Volume 9 (2018) - Issue 1, January
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the crucial factors, which plays an important role in host defense mechanisms. AMPs are ubiquitous and found in diverse organisms ranging from microorganisms to animals. Plants are the precious source of natural antimicrobial molecules including antimicrobial peptides known as plant antimicrobial peptides (PAMPs). PAMPs can be divided into different families based...
Cardiotoxicity associated with the clinically used drugs is a global concern of safety for healthcare professionals. Various animal models have been used to study the drug-induced cardiotoxicity but the exact molecular involvement of toxicity is not much clear. Despite the recurrent occurrence of toxicities, drugs such as doxorubicin, calcium channel blockers, antiarrhythmics and immunomodulators ...
Biophytum sensitivum DC. (Family - Oxalidaceae), commonly known as “Lajjalu” in Northern India, is an annual herb that grows at the foothills of the Himalayas. It is an indigenous medicine, used against “Madhumeha” (Diabetes mellitus) apart from being used as tonic, stimulant, and in the treatment of stomach ache, asthma, insomnia, convulsions, cramps, chest-complaints, inflammations, tumo...
Lantana camara Linn. is considered as a notorious weed and a popular ornamental plant. It is noted from ancient time that plants have been an excellent source of medicine. Since very long time Lantana camara has been reported as one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. Lantana camara is used in traditional medicine system for the treatment of cuts, swellings, ulcers, cataract, bili...
Pyrimidine is a 5-membered heterocyclic ring which is versatile lead compound for designing potent bioactive agents. This interesting group of compound has diverse biological activities such as antimicrobial, CNS depressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-convulsant, anticancer, antihelmentic, antioxidant and herbicidal. Available data represents that pyrimidine being heterocyclic planar five ...
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AND PLANT DERIVATIVES AFFECTING INCREASE IN ENDOMETRIAL THICKNESS
Endometrial thickness is one of the determinant factors in fertility success. This study was carried out to determine the effects of plants on increasing endometrial thickness and ultimately increasing fertility preservation. Key terms of "endometrium thickness" or "endometrial thickness" or "endometrial lining thickness" in combination with the words "Medicinal plant", "Herb" and "Phyto" were sea...
Okra is a cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding). The exact origin of okra is unknown, but it is thought to have come from Africa, where it has been grown as a crop for centuries. Evidence suggests it was grown in Egypt as long ago as 2,000 BC. Today it is widely cultivated for its edible green fruits, which are harvested when immature (after 3 -...
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANTIOXIDANT BIOASSAY AND MOLECULAR MODELING STUDIES OF ETHYL 4-SUBSTITUTED-1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-HEXAHYDRO-2, 7, 7-TRIMETHYL-5-OXOQUINOLINE-3-CARBOXYLATE DERIVATIVES
4-Aryl-hexahydroquinolines in vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated by spectrophotometric method. This method is based on the charge transfer complex which is formed between 4-aryl-hexahydroquinolines and chloranil. AM1 and PM3 semi empirical methods were used to estimate different physicochemical parameters. The antioxidant activity was correlated with these physicochemical parameters and d...
HEMICELLULASE – MEDIATED HYDROLYSIS OF CHITOSAN: AN EFFICIENT METHOD TO SYNTHESIZE WATER SOLUBLE CHITOSAN
Chitosan is a natural biopolymer that has been extensively used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments and as an efficient vehicle or carrier for fabrication, encapsulation and target-specific delivery of a wide range of pharmacological moieties for improved therapeutic efficacy. Despite of numerous characteristic features, the pharmaceutical significance of chitosan is limited due to...
ANTIMICROBIAL AND CELLULAR METABOLIC INHIBITORY PROPERTIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM THE BARK OF ‘LUNAS-BAGON’ (LUNASIA SP.)
This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial and cellular metabolic inhibitory properties of the ethanolic extract from the bark of ‘Lunas-bagon’, Lunasia sp. Extracts were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method for antimicrobial assay. The standard phytochemical screening was done for the determination of compounds that can be considered toxic and MTT assay for the effects o...
ASSESSMENT OF INTRAPERITONEAL TOXICITY OF X42 FRACTION OF TERMINALIA IVORENSIS (COMBRETACEAE) IN RAT
The present work focuses to check the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of X42 fraction of Terminalia ivorensis in rats. Materials and methods: The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated in rats. The rats were administered intraperitoneally the fraction at the dose of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bw and recorded general symptoms and mortality. For sub acute toxicity, the rats received intrap...
PHYSICOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF A MULTIPURPOSE HERBAL FORMULATION (HB-01)
An herbal formulation composed of Allium cepa (Onion), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic), Aloe vera, Andrographis paniculata (King of bitters), Allium ascalonicum (Shallot), reportedly used as anti–inflammatory agent was investigated. This study evaluated the physicochemical, phytochemical properties and in vivo anti–inflammatory effect of the herbal formulation. The herbal...
NANOCRYSTAL SUSPENSION OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE ANTIBACTERIAL DRUG BY HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE USING FULL FACTORIAL DESIGN
Cefixime trihydrate belongs to third generation cephalosporin having poor water solubility. In the present study, nanocrystal suspensions of cefixime trihydrate were prepared with the objective of providing enhanced solubility and stability with reduced particle size and thus improving the bioavailability potential. Nanocrystal suspensions were prepared by high pressure homogenization technique an...
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a auto-immune disease in which body mistakenly considers some parts of its own system as pathogens and attacks them. RA is a chronic systemic inflammatory illness with prevalence of approximately 0.75% in India. It leads to irreversible joint damage and systemic complications. It is associated with substantial morbidity and increased mortality Better understanding of i...
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALAUATION OF TABLET CONTAINING GLICLAZIDE NANOCRYSTALS FOR SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION ENHANCEMENT USING SOLUPLUS
Poor aqueous solubility is the main problem in development of effective formulation which affects stability and bioavailability of drug formulation. So there is need of systematic formulation approach to make such poorly soluble drugs bioavailable. In the present investigation attempt has been made to investigate the effect of soluplus on solubility of gliclazide by preparing its nanocrystals. Nan...
IN-VITRO ASSESSMENT, ISOLATION AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHLOROFORM FRACTION OF DIOSPYROS KAKI FRUIT
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Linn.), which belongs to the Ebenaceae family, have numerous bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, dietary fiber, carotenoids and minerals. This fruit possesses hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties and can be used in anti-atherosclerosis diets. The present paper reveals the phytochemical screening, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory activity and GC-MS Spectral analysis...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE AND CANDESARTAN CILEXTIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY RP-HPLC PDA METHOD
Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan cilextil are used in combination for the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and validate a simple, efficient, economical RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan cilextilin bulk and dosage forms. Chromatographic analysis was performed on Phenomenex C18RP column (250 x 4.6mm;...
Highly substituted thiophene derivatives first synthesized by Gewald synthesis in 1965, are important heterocyclic compounds present in numerous biologically active compounds. The synthesis of title compounds was carried out by preparing derivatives of Gewald product. In the present study, a series of 2-aminothiophene derivatives were first prepared by Gewald reaction and further converted into 2-...
This study was aimed to investigate the biochemical influence of aqueous extracts of roots, stem and leaves of Zizyphus mauritiana (ZM) on silica induced toxicity in rats, with changes in inflammatory markers in liver and kidney. To test the preventive effect of extracts of Zizyphus mauritiana on development of silica induced toxicity in wistar albino rats, animals were treated simultaneously with...
HYDROTROPIC SOLUBILIZATION: A PROMISING TECHNIQUE TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG LUMEFANTRINE
Solubility of drug is considered to be one of the crucial parameter to achieve its desired concentration in systemic circulation and better pharmacological response. As most of the drugs available are poorly aqueous soluble, solubility enhancement has become major challenge to the formulators in the product development of many orally administered drugs. Therapeutic response of drug as well bioavai...
Osteoarthritis is characterized by degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint as well as bony overgrowth. The main causes of Osteoarthritis are abnormality in limb, in development of joint, hereditary factors, history of joint injury, stress etc. Conventionally analgesics are used to reduce the pain, inflammation, joint swelling and stiffness. But these drugs have many side e...
PHENOTYPICALLY AND GENETICALLY VARIATION OF Rif r MUTANTS STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENCE pf2T2 AND pf2m1
The present study was Rifampicin-resistant (Rif r) mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens pf2T2 and pf2m1 were isolated from different localities of onion plant rhizosphere soil in an around the Tamil Nadu. However, the mutants of P. fluorescens were of two general categories. Group 1 showed fast growing in terms of growth rate, competitive fitness, and membrane protein composition. Group 2 showed a s...
ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION, DOCKING AND ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF QUERCETIN FROM LEAVES OF EUPHORBIA HETEROPHYLLA LINN.
This study was carried out to isolate and characterize the bio active constituent from Euphorbia heterophylla and also to evaluate anticancer activity for the isolated compound against Breast cancer cell line (MCF -7 Cell line). The isolation of compound was performed on ethanol extract by using column chromatography and ultra sonicator by gradient elution. The structure of isolated compound was e...
Doxofylline [7-(1,3-Dioxolan-2-ylmethyl) - 1,3-dimethyl purine-2,6-dione] is a Xanthine derivative drug used in the treatment of Asthma. The molecular formula is C11H14N4O4. Doxofylline is presently available in tablet form with high oral dosages of 400 mg, 800 mg and 1200 mg, Syrup with oral dosage of 100 mg/5mL and Suspension with oral dosage of 100 mg/5mL. It is also marketed as a combination d...
AN IMMUNOMODULATORY PROFILE OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF OXALIS CORNICULATA LINN IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS AND SWISS ALBINO MICE
Objective and Background: To study the immunological activity of aqueous extract of Oxalis corniculata in Albino wistar rats and Swiss Albino mice. The Oxalis corniculata is an edible and a medicinal plant which is important to the food industry and may also have a significant role to play in health care. Material and Methods: The aqueous extract of whole plant of Oxalis corniculata was adminstere...
SCREENING OF ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA (LINN.) PERS. LEAVES
The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn. Plant extract was tested in fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat models. Methanolic extracts of leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn. were administered in doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg/day for one week. The obtained results reveal that methanolic leaf extract (LM...
To evaluate a meticulous pharmacognostic cram of Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep. var. glabra Gamble (Vitaceae), an important endemic and endangered medicinal plant in Thiashola, Manjoor. The study genus is used in the Siddha, Ayurveda and Folk medicine for treating diarrhoea, refrigerant, hysteria, astringent and ulcers. However, the detailed scientific information of Cayratia pedata var. glabra is...
Aim of the study: This study evaluates the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the aqueous, methanol and n-hexane extracts of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to provide experimental evidence for its traditional use such as fever, pain and inflammation. Materials and methods: Investigations on the analgesic effects of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. was carried out by acetic acid-induc...
PHYTOCHEMICAL PHARMACOGNOSTICAL ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXICITY STUDIES ON CANTHIUM COROMANDELICUM FRUIT
The medicinal plants are the key source in the life of human beings. The present study was aimed to evaluate the preliminary phytochemistry, pharmacognostical and antimicrobial activity of Canthium coromandelicum fruit. The fruit showed the presence of secondary metabolites like flavonoids, steroids, tannins, phenol, sterols, cardiac glycoside and saponin glycoside in various extracts. The pharmac...
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES OF N’-[(2Z, 3E)-3-(HYDROXYIMINO) BUTAN-2-YLIDENE] BENZOHYDRAZIDE
Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of ligand N'-[(2Z,3E)-3-(hydroxyimino) butan-2-ylidene] benzohydrazide are reported. The ligand is monobasic and bidentate in nature. The molar conductivities reveal that all the metal complexes are non-electrolyte. The metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of spectral and magnetic studies. Co(II) ion form...
Clopidogrel bisulphate is a drug used in inhibiting the platelet aggregation and also used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. It acts by inhibiting the adenosine diphosphate and is almost absorbed (98%) after oral administration. Approximately 50 % of drug is excreted in urine and 40% in feces. The plasma half life of drug is about 8 hours which makes frequent dosing necessary to mainta...
SCOPE AND EVALUATION OF SAPODILLA PECTIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL SOLID AND LIQUID ORALS WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS EFFECT ON VARIOUS PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES UPON BOTH SOLID AND LIQUID DOSAGE FORM
The aim of this study was to understand and study the role and effect of different concentration of sapodilla pectin as a binding agent in tablet formulations and also its on the effect on physical evaluation of suspension. For this purpose two model drugs paracetamol and ibuprofen were selected and granules were made by wet granulation using different concentration of pectin. The tablets were fir...
A sensitive, precise and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) using an isocratic elution of 0.1 M NaH2PO4 (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile (80:20 v/v) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, a column temperature of 30 °C and UV detection at 254 nm was developed for the estimation of metformin and benfotiamine simultaneously. The method was validated following guideline...
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of different pH, on the growth and biopigment accumulation of a green alga Dunaliella salina isolates from Sambhar salt lake, Rajasthan (India). In order to monitor the impact of pH an algal samples of D. salina was exposed to different pH regimes (6 -10 pH) along with control (8.5 pH) over a period of 30 days. Set of experiments was conducted to stu...
Pyrazoline are reduction product of pyrazole. They are well known nitrogen containg 5-memberd heterocyclic compound with broad spectrum of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antioxidant and herbicidal. Pyrazoline derivatives have been synthesized from intermediate chalcone. Pyrazoles have been the recent target of ...
Vitex negundo, commonly called Nirgundi, is one of the widely investigated medicinal plants of India. The present study were planned to compare different parts, i.e. leaves, stems and roots of V. negundo for antianxiety activity using elevated plus maze model. Petroleum ether (60 - 80 °C), chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these parts were prepared and evaluated for anti-anxiety activit...
Background and aim: Spiroazetidin-2-ones and furans are commonly used as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular activities, anticancer, antiparkinson agents etc. The purpose of this study was to perform virtual toxicity studies of the synthesized compounds 1-(substitutedphenyl)-3-chloro-5,9-bis(furan-2-ylmethylidene)-1-azaspiro[3.5]nonan-2-ones (3a-3h). Materials and method...
The aim of present study on Spirulina platensis (Spirulina) was to evaluate the anti-stress activity. The anti-stress activity was assessed by tail suspension method andcold immobilization induced change of biochemical parameters. Acute toxicity (LD50) of Spirulina platensis values was also studied. Duration of immobilization time and cold immobilization induced alteration of biochemical parameter...
Marine algae are one of the largest sources for biogenic compounds. They produce a wide variety of chemically active metabolites. They are found to possess significant antioxidant, and phytochemical activities. Macroalgae provides a great variety of metabolites and natural bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity, such as polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phlorotannins and other...
EVALUATION OF BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA L. IN PRESENCE OF CISPLATIN ON EHRLICH’S ASCITES CARCINOMA BEARING MICE
Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubeaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly called as Noni. Traditionally the entire plant is used for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, hypertension, diabetes, bacterial infections, and arthritis. The present study aims to explore the antineoplastic activity of Noni Juice (NJ) and Divine Noni Gold (DNG) concentrate on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. Antineop...
RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY (2, 2-DIPHENYL-1- PICRYLHYDRAZYL) OF ACALYPHA INDICA LINN. (EUPHORBEACE FAMILY)
Antioxidants play an important role in human health protection. Many researchers and previous studies suggest that antioxidants reduce the risk for chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, heart disease etc. Primary sources of naturally occurring antioxidants are whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Plant sourced antioxidants like Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenes, phenolic acids etc, have been recog...
Floating Drug delivery systems are designed to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration. Ofloxacin is an antibacterial fluoroquinolone, widely prescribed in gastric and duodenal ulcers. It exhibits pH dependent solubility, more soluble in acidic pH and slightly soluble in neutral or alkaline pH. Precipitation of the drug occurs in the intestine, which adversely affects the abso...
In the present study anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Beloperone plumbaginifolia whole plant were investigated. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of whole plant of B.plumbaginifolia were evaluated by carageenan induced rat paw edema to determine its effect on acute phase of inflammation models in rats. The phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of whole plant of...
VARIATIONS IN PHENOLICS, ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALVADORA PERSICA IN TWO LOCATIONS
Phenolic extracts of crude oil and methanol extracts of defatted seed cake were used to evaluate total phenolics, flavonoids content and antioxidant activity for two locations. The seeds were evaluated for their proximate composition while oils were subjected to chemical analysis. Salvadora persica had highest phenolics ranged from 12.3 ± 0.3 to 22.3 ± 0.3mg GAE/g and flavonoids content 3.7 ± 0...
ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS OF BANKURA, WEST BENGAL
The health and nutritional status of school children is an index of national investment in the development of its future manpower. Malnutrition affects the child’s physical and cognitive growth and increases the susceptibility to infections while having an adverse impact on economic growth of the country indirectly. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritional status of rural and urb...
SCHIFF BASES DERIVED FROM 2-HYDROXY AND 2- METHOXY NAPHTHALDEHYDE: EXPLORATION OF IN SILICO DOCKING, DNA CLEAVAGE, ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES AND SAR
Antibacterial activities, molecular docking and DNA cleavage activities of five structurally related Schiff bases [L3 (a), L3 (b), L3 (c) L3 (d) and L3 (e)] were performed and their structure activity relationship was studied. Antibacterial activities of these compounds against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were evaluated by using well diffusion method and the compound L3 (c); 1-[(E)-(4...
The study was conducted to study biochemical parameters in 42 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, 22 males and 20 females (age range 18 - 55 years) visiting the Psychiatric Department, Government Medical College, Jammu. The smoking and alcohol intake was much lower (95.24% and 88.09%) in patients (both male and female) diagnosed with MDD. The well being status is also 76.19% satisfactory wit...
NATURE AND CAUSE OF TAKING PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL HEALTH SURVEY IN NORTHERN REGIONS OF BANGLADESH
A health study was conducted in Northern Region of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and cause of taking psychotropic drugs. The health survey was involved 615 patients who are taking psychotropic drugs and found 63.58% patient is male and 36.42% is female. The majority of patients are student (45.65%), housewife (19.02%) and service holder (13.33%). The age of patients is 15 - 24 years 35.93...
PROLONGED PROSTAGLANDIN INFUSION AND CORTICAL HYPEROSTOSIS IN AN INFANT WITH CYANOTIC CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
Prostaglandins (PG) are commonly used in neonates with cyanotic congenital heart diseases to keep the ductus arteriosus patent. The definite treatment for these conditions is surgery. It is occasionally used for longer duration (weeks to months) in preterm babies. Reversible cortical hyperostosis is a relatively recently recognized side effect of prolonged prostaglandin therapy. We describe the ca...
EFFECT OF CADMIUM EXPOSURE ON CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF RAT BRAIN: REVERSAL EFFECT OF α-TOCOPHEROL
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of Cd on cholinergic and bioenergetic systems in three brain regions: cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. The young albino rats (3 months) were exposed to low dose of Cd (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and high dose of Cd (3 mg/kg body weight) through intraperitoneal injection dai...
TO EVALUATE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRANULATION FOR LACTOSE AND ACETAMINOPHEN BY UTILIZING RHEOLOGICAL AND THERMAL TOOLS
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of the granulation properties of Lactose depending upon the use of its crystalline forms and the impact of active (Acetaminophen) concentration using rheological and thermal tools. Lactose was chosen as an excipient available in different hydrate forms (anhydrous and monohydrate) and Acetaminophen (APAP) was selected as a model drug for the subjec...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT PRODUCED BY CUMINUM CYMINUM AND NIGELLA SATIVA AGAINST CISPLATIN-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY; WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES
Cisplatin is a cytotoxic drug which induced the hepatotoxicity in the albino mice when intra-peritoneally administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg. Administration of cisplatin raised the level of LFT’s enzymes and also reduced the level of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of the mice. Administration of Cuminum cyminum and Nigella sativa extract and silymarin remarkably showed the hepatoprotective ef...