Volume 1 (2010) - Issue 12, December
SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: COLLOIDAL CARRIER SYSTEMS FOR DRUG DELIVERY
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are aqueous colloidal dispersions, the matrix of which comprises of solid biodegradable lipids. They are introduced in 1990 as an alternative carrier system to traditional colloidal carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes and polymeric micro- and nanoparticles. SLN combine advantages of the traditional systems but avoid some of their major disadvantages. They exhibit...
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE: OVERVIEW AND MECHANISMS
Antibiotics have a well-documented efficacy in the treatment of established infections and as prophylactic agents in medically compromised patients. Antibiotics use is suggested to be a major risk factor for development of antibiotic resistance. Resistance to antimicrobials is emerging at an alarming rate that has reduced treatment options for nearly every pathogen infecting humans. Many bacteria ...
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF EUCALYPTUS GENUS
Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Different chemical constituents such as Sideroxylonal C, (+)-oleuropeic acid, cypellocarpins A, B and C, cypellogins A, B and C, Leptospermone, Isoleptospermone, grandinol, various essential oils and many others have been isolated from plants of eucalyptus genus. Various eucalyptus species have been report...
ASTHMA AND HERBAL DRUGS
Asthma is disease of the human respiratory system in which the airways constrict and become narrow, often in response to a “trigger” such as exposure to an allergen, cold air, exercise or emotional stress. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, asthma prevalence is predicted to increase more rapidly in the coming years. Despite the availability of a wide range of drugs for the treatm...
MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS: AN OVERVIEW
The convenience of administration and improved patient compliance are important in the design of oral drug delivery system which remains the preferred route of drug delivery inspite of various disadvantages. One such problem can be solved in the novel drug delivery system by formulating “mouth dissolving tablets” (MDTs) which disintegrates or dissolves rapidly without water with in few seconds...
IMPACTS OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) established itself as an integral part of novel drug delivery systems which employ a structure as a reservoir for the drugs. A number of drugs have reached the market in transdermal delivery form that has become an increasingly acceptable mode for administration of prescription and nonprescription drugs. Transdermal drug delivery system possesses many advant...
NON DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR GENE AND DRUG DELIVERY IN LIVING CELL
Gene transfer represents a relatively new way for the treatment of rare genetic disorders by changing the expression of a person's genes. Electroporation is a mechanical method of gene transfer used to introduce polar molecules such as DNA, RNA and Peptides (Heparin, Insulin) into a host cell through the cell membrane. In this procedure, a large electric pulse temporarily disturbs the phospholipid...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY OF RALOXIFENE HYDROCHLORIDE
The present investigation was taken up to prepare and evaluate a transdermal drug delivery system (patch) of Raloxifene Hydrochloride to increase its bioavailability. The matrix type patches were prepared using different ratios of Eudragit RL100, Poly vinyl Pyrrolidone K-30, HPMC, CAP and PEG6000 in different ratios. All the prepared formulations were subjected to physical studies (weight variatio...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A REVERSED PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
A simple reversed phase HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of olmesartan medoxomil in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. The method was based on reversed phase liquid chromatography using a Grace Smart RP C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5µ) with UV detection at 256 nm. The mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and triethylamine buffer adjusted to pH 2.7 in a ratio o...
COMPERATIVE STUDY OF RIVEA HYPOCRATERFORMIS, CYNODON DACTYLONE AND BALANITE AEGYPTICAE USING ANTILITHIATIC ACTIVITY IN VITRO
Ethanolic extracts of Rivea hypocraterformis, Methanolic extract of Cynodon dactylone and Water extract of Balanite aegypticae were tested for their in vitro antilithiatic /anticalcification activity by the homogenous precipitation method. The extracts were compared with an aqueous extract of cystone (a marketed preparation) for their activities. Extracts of Rivea hypocraterformis showed activity ...
IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF CLITORIA TERNATEA STEM EXTRACT FOR ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY
Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species which can neutralise free radicals before they can do harm and may help undo some damage already caused to specific cells. Studies subject that several natural products possessing antidiabetic, antitumor and also flavonoids containing drugs can also act as antioxidants. Ayurveda and various tradit...
USE OF GENETIC AND PROTEIN MARKERS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MEDICINAL AYURVEDIC PLANTS
Randomly amplified polymorphisms DNA (RAPD) has been widely used for authentication of plant species of medicinal importance. It is particularly useful in case of plants that are frequently substituted or adulterated with other species or varieties that are morphologically and/or phytochemically indistinguishable. In this study Hemidesmus indicus and its substitute plants were selected to develop ...
EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM STEARATE ON MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES OF REPAGLINIDE
In this study, an attempt was made to prepare Mucoadhesive microspheres of Repaglinide using various Mucoadhesive polymers designed for oral controlled release. Microspheres containing the Mucoadhesive polymer chitosan hydrochloride, with matrix polymer Eudragit RS 100, Repaglinide as a model drug and agglomeration preventing agent magnesium stearate were prepared by the Emulsification solvent eva...
ANTIFUNGAL, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AILANTHUS EXCELSA BARK
Various extracts of Ailanthus excelsa bark evaluated for antifungal at a dose 1 mg/ml, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity at a dose 200 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of body weight. The experimental methods were used cup plate method for antifungal and formalin induced rat hind paw oedema measured by plethysmograph (mercury displacement method) for anti-inflammatory and Tail flick method for analgesic ...
ASPECTS OF VALIDATION IN HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – COMPARISON OF VALIDATION REQUIREMENTS BY FDA, USP AND ICH
The most important factor in developing pharmaceutical drug substances and drug products today is ensuring that the HPLC analytical test methods that are used to analyze the products generate reliable, reproducible and meaningful results. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) have each documented the importance of this to the drug development process and ha...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND PERPHENAZINE BY ABSORPTION RATIO (Q- ANALYSIS) UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
The simple, accurate and precise absorption ratio method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of amitriptyline HCl and perphenazine in combined tablet dosage form. The λmax of amitriptyline HCl and perphenazine were found to be 240.0 nm and 258.0 nm respectively. For the estimation by Q-analysis method, the λmax those selected were 240.0 nm and an isoabsorptive point for both the d...
PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND COMPARISON OF ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF CLOVE AND CARDAMOM
The aim of present study was to investigate the phytochemical screening and to compare the antimicrobial activity of oils of Clove bud and Cardamom. Clove bud was successively extracted by steam distillation and isolated with Dichloromethane. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycoside, steroids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compound. The dichloromet...
A STUDY ON PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA LINN RHIZOME
In the present research investigation we extracted the powdered rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia linn by Soxhletion method using different solvents. Then extracts were subjected to preliminary phyto-chemical investigation. The proximate analysis was carried out for the plant rhizome powder. The total ash value was 9.93%, Acid insoluble ash value was 4.49%, and Water-soluble ash value was 6.96% and ...
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF TECTONA GRANDIS ROOTS
Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Tectona grandis root was investigated for its free radical scavenging activity by determining the nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Maximum scavenging of nitric oxide and superoxide radical found were 26.61% and 46.64% respectively at 250 μg/ml concentration. The results were compared with rutin as a standard. These results clea...
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF 5-FLUROURACIL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND SPIKED HUMAN PLASMA
A simple, rapid and accurate reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of 5-Flurouracil (5-FU) in pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma samples has been developed and validated. The assay of the drug was performed on a CLC C18 (5 μm, 25 cm 4.6 mm i.d.) with UV detection at 266 nm. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-water mixture in the ratio...
ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SOLANUM MELONGENA LINN. ROOTS
In the present study, Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal; Solanaceae), was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity against experimental seizures. The roots ethanolic extract of Solanum melongena protected mice against tonic convulsion induced by maximal electroshock, Pentylenetetrazole and Picrotoxin. It was found that ethanolic extract up to a dose of 300 mg/kg p.o. decreased the duration of tonic...
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACT OF GARCINIA INDICA
Garcinia indica is well spread in tropical rain forest of Western Ghats of India. Extract of dried fruit rind of kokum was prepared using methanol. Extract was evaluated for antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. Garcinia was tested for antihyperlipidemic activity using cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic model in Albino Wistar rats. It exhibited significant reduction in total cholesterol, tr...
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF FRESH FLOWER EXTRACT OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA LINN.
Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) is an erect, perennial shrub luxuriantly thriving in wastelands. It is commonly distributed in most parts of India and also distributed in Persia, tropical Africa and other tropical countries of the World. The aqueous extract of some parts have laxative property and beneficial in skin diseases, ulcers, enlargement of the spleen, abdominal glands, liver diseases,...
SIMULTANEOUS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CARVEDILOL IN ITS DOSAGE FORM
The present investigation deals with the development of a new, simple, specific, sensitive, rapid and economical procedure for simultaneous estimation of Carvedilol in its dosage form. The method is based on the ultraviolet absorbance maxima of the above drug at 285 nm. The drug obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range of 4-36 μg/ml with molar absorptivity of 12.6x 103 l/mol.cm in methanol. T...
RP- HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL IN BULK AND THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
This paper describes the analytical method suitable for validation of Candesartan Cilexetil (CDN) by reversed Phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) method. The method utilized RP-LC (Shimadzu LC-10AT with UV detector) model and Hypersil ODS C-18 (250 x 4.6 mm, packed with 5 micron) column was used for the separation. The mobile phase was consists of acetonitrile:0.05 M KH2PO4 buffer in the ratio of ...
ANTI-DIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ROOT BARK OF AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA SWINGLE (FAMILY: SIMAROUBACEAE) ON EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
Ailanthus altissima Swingle (Simaroubaceae) is commonly known as “Tree of heaven”. The methanolic extract of root bark of A. altissima (MEA) was taken for anti-diarrhoeal activity. Investigations were carried out on castor oil induced diarrhoea and small intestine transit method on mice. In former method, MEA 200 (mg/Kg) were reducing the total weight of the faeces of group (0.163±0.028) in c...
SOLID DISPERSION- AN APPROACH TO ENHANCE THE DISSOLUTION RATE OF ACECLOFENAC BY USING 32 FACTORIAL DESIGN
Aceclofenac is an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the management of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of different types of carriers such as polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as solubilizer on in vitro dissolution of aceclofenac. Ac...
RAPID ANALYSIS OF LABETALOL IN HUMAN PLASMA USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY
A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for estimation of Labetalol in human plasma, an adrenergic β-receptor blocking agent used in the treatment of hypertension, which exhibits both α- and β-adrenoreceptor blocking activity. The analyte and internal standard (Metoprolol) were extracted by liquid/liquid extraction with ethyl ac...