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD
Simple, sensitive and selective methods are developed for the spectrophotometric determination of drugs, viz., Cetirizine hydrochloride, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Esmolol hydrochloride, Gemifloxacin, Moxifloxacin and Phenylephrine Hydrochloride based on their reactivity towards Chloramine-T (ChL-T). The method is based on the oxidation of drugs by ChL-T (Excess amount) in presence of acidic medium...
THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF TAMARINDUS INDICA EXTRACTS ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA IN-VIVO
Entamoeba histolytic is a protozoan parasite which causes amoebiasis, about 50 million people are affected yearly, and it caused more than 100,000 deaths per year. The study investigates the therapeutic effect of ethanolic and aqueous Tamarindus indica leaves extracts on infected rats with Entamoeba histolytica. Twenty-one Rattus norvegicus rats were infected with Entamoeba histolytica and divided...
IN-VITRO PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIALS OF ORTHOSIPHON GLABRATUS BENTH LEAF IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT FRACTIONS
In an attempt to reveal the medicinal values of Orthosiphon glabratus Benth leaf, which claims to have traditional use for the management of diabetes. In-vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of Orthosiphon glabratus leaf in different solvent fractions were studied by utilizing DPPH, ABTS, and α-amylase, α-glucosidase inhibitory methods respectively. A preliminary phytochemical study sho...
Green tea represents a popular beverage worldwide due to its high polyphenol and antioxidant activity. It is commonly brewed along with vitamin C source which plays a positive role in maintaining its antioxidant potential. Orange juice can serve as an excellent medium for supplementation of green tea for the formulation of nutraceutical nectar by enriching drink with vitamin C and overcoming the a...
This study was carried out to evaluate the antiviral activities of methanol and aqueous extracts prepared from the flowers and stems of Spartium junceum L., used as herbal medicine in the treatment of gastric ulcer in Turkish folk medicine, against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The maximum non-toxic concentration of the extracts (MNTC) was determined against Vero cells by using the serial t...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPTLC FINGERPRINTING PROFILE OF STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATA
Objective: To establish the preliminary phytochemical screening and fingerprint profile of stem bark Extracts of Maytenus emarginata by using high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done, physical constants were evaluated, and HPTLC studies were carried out. CAMAG make HPTLC system equipped with Linomat 5 applicator, TLC scanne...
In the present investigation, the chalcone intermediates are synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction between acetanilide and appropriate aromatic aldehydes. Further, these chalcone intermediates were cyclized with phenylhydrazine in glacial acetic acid to give new pyrazolines derivatives using ultrasonic irradiation with higher yields in lesser time. All the synthesized derivatives ar...
IN-VITRO COMPARATIVE ANTICANCER ACTIVITY STUDY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TRADITIONALLY USED MEDICINAL PLANT OF MIZORAM
Objective: The present study explores the anticancer potentially of plant sample based on the evidence from the ethnomedicinal practice of the plant. The main objective was to find out the in-vitro comparative anticancer activity of the various methanolic extract. Method: Plants samples such as Mikania micrantha, Allium hookeri, Eryngium foetidium, and Alpinea galanga were collected, identified, a...
The present investigation was carried out the effect of petrochemical effluent on hematological parameters in freshwater fish, Labeo rohita using the standard method. The petrochemical effluent has the potential to cause developmental effects in fish. Blood offers important profile to study the toxicological impact on animal tissues. Hematology is used as an index of fish health status under diffe...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN AND CLOPIDOGREL BY SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION METHOD IN CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM
The current work is intended towards the development of a simple, rapid and precise UV-Visible spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of Atorvastatin (ATR) and Clopidogrel (CP) present in the marketed formulation using UV simultaneous equation. Methanol was used as a solvent and the absorbance of the drug was measured at the absorbance maxima (λmax) of Atorvastatin & Clopid...
NEW STABILITY INDICATING UPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF DAPAGLIFLOZIN AND SAXAGLIPTIN
A new precise, selective, accurate and rapid Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic stability indicating method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of Dapagliflozin and Saxagliptin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved with HSS 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 m size column. The optimized mobile phase consisting of Phosphat...
CELL VIABILITY AND CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF ACANTHOPHORA SPICIFERA (RED SEAWEED) ON HT29 COLON CANCER CELL LINE
Acanthophora Spicifera is a species of marine red seaweed and in the family Rhodomelaceae. They were freshly collected from Mandapam Coastal Area, Rameswaram Tamil Nadu, India and rinsed in seawater and packed in aseptic bags for further proceedings to the laboratory. Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in the marine environment. It has been used as antioxidant and antimutagen. The results ...
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF, SEED AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI L.
Syzygium cumini L. belongs to the family Myrtaceae is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases particularly diabetes. The present study has been focused on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles of leaf, seed and fruit extracts of S. cumini and to observe their antimicrobial activity. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by performing UV-Vis spectroph...
Objective: To ensure the basic principles of drug utilization and the use and safety of blood thinning agents in tertiary care hospital. Experimental design: The study included 224 patients’ and was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and we were focused on to find out the drug-drug interactions of anticoagulants, antiplatelet, and thrombolytic agents, to study the major area involvement for b...
EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF MONOCHORIA VAGINALIS LEAVES ON Hep2 AND HeLa CELL LINES
The entire plant (Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) C. Presl.) except root is being used as a vegetable and has been used in traditional Indian system of medication for treating various diseases. But there are not many scientific data on the antioxidant and anticancer activity of M. vaginalis. Therefore, we aimed to determine the in-vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanolic extract of ...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NEW HPLC-UV METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CETIRIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND PHENYLEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET FORMULATION
A simple, rapid, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection has been developed and validated according to the ICH guidelines for the quantitation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride (CET) and Phenylephrine Hydrochloride (PHEN) in the tablet dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out in a Zorbax eclipse plus, C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 µm particle size...
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF INDONESIAN CURCUMA ROTUNDA RHIZOME AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TOWARDS 1,1-DIPHENYL-2-PICRYLHYDRAZYL (DPPH)
Curcuma rotunda, locally known as temu kunci, has been reported containing flavonoids in its rhizome that exhibit antioxidant activity. This study aimed to isolate secondary metabolites from the polar fraction of acetone extract from C. rotunda rhizome and to determine their antioxidant activities. The secondary metabolites were isolated using various chromatography methods yielded two fractions. ...
THE HEPATIC CYP3A4 UPREGULATED INCREASED METABOLISM IN RESPONSE TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AT HIGH ALTITUDE
The present study was designed to assess the pharmacokinetics of drug metabolized by hepatic cytochrome 3A4 (CYP3A4) in human volunteers with physical activity at the high altitude hypobaric hypoxic environment. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form 7 (IPAQ SF-7) was used to measure the physical activity. The total of 24 healthy male volunteers participated in this study; fo...
The purpose of the research was to assess the prescribing pattern in geriatrics and to analyze the prescription using World Health Organization (WHO) core prescribing indicators and American Geriatric Society (AGS) Beers criteria 2012 for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. This prospective drug utilization study was conducted for a period of 6-months. Patients of either gend...
Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats are the centerpiece of a robust adaptive bacterial immune system that forms the basis for the CRISPR-Cas9 genetic engineering technology. CRISPR-associated protein-9 (Cas9) is part of this immune system that seeks out, cuts, and degrades viral DNA. By taking advantage of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, a tool has been developed to delete or insert DNA in...
The NSAIDs are popular in reducing acute and chronic inflammation as they have no abuse liability. QSAR (Quantitative structure-activity relationship) approach is a very useful and widespread technique for drug design. 2D QSAR models are based on descriptors derived from a two-dimensional graph representation of a molecule. The 2D QSAR study was performed on selected twenty-four compounds from syn...
EFFECT OF EDAPHIC FACTORS ON MAJOR SECONDARY METABOLITES OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA AND NEEM GUDUCHI WITH RESPECT TO THEIR IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT
Tinospora cordifolia is a requisite medicinal plant, has been used for the treatment of various diseases and has been recommended for improving the immune system mentioned in Ayurveda and other systems of medicine as a monoherbal or polyherbal preparation. Nonetheless, Ayurvedic and other ancient literature reported that Tinospora cordifolia growing on neem plant gives better immunomodulatory acti...
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PERILLYL ALCOHOL (POH) A MONOTERPENE: ON HIGH FAT DIET INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS A PRELIMINARY STUDY
To assess the effect of Perillyl alcohol (POH) on the lipid profile of high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia in white male albino Wistar rats, the hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding cholesterol-rich high-fat diet for 45 days in male albino Wistar rats. The decline in the triglycerides, LDL and VLDL was significant at 100 & 200 mg/kg dose of POH compared to Atorvastatin group. The decrease ...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPTLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF APIXABAN IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
A simple, accurate, precise, and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for determination of Apixaban (API) in bulk drug and the pharmaceutical formulation was developed and validated. The separation was performed on aluminum plates, pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase using toluene: methanol (7:3 v/v), as mobile phase. Densitometric measurement of t...
AN IN-VITRO PHAGE THERAPY – IN OPPOSITION TO FOOD POISON ENGENDERED STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS VIA PRECISE BACTERIOPHAGE FROM TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU
Staphylococcus aureus, the facultative anaerobic and opportunistic Bacterium has been characterized as the pathogen with diversified molecular adaptability leading to the emergence of MDR. Advanced use of alternate antibiotics is increasing the scenario of the emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to Oxacillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) after that generating a...
A NEW ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVE COMPOUND FROM THE ENDOLICHENIC FUNGUS, PENICILLIUM CITRINUM INHABITING THE LICHEN, PARMOTREMA SP.
Context: Endolichenic fungi are the microorganisms living inside the thalli of the lichen and found to be a new source of bioactive secondary metabolites. This is an underutilized source of bioactive compounds and has not been studied extensively. Genus, Parmotrema is one of the foliose lichens with largely rounded lobes and occurs on rocks of rain forests, sub-montane and montane forests in Sri L...
THE EFFECT OF MEDIA AND FERMENTATION CONDITION TOWARD ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF BACILLUS SP. DA11 ASSOCIATED WITH SARCOPHYTON SP.
The emergence of antibiotic-multidrug resistant microorganisms is an essential issue in the health sector. Consequently, the exploration of new antimicrobial compounds from many promising resources is urgently required. Soft coral-associated bacteria are potential as antimicrobial compound producers. This study aims to get the best medium and fermentation conditions in the production of secondary ...
Arunachal Pradesh (AP), the North-eastern state of India, is a natural habitat of 550 species of orchids including 37 species of medicinal importance. Though these plants are used extensively by locals for various ailments, very few scientific investigations have been conducted to establish their pharmacological potential. In the present study, we selected Tropidia curculioides, a relatively unexp...
SURVEILLANCE AND ASSESSMENT OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AND COMPARISON WITH THE RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES IN A SECONDARY CARE HOSPITAL
Adverse drug reactions are considered to be among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Approximately 5-25% of hospital admissions are due to ADR’s, and 6-15% of hospitalized patients experience serious adverse drug reactions (SADR’s), causing significant prolongation of hospital stay. The adverse drug reactions reported were classified based on Wills and Brown classification, Causali...
L-arginase (EC 126.96.36.199) is a therapeutic enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. L-arginase is of keen interest due to its significance as an anti-cancer mediator against auxotrophic cancers. This enzyme is widely distributed and expressed in organisms like fungi, plants, non-chordates, and chordates, however very scarce report is available for L-arginase from ...
Oxidative stress has been recommended as a contributory factor in complication and progression of diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of Rhizophora mucronata Leaves on streptozotocin generated oxidative stress induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control, diabetic untreated and diabetic treated with ethanolic extract of Rh...
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF ORAL ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN COMBINATION WITH METFORMIN ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with cognitive impairment. The antidiabetic treatment found to delays the impairment. However, the benefit is due to antidiabetic drugs, or control of blood sugar is debatable. Most of the drug-based studies used monotherapy, which contradicts the clinical practice. This study aims to assess cognitive function in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients on metformin...
The pharmaceutical market of the Russian Federation receives medicines produced both in compliance with the international standards of good manufacturing practice and those coming from developing countries where manufacturers operate according to their national regulations. Asparagus racemosus is a medicinal plant that is widely used in oriental medicine and is included in the Ayurvedic pharmacope...
EFFICACY OF SANKHAHOLI (EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN.) IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION: A RANDOMIZED STANDARD CONTROL CLINICAL STUDY
Background: Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and kidney failure, thereby cause of deaths and disability worldwide. The most predominant type of HTN is essential hypertension (HTN). Unani scholars mentioned clinical manifestations and management of hypertension and have documented it under the context of ‘Imtila.’ The drug Sankhaholi (Evolvu...
RECOVERY OF DIMINISHED SPERMATOGENESIS BY RESVERATROL AGAINST THE PYRETHROID, LAMBDA CYHALOTHRIN-INDUCED REPRO-TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
Lambda-cyhalothrin [-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] is one of the type II synthetic broad-spectrum pyrethroids used to protect the crops against insects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on male reproductive health in lambda-cyhalothrin exposed rats. Exposure of male rats to lambda-...
MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF CROCUS SATIVUS WITH DNA BARCODING TECHNOLOGY
Saffron is derived from the flower of Crocus sativus as a dried stigma. Kashmiri saffron is the most expensive herb and in sky-scraping demand by herbal and pharmaceutical industries due to which the illegal trade is prevailing in the industry to earn instant Profit. Detection of adulteration and comparison of genuine saffron vs. fake saffron is the crucial aspect which needs a scientific solution...