Volume 3 (2012) - Issue 1, January
Cephalosporins are the most important type of antibiotics used vary widely. Analysis of these antibiotics is challenge because of their sensitivity and instability to different conditions. The present review is extended to find out different HPLC methods used for analysis for cephalosporins in formulations and biological fluids. The chromatographic conditions used for the analysis as well as analy...
Excipients form a bulk of the finished dosage forms. They affect various properties in the finished products like patient acceptability, dissolution, bioavailability, rate of release of active ingredients etc. Now a day’s many new means of drug delivery systems are coming up which require new excipients to improve the characteristics of the dosage form. Further new excipients are being discovere...
O. turpethum is the source of the drug known as Turpeth or Indian Jalap and it is widely grown throughout India and it is occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornament. It has been used as a traditional medicine in many countries. The root is prescribed in scorpion sting and snake bite. The roots are bitter, acrid, sweet, thermogenic, purgative, carminative, antihelmintic, expectorant, antipyr...
Solid dispersions have been employed to enhance the dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs. Many approaches have been investigated for the preparation of solid dispersions. This paper reports the various solubility enhancement strategies in solid dispersion. The approaches described are fusion (melting), solvent evaporation, lyophilization (freeze drying), melt agglomeration process, extr...
The buccal mucosa has been investigated for local drug therapy and the systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides and other drugs that are subjected to first-pass metabolism or are unstable within the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. The mucosa of the oral cavity presents a formidable barrier to drug penetration, and one method of optimizing drug delivery is by the use of adhesive dosage forms a...
Vitamin A is an essential vitamin which is required in the vision process, epithelial maintenance, mucous secretion and reproduction obtained from carotenoids. Carotenoids have been considered to provide benefits in age-related diseases, against some forms of cancer (in especial lung cancer), strokes, macular degeneration, and cataracts. Till date, more than 600 carotenoids are known and 50 of t...
Stem cell research has been hailed for the potential to revolutionize the future of medicine with the ability to regenerate damaged and diseased organs. On the other hand, stem cell research has been highly controversial due to the ethical issues concerned with the culture and use of stem cells derived from human embryos. This article presents an overview of what stem cells are, what roles they pl...
Drug delivery technologies are patent protected formulation technologies that modify drug release profile, absorption, distribution and elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well as patient convenience and compliance .Delivery devices already exist that can release two drugs, but the timing of the release must be built into the device and it cannot be controlled ...
Traditional remedies and preparation used for the treatment of skin, or the folk preparations used for healing skin diseases are known to be as Cosmeceuticals and cosmetics. The desire of gook looking and to be beautiful gave a huge market for the cosmetics. This is not a new tradition for human to look good; it has been a long ancient follow through for both the sexes to be presentable by beauty....
Oral route is the easiest and most convenient route of drug administration, being non invasive and cost effective, thereby leading worldwide drug delivery market. But major problem encountered in oral formulations (as estimated more than 50 % of oral formulations are found to be poorly aqueous soluble), is low bioavailability, giving rise to further problems like, high inter and intra subject vari...
Chromolaena odorata or siam weed is regarded as one of the most harmful weeds present on earth. Many efforts are being made for the control of this weed. But, none of them have provided any significant success. It has been utilized in the traditional medicinal systems for its curative properties for centuries. Some of the current studies have revealed its medicinal properties which have lead to an...
Nanotechnology is science of matter and material that deal with particle size in nanometers. Nanotechnology has received a lot of attention with never-seen-before enthusiasm because of its future potential. It has provided fine lined diagnosis and focus treatment of disease at molecular level. This technology offers the advantage of protecting drugs from degradation; reduce the number of doses req...
The present study was designed to investigate the antidiarrhoeal potential of 80% ethanol extract of aerial parts of Derris trrifoliata (DT) on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out using standard procedures. Oral administration of ethanol extract of DT (500 and 1000 mg/kg) significantly, and dose-depen...
EXOGENOUS HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) IMPROVES THE ENDOTHELIAL AND RENAL EXCRETORY FUNCTIONS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED WKY DIABETIC RATS
Nephropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes. Hydrogen sulfide(H2S)has been implicated in controlling the renal glomerular (vascular) and tubular functions. This study investigates the metabolism of H2S and its effect on the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced in WKY rats by streptozotocin in two groups. One diabetic group received NaHS, a H2S...
STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AT LIBREVILLE (GABON): AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL APPROACH
This work was conducted at a Libreville herbal market located in Peyrie in order to inventory plants used by people for the management of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and to evaluate their pharmacological effects. The method of preparation and modes of administration were also recorded. Twenty nine herbalists were interviewed using questionnaires. Twenty two plant species belonging...
CAUSE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUG CHANGES AMONG PATIENTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AT THE ART CENTER IN DESSEI REGIONAL REFERRAL HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA
Background: Beside the fact of poor adherence to antiretroviral drugs in resource limited country, serious adverse effects of the drugs and treatment failure complicate the whole management of antiretroviral therapy. Consequently, treatment modification and discontinuation of therapy has become a common phenomenon and hence limitation of treatment option has turn out the major concern of the futur...
SOLVENT-FREE SOLID SUPPORTED AND PHASE TRANSFERRED CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF BENZANILINE DERIVATIVES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION
In this study, solvent-free and phase transfer catalysis conditions coupled with microwave irradiation and their advantages in synthesis of N-alkylation of primary anilines were reported. In this way two different microwave processing techniques were compared in terms of reaction yields. Consequently, microwave irradiation significantly reduced reaction times compared to traditional heating method...
The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the bark of Terminalia arjuna. The plant part was extracted with methanol to yield the crude extract. The antimicrobial activity test of the methanol extract of the bark of Terminalia arjuna was done using disc diffusion method. Standard antibiotic discs of Kanamycin (30 μg/disc) were used as standard...
Paracetamol was formulated as lozenges to provide slow release medicament for the management of fever and pain. There are many dosage forms like syrups, tablets, inhalers are available in the market but still there is a need for new dosage forms which acts effectively and locally. So the present investigation has been taken up to design, prepare and evaluated tablet lozenges to meet the need of im...
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTATANEOUS DETERMINATION OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE, VALSARTAN, TELMISARTAN, HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CHLORTHALIDONE: APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS
A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-hypertensive drugs Amlodipine Besylate, Valsartan, Telmisartan and diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone. The separation was achieved on Cosmosil PAQ (150 mm × 4.6 mm) 5 μm column with gradient flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 cons...
The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (6.75mg/kg of body weight) on caffeine (10 mg/kg body weight) induced coronary heart disease. Male wistar rats weighing about 120 and 160g were used as the experimental animal for the study. Caffeine dissolved in physiological saline (Nacl) with a pH of 7.0 administered orally to wistar ...
CLX (celecoxib) is a highly hydrophobic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with high plasma protein binding. We describe here the encapsulation of CLX in MLVs composed of SPC and variable amounts of cholesterol. The influence of drug – lipid ratio was studied and amount of the drug could be encapsulated was optimized. The effect of cholesterol and other process parameters were studied to obtai...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW4-(SUBSTITUTED\ARYL)-((1, 3–DIPHENYL-1H-PYRAZOLE-4-YL) METHYLENEAMINO)-1, 5-DIMETHYL-2-PHENYLPYRAZOLILDIN-3-ONE DERIVATIVES
Schiff Base derivatives are important class of compounds. They possess different types of Biological activities like antibacterial, antiviral, anti HIV, antifungal etc. Schiff base derivatives are prepared by the condensation of aldehyde and amine and these compounds are characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Their important biological properties have been investigated....
Fruits of the plant were air dried for several days and cut into small pieces, which were subjected to oven dried for 24 hours at 45-50°C to effect further chopping. Cold methanol extract of fruits were subjected to acid-base treatment to separate the alkaloids. The treated extract was subjected to column chromatography to isolate the pure compound. The xanthine alkaloid, 1, 3, 7-trimethyl-1H-pur...
Most of the traditional systems of medicine are effective but they lack of standardization. So there is need to develop standardization technique. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda has given preliminary guidelines for standardization the conventionally used formulations. Standardization of herbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration o...
RAPID CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CITALOPRAM IN RELEVANCE TO PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS
This paper describes the study to measure the sensitivity and accuracy of two techniques, chromatography and spectrophotometry for the direct determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical formulations. Chromatography was performed on SE-30 column (1 m × 3 mm i.d) using Nitrogen as a carrier gas (flow rate of 40 ml/min), having retention time of 12.8 min. Calibration curve was found linear in the ...
The ethnomedicinal practices appear to be a part of traditional system of treatment for domestic cattle in remote areas of Nepal. The knowledge of local healers with the utilization of biological resources in various ailments is still survived and is communicated verbally to limited family members. As a result, this knowledge is at threatened stage. Now days, documentation of traditional knowledge...
A FACTORIAL STUDY ON FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF IBUPROFEN TABLETS EMPLOYING STARCH 1500 AND PVP K 30
Ibuprofen, a widely prescribed anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug belongs to class II under BCS and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. Solid dispersion of ibuprofen in Starch 1500, a modified starch and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K 30) was investigated to enhance the dissolution rate and to develop ibuprofen tablets with fast dissolution characteris...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHENOLICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PHYTOCHEMICALS OF T.CHEBULA EXTRACTED USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASONICATION
The extraction of active compounds from plants is one of the most critical steps in the commercial development of natural products for medicinal and health benefits. In view of the large number of plant species potentially available for study, it is essential to have efficient systems for the rapid and efficient extraction of phytochemicals for further investigation on their properties. The presen...
The present study attempt to evaluate the physicochemical and phytochemicals parameters of Capparis zeylanica leavesbelong to family Caparadaceae is a climbing shrub found in through out India. The plant is used in folk medicine to treat, rheumatism, abdominal ulcers and hernia, swelling, itching, hepatitis, liver tonic, insect poisoning and anti-inflammatory. But there is no standardization work ...
Various approaches have been used to retain the dosage form in the stomach as a way of increasing the gastric residence time (GRT), including floatation systems; high-density systems; mucoadhesive systems; magnetic systems; unfoldable, extendible, or swellable systems; and superporous hydrogel systems. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of Pioglitazone hydrochl...
In order to explore the antihistaminic and anthelmintic activity associated with piperazine framework, several 1-benzhydryl piperazine derivatives and 1- benzhydryl piperazine acyl derivatives were synthesized. Their chemical structure was characterized and confirmed by H1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). The target compounds were synthesized by the nucleophilic...
The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of critical formulation parameters affecting release of isoxsuprine hydrochloride from matrix tablets using combination of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and dicalcium phosphate (DCP). The powder blend consisting of drug and excipients was analyzed for angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The tablets were prepared by di...
Turnera ulmifolia Linn. belonging to family Turneraceae was investigated to evaluate in-vitro antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of the leaves against gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. An attempt...
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root ext...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF VALSARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN FIXED DOSE COMBINATION IN UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
Valsartan (VAL) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HTZ) are used in combination in treatment of Hypertension. Two simple, accurate, precise, economical and reproducible UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in Pharmaceutical formulation. Method I- Absorption ratio method (Q-analysis) using two wavelengths, 265nm (isobestic point at which bo...
DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF EFFERVESCENT FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF FAMOTIDINE
The objective of the present study was to prepare and evaluate gastroretentive floating drug delivery system containing famotidine as a model drug. Famotidine tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using two different grades of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose- HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M by effervescent technique. Sodium bicarbonate (SB) and citric acid (CA) were incorporated as gas-generating ...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE CONTROLLED RELEASE TABLETS USING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMER
The objective of the present study to develop controlled release tablets of Metoprolol succinate using Natural polymer, guar gum and synthetic polymer, carbopol as a rate controlling polymers.. It was also desired to study the effect of polymer concentration. Metoprolol succinate, β1- selective adrenergic receptor- blocking agent used in the management of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac ar...
COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE RAW DRUG SOURCES OF PRASARINI USED IN AYURVEDA
According to classical texts Paederia foetida is used as the genuine source plant of the drug Prasarini, it posses properties like astringent, aphrodisiac, laxative, bitter etc. In Ayurvedic practitioners Merremia tridentata ssp. tridentata and Merremia tridentata ssp. hastata are used as the source plant of this drug. However no conclusive pharmacognostic study of these plants has been performed ...
INVESTIGATION OF IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA LINN AGAINST PHERETIMA POSTHUMA
The world health organization estimates that a staggering 2 billion people harbor parasitic worm infections. Parasitic worms also infect livestock and crops, affecting food production with a resultant economic impact. Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants has an alternative source of anthelmintics. In view ...
The present study is aimed at evaluating the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, ethanol and water extracts of medicinal plant, Pyrus pashia were tested against (different gram positive and gram negative) ten bacterial strains and three fungal strains using by disc diffusion method. The different fractions of bark, frui...
PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF HYDROXY CITRIC ACID, CATECHINS AND CALCIUM PANTOTHENATE PRESENT IN HERBAL FORMULATION
The analytical method for the estimation of phytochemical active ingredients present in Garginia combogia extract, Green tea extract with calcium pantothenate for herbal formulations are evaluated for it’s Assay content and dissolution release. This herbal formulation with slim formula consists of several active ingredients such as Hydroxy Citric acid, catechins and calcium pantothenate. The HPL...
Rifampicin and Isoniazid microcapsules were prepared by phase seperation coacervation method for inclusion in suspension formulations. Ethyl cellulose was used as the coating material for microencapsulation. Developed microcapsules were characterized for visual appearance, photomicrography, sieve analysis, drug content, bulk density, ethyl cellulose content and drug release studies. Microcapsules ...
Fertility control is an issue of global and national health concern, many study have been done for the male contraception. The use of medicinal plants in different sorts of disease including fertility problem is widespread throughout the world. Though considerable progress has been made the development of highly effective, acceptable and reversible methods of contraception among females, progress ...
Oral controlled drug delivery systems represent the most popular form of sustained drug delivery systems for the obvious advantages of oral route of drug administration. Such systems release the drug with constant or variable release rates. The oral controlled release systems shows a typical pattern of drug release in which the drug concentration is maintained in the therapeutic window for...