Volume 8 (2017) - Issue 4, April
Asthma is a chronic obstructive disease of airways affecting bronchi, resulting in bronchoconstriction, tightening of chest and airway inflammation. Asthma remains a disease with clearly unsatisfactory therapeutics. With the mounting evidence in support of asthma being an inflammatory illness, anti-inflammatory agents have now become prerequisite for the long-term management of asthma. Along with ...
The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its pharamacognosy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of the plant Dalbergia sissoo. The genus consists of 300 species among which 25 species occur in India. The generic name Dalbergia honors the Swedish brothers Nils and Carl Dalberg, who lived in the 18th century. Dalbergia sis...
Resolvins and lipoxins endue a novel way of approaching aspirin mechanism of action by developing models. Recent advances in research of aspirin from starting point Willow bark (Salix alba) to resolvins and lipoxins along with their repurposing network. Therefore, aspirin have a big impact on most interesting areas of research. Aspirin and there interaction with several targets molecules (Magic sh...
As time passes more and more poorly water soluble drug are being discovered. Formulating these drugs in to amorphous solid dispersion is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs. Spray drying is one of common and a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). However, the spray drying is complex phenomenon and the sp...
Inflammation is the local defensive response of living tissues to injury or due to any other chemical agents. Inflammation consists of two basic processes early inflammatory response later followed by healing. There are two types of inflammation, acute and chronic. The different animal models (i.e. vascular permeability, UV-erythema in guinea pigs, Croton-oil ear edema in rats and mice, Paw edema ...
The regulatory expectations are changing day by day on the cleaning validation in Pharmaceutical industries, considering the patient safety and drug efficacy. Manufacturing of an Intermediate and Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals involves many chemical syntheses and same equipment is being using for manufacturing of different product in multi-production facility. Equipment cleaning plays a key rol...
Scavenger receptor class B member 1 also known as SR-B1 is a receptor that in human is encoded by the SCARB1 gene. SR-B1 functions as a receptor for high density lipoprotein. SR-B1 receptor is mostly found in liver and is best known for its role in facilitating the uptake of cholesteryl ester from HDL in liver. This movement of cholesterol is known as reverse cholesterol transport. Cancerous cells...
Prodrug approach is a new frontier that reinforces the concept of green chemistry in the pharmaceutical chemistry field. The combination of a suitable synthesis and the strategy of the prodrug is of huge advantage for pharmaceutical industries. In this paper, we compare the conventional synthesis of new galactosylated NSAIDs prodrugs with green strategies and demonstrate how we can move away from ...
AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF HELIX ASPERSA CRUDE EXTRACT AGAINST COLONIC DAMAGES INDUCED BY HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA IN RATS
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Helix aspersa crude extract on colonic injury resulting from hyperhomocysteinemia induced by feeding rats high methionine diet. Wistar albino rats (200-250g) were divided into four groups. Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) was induced by methionine treatment (1g/kg/day) for 15 days. M group received only Methionine, MH and MP received Methionine a...
THE EVALUATION OF SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF NEW DEVELOPED 99M Tc- OFLOXACIN RADIOTRACER TO DISCRIMINATE INFECTION INDUCED BY STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND STERILE INFLAMMATION INDUCED BY CARRAGEENAN IN RAT’S FOOT
The early identification of infection from sterile inflammation is still challenging step in nuclear medicine. Therefore, several radiopharmaceutical agents have been examined to find the solution of this dilemma in clinical practice. Recently 99mTc-Ofloxacin has been developed as an infection-seeking radiotracer. This investigation was launched to examine the sensitivity and selectivity of new de...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EVALUATION OF SOME NEW 2-(3-FLUOROBIPHENYL-4-YL) PROPANOIC ACID DERIVATIVES
Different new compounds derived from 2-(3-flourobiphenyl-4-yl) propanohydrazide  as starting material were synthesized. Reaction  with maleic anhydride, succinic anhydride and phthalic anhydride gave the corresponding cyclicimides [3a-c]. The hydrazone derivatives [4a-d] were obtained by condensation of compound  with 2,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy...
ESSENTIAL OILS EFFECT IN COMBINATION WITH ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ATCC 29213 BIOFILM SUSCEPTIBILITY
Staphylococcus aureus biofilm has been known as one inducing factor for the bacteria’s resistance to various antibiotics. One strategy which may increase the efficacy of the antibiotic is by combining the antibiotic therapy with antiinfective from natural resources. This research was evaluating the potency of three known antiinfective essential oil derived from leaves of Piper betle L., Ocimum b...
IMPROVING SOLUBILITY OF CURCUMIN IN AQUEOUS SYSTEM BY THE SELF-ASSEMBLY OF HYPERBRANCHED POLY(AMIDE-ESTER) AND CURCUMIN
In order to improve the water-solubility of curcumin, the complex between curcumin and hyperbranched poly(amide-ester) was formed by dispering the solid curcumin in hyperbranched poly(amide-ester) aqueous solution. The interaction process was characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fluorescence quenching method, Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis. Flu...
Both diabetes mellitus and cancer are characterised by higher levels of oxidative stress and production of free radicals, which further complicate the control and outcomes of these diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the level of urinary 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine in diabetic cancer patients as a biomarker of cellular oxidative stress for both disease progression and chemotherapy administ...
Probiotics have been used to protect hosts from pathogens of gastrointestinal and reproductive systems, but their ability to protect against systemic pathogens is largely unexplored. In this study we ask whether orally administered bacteria and yeasts can protect Drosophila melanogaster against the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus. Flies were fed an artificial diet mixed with live ...
In this study, the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra was explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs). The SNPs were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, FTIR analysis and scanning electron microscopy. SEM analysis revealed the formation of SNPs of average size of 46 nm with aqueous extract of G. glabra. The SNPs synthesised by aqueous extract of G. glabra showed strong antibact...
Diacerein is an Osteoarthritic drug that exhibited suboptimal oral bioavailability upon oral administration of conventional dosage form. Nanosuspension gaining more attention for improving oral bioavailability of such drugs. This study was aimed to enhance the solubility and dissolution of diacerein by preparing Nanosuspension. Diacerein Nanosuspension was prepared using combination of High Speed ...
PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANTI-CANCER AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOLVENT LEAF EXTRACTS OF NYCTANTHES ARBOR – TRISTIS
Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of medicine that uses plants and their extracts for treatment and management of various diseased states. Nyctanthes arbour - tristis Linn. (Family Oleaceae), which has long been used traditionally for various medicinal purposes in the Indian sub continent. Each part of the plant has some important medicinal value and is thus commercially exploitable. It is now...
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MYO INOSITOL VERSUS METFORMIN ON BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE IN POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME IN WOMEN
Objective: PCOS is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age associated with insulin resistance. Metformin and Myo-inositol being insulin sensitizers improve biochemical parameters. This study was done to compare the effects of these drugs on biochemical profile in PCOS. Material and Methods: A prospective, open labeled, randomized, comparative, clinical study was conducted on 60 pa...
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF pH/TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE MICROCAPSULES BY INVERSE EMULSION POLYMERIZATION
The pH/temperature sensitive microcapsules were prepared by inverse emulsion polymerization, in which sodium alginate (SA) and N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm) were used as the wall material and pentoxifylline as a model drug. The effects of the emulsifier content on the particle size distribution and drug release property of microcapsules were discussed in detail. The structure, morphology, particl...
N-mannich bases of benzimidazole derivatives can work against convulsions. Docking used for virtual screening of database and for the prediction of the strongest binders based on various scoring functions. Docking studies were carried out on different benzimidazole derivaties for better anticonvulsant activity which is important for the development of new class of inhibitors. Protein–ligand inte...
EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXDATIVE AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF MAGNIFERA INDICA, LEAF EXTRACTS ON ORAL DENTAL PATHOGENS
A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources. Chemical substances used for prevention of dental caries are known to have many side-effects. Thus, natural products should be explored for their anticaries action. Present study evaluate the antimicrobial effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Magnifera indica leav...
NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM, LINN. EXTRACT ON MPTP-INDUCED OXIDATIVE AND NITROSATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN MALE MOUSE BRAIN
The present study focuses on the ‘antioxidant approach’ as a therapeutic intervention for Parkinson’s disease (PD). It deals with understanding of the effects of Ocimum sanctum extract on oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers, responsible for neurodegeneration. The standardized hydromethanolic extract of O.sanctum, Linn (Os HM) at the dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were evaluated for th...
ANTI-OXIDANT POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM, TRACHYSPERMUM COPTICUM, NIGELLA SATIVA AND THEIR COMBINATION IN 1:1:1 RATIO
Trigonella foenum (T. foenum), Trachyspermum copticum (T. copticum) and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) are important medicinal plants that need to be explored for their anti-oxidant potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total anti-oxidant potential of methanolic extracts of T. foenum, T. copticum, N. sativa and the combination of these methanolic extracts in 1:1:1 ratio (Combinat...
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT UTILIZATION TO DEVELOP AND VALIDATE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE FOR ESTIMATION OF PURE DRUG AND MARKETED FORMULATIONS OF ATORVASTATIN IN SPIKED RAT PLASMA SAMPLES
A novel method of estimation and validation of Atorvastatin by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Ultra-violet detection was developed which had high potential in determining drug concentration in rat plasma samples during preclinical studies. Atorvastatin being >99% protein bound, exhibits great challenge in getting extracted from plasma samples. Hence, by treati...
Antianaphylactic activity of Withania somnifera was investigated by using rat peritoneal mast cells. The investigation was carried out by presensitization of the rat by using sheep serum and tripple antigen. Sensitization induces mast cell degranulation. The rats which were pretreated with standard drug, prednisolone (10 mg) and different extracts (petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extract) of...
MOLYBDENUM BLUE METHOD FOR THE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEVETIRACETAM- CALCIUM CHANNEL MODULATOR
A simple, accurate, precise and easy spectrophotometric method for the determination of levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations using molybdenum blue method was developed by the authors. Aqueous solution of the drug sample on reaction with ammonium molybdate solution and hydrazine sulphate solution on heating for 5 minutes at a temperature of 60 0 C gave a clear, stable and intense blue color...
EFFECT OF AGE AND SEX UNDER IMATINIB MESYLATE THERAPY ON CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKAEMIA PATIENTS: A PILOT STUDY FROM INDIA
Among adults in India, Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is most common leukemia and accounts for 30% to 60% of all adult leukemias. Imatinib mesylate induces the highest rate of complete hematological and cytogenetic responses, but its efficacy is still debated in different sets of patients. Total 50 newly diagnosed patients of CML were enrolled. Patients receiving imatinib 400mg orally daily were m...
HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF DRUG RELEASE OF ENTACAPONE IN ENTACAPONE, LEVODOPA AND CARBIDOPA TABLETS
Today’s generic drugs manufacturing industry need robust analytical methods for analysis of generic drug products to provide best quality pharmaceutical formulation. Entacapone, Levodopa and Carbidopa tablets is such a product which is used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. This paper presents a robust HPLC method that has been developed for estimation of % drug release of Entacapone...
EVALUATION OF PROMOTIONAL DRUG LITERATURE PROVIDED BY MEDICAL REPRESENTATIVE AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate and analyse the drug promotional literature distributed by pharmaceutical companies to physicians. This was done using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for ethical medicinal drug promotion and International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice, 2012. Detailed analysis of claims was done. Materia...
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SEED COAT AND COTYLEDON OF CAJANUS CAJAN L.
Cjanus cajan (L.) Millsp belonging to the family Fabaceae commonly known as pigeonpea or arhar. The present study conducted to assess the phytochemical and pharmacognostic in terms of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters of seed coat and cotyledon of C. cajan. Differential extraction yielded of seed coat extracts of petether, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous shows ...
Colocasia esculenta corm aqueous extract was assessed for its in vitro antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging potential by seven different assays, viz. total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total flavonol content, reducing power estimation as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radic...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF BUCOADHESIVE TABLET OF CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE AND PHENYLEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
Delivery of the desired drug as bioadhesive drug delivery systems has been subject of interest since 1980s. The various advantages associated with these systems made the buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. Buccal region offers an attractive route for the administration of systemic drug delivery. The objective of the study was to develop bucoadhesive buccal tablets of Chlo...
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF SOME COMMON BETEL VARIETIES (PIPER BETLE L.) AVAILABLE IN ODISHA
Natural antioxidants play an important role in the prevention of many age-related diseases and promotion of health. Among natural antioxidants from plants, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants and chelating agents. Betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the family Piperaceae, which also includes pepper and kava. It is valued both as mild stimulant and ap...
In recent years, the significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids analysis has gained much attention because of their various biological activities in health and disease, especially the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The current proportional cram endeavors on providing qualitatively the fatty acid composition of methanol extracted seed oils of five Artocarpus species specifically Artocarpus heterophyllus...
Suddhi is a unique process of detoxification which is employed topotentiate as well as enhance therapeutic properties the effect of raw drugs. Nabhi (Aconitum ferox), a herbal poisonous rhizome commonly known as aconitum is used extensively in various Siddha formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Siddha system recommends the administration of Nabhi only after suddhi (purification) in...
A COMPARATIVE GROUP-QSAR AND MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF 4 -THIAZOLIDINONE CONTAINING INDOLIN-2-ONE MOIETY AS VGEFR INHIBITORS
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) are kinase based receptors reported as a promising target in anti tumour therapy. VGEFR inhibitors are being investigated which can have important contribution in anti-angiogenic therapy for treatment of cancer. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop a site-specific QSAR model in order to explore the definite sites of substitu...
Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by inherited or acquired deficiency in insulin secretion and by decreased responsiveness of the organs to secreted insulin. The protective effect of aqueous extract of Plumeria Rubra was studied against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats. Plumeria rubra was administered orally at 3 dose levels (100, 200, 400mg/kg). Plumeria rubra extract and standard...
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY OF VALSARTAN USING HOT MELT EXTRUSION TECHNIQUE
The aim of present study is to improve the aqueous solubility of valsartan by utilizing hot melt extrusion technique (HME). Hot melt extrudates were prepared by novel polymeric matrices such as HPMCAS and Plasdone S630 copovidone at different ratios. The solubility studies of extrudates, showed a significant improvement in aqueous solubility. Gastroretentive floating tablets of valsartan using its...
To develop pulsatile microspheres of amlodipine and nifedipine drug release, a blend of polymer and solvent were used with pulsatile principles of drug delivery system to modified drug release pattern on and to release the drug at a particular time on the basis of lag time. In this study, we assessed the in vitro drug release pattern of the formulation prepared from different polymers ratio with t...
THE EFFECT OF GINGER-JUICE (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE) ON LITHIUM-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN RAT
Ginger has shown to benefit in muscular pain due to eccentric exercise and in osteoarthritis but a later review denied these properties due to uncertainties. To ascertain the reality, this study was proposed. Methods: (A) Albino rats (n=6-12) were administered G.J at single dose (4 ml/rat, p.o) as single administration (acute) and chronic treatment 4ml/rat p.o over period of 7 days. Following this...
The confined reports on Rhododendron arboreum Sm spp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg stimulated to examine the bioactive compounds and the antimicrobial activity of its flower and bark extracts against medically critical human pathogenic microbes, apart from the availability of several reports on its main species R. arboreum. The microbial strains used for the study were four bacterial (Streptococcus p...
COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF SIMULATION BASED TEACHING VERSUS CONVENTIONAL TEACHING FOR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF SECOND PROFESSIONAL M.B.B.S IN EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY
Aims: To evaluate and analyze effectiveness of animal simulation based teaching in pharmacology in comparison to conventional methods to undergraduate medical students. Methods: An interventional and comparative study was conducted among second professional MBBS students. All students were divided into two groups A and B. Four demonstrations of experimental pharmacology were demonstrated by conven...
Adverse drug reactions in the form of toxic epidermal necrolysis is a rare but potentially fatal disorder. The pathophysiology of such reactions are not properly understood. There are many drugs which are very often implicated for causing such severe reactions. Allopurinol is a common drug used in chronic gout but also notorious for causing Steven - Johnson syndrome and rarely toxic epidermal necr...
COMPARISON OF POST PRANDIAL LIPID PROFILE AT AN INTERVAL OF 2 HOURS AND 4 HOURS IN PATIENTS OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is widely prevalent both in the developed and developing countries and continues to be a leading cause of mortality despite recent advances in diagnostic facilities and treatment modalities. Recently it has been proposed that postprandial lipoprotein may be a better indicators of deranged lipoproteins metabolism and hence of atherosclerosis and CHD. The levels of non-f...
Aloe vera has been used since ages to manage a number of diseases causing pain, inflammation and fever. However, its effectiveness has not been scientifically certified. NSAIDs & Opioid are used continuously for the pain management. Alternative analgesics are needed to escape from the serious adverse effects of NSAIDs. Our study demonstrated significant analgesic activity of Aloe vera at doses...
CURRY LEAF POWDER AND CUCUMBER SLICES ATTENUATE HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN POST MENOPAUSAL WOMEN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL SINGLE BLINDED STUDY
Background: Woman's risk for developing heart disease rises after menopause may possibly correlated with the striking increase in cholesterol levels. Objective: A randomized controlled cluster group single blind study was conducted by treating with dried curry leaf powder and cucumber slices in hyperlipidemic post menopausal women in rural area. Methods: Menopausal healthy women of rural communi...
MACROSCOPICAL, MICROSCOPICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF DALBERGIA SISSOO LINN. (FABACEAE)
Objective: To rationalize the macroscopial, anatomical and physico-chemical studies on leaves of plant Dalbergia sissoo Linn. (Fabaceae). Methods: The crude ethanolic extract of leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Linn. (Fabaceae) was using physico-chemical parameters, fluorescence analysis, and preliminary phytochemical investigation (TLC, HPTLC, column chromatography). Results: An attempt has been made t...
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS AGAINST MULTI-RESISTANT PATHOGENS
Now a day the exposure of multi-resistance human pathogens has challenged our existing defense to save human being. To minimize such alarming issue, identification of naturally-occurring antimicrobial agents from plant origin has become a realistic and powerful tool to the researchers. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of the ethanolic extracts of diffe...
Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. Studies performed on self-medication reveal that it is a fairly common practice, especially in economically deprived communities. This Descriptive cross sectional study assessed the self‑medication issue among medical students of Aleppo Government University (AGU) and Al-Andalus P...
Norepinephrine (NE) is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter that acts as a biochemical messenger in central nervous systems and neuronal cells of mammals, which is secreted and released by the adrenal medulla and the noradrenergic neurons during the synaptic transmission. It is often used for treating bronchial asthma, myocardial infarction hypertension and organic heart disease. Abnormal r...