Volume 2 (2011) - Issue 2, February
Drug delivery is an interdisciplinary area of research that aims at making the administration of complex new drugs feasible, as well as adding critical value to the drug that are currently in the market. At present, one of the most attractive areas of research in drug delivery is the design of ‘Nano drug delivery systems’ that are able to deliver drugs to the right place, at appropriate time. ...
Graphite is made up of layers of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, like chicken wire (see fi the term nanotube is normally used to refer to the carbon nanotube, which has received enormous attention from researchers over the last few years and promises, along with close relatives such as the nanohorn, a host of interesting applications. The theoretical minimum diameter of a carbon nano...
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive electrical discharge in brain, which causes seizures. The therapeutic strategy in countering epilepsy involves reducing neuronal excitability through different mechanistic pathway. Most therapeutics currently used in the treatment of epilepsy is either directed towards blocking voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels or potentiating ...
The main objective of the present study was to conduct an in depth study of the advances made in the therapy with music and the developments made in its applications in the health care, using primarily resources of published material in the internet. The current study was mainly aimed at understanding music therapy from the perspective of its applications in the field of medicine as a novel altern...
Ayurveda is time-tested science of treating disease with natural things like plant, animals and minerals. It remains one of the most ancient and yet living traditions practised widely in India, Sri Lanka and other countries and has a sound philosophical and experiential basis. Plumbago zeylanica is commonly known as white chitraka, belongs to family plumbaginaceae. It is distributed as a weed ...
In the present article attempt has been made to explain the basic ideas and the significance of Thin layer Chromatography (TLC) in different analytical methods. As TLC is less time consuming, low cost, and can be performed with less complicated technique it has a wide application in pharmaceutical analysis. If performed precisely 32 amino acids can be separated by TLC. Also it has a wide app...
FTIR AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY AS A TOOL FOR ANALYZING SUSTAINED RELEASE HYDROGEL OF CIPROFLOXACIN/CARBOPOL POLYMER
Purpose: Ciprofloxacin, an antibacterial agent, is having low solubility in aqueous solution and high rate of absorption from the stomach. It is precipitated at alkaline pH which leads to erratic absorption of the drug from small intestine. To overcome these difficulties, many researchers have prepared different formulations of Ciprofloxacin. But till now very few formulations are available from w...
Earthworm plays a major role in the proper functioning of the soil ecosystem. It acts as scavenger and helps in recycling of dead and decayed plant material by feeding on them. Earthworm increases the soil fertility and is often referred to as a farmer’s friend. Earthworms have been used in medicine for various remedies. In the present investigation, various solvent extracts of an earthworm, Eud...
The antibacterial properties of methanol leaf extract of Duranta plumieri wasdeterminedagainst Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis as test organisms using the agar disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the microbroth dilution method. The methanol extract was subj...
Microencapsulation is a well-known method that is used to modify and retard drug release. In this study, the preparation of Zidovudine loaded microcapsule was accomplished in order to assess the suitability of them for production of oral/vaginal sustained release multiparticulate dosage form of Zidovudine.Microcapsules were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The effect of formulation v...
Some novel benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized with ibuprofen and evaluated for its activity. This compound showed notable antibacterial activity against gram-positive organisms and antifungal activity against when compared with respective standards....
Crude ethanolic extract of Brassica nigra was studied to detect the chemical compounds as well as to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The different antioxidants assays including total antioxidant activity, DPPH, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reducing power, total phenolic content and flavonoid content were studied. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids,...
SCREENING OF SOME HERBAL PREPARATIONS USED IN INDIAN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE FOR ITS ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIALS
Ayurvedic medicine plays a crucial role in healthcare and serves the health need of a vast majority of people in developing countries. Some clinically used ayurvedic herbal preparations were investigated (solvent extract preparation) for antibacterial potential against enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacil...
DEVELOPMENT OF REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD AND ITS VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF FORMOTEROL FUMARATE ROTA CAPS
A simple, rapid and reproducible HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of Formoterol Fumarate Rotacaps. Symmetry C8 (4.6×150mm, 5 µ) column, in isocratic mode with mobile phase containing Ammonium Acetate Buffer pH 5.0 and Acetonitrile (80:20) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the analyte was monitored at 254 nm. The retention time for Formoterol was about 4.6 mins....
Purpose: A study was conducted for Arthritis, mainly focused on Osteoarthritis (OA) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), to check the prevalence, awareness, severity, probable causes, drug utilization and evaluate efficiency of different therapies in population of North Gujarat. Methodology: Detailed questionnaires were designed to collect data randomly from 260 patients of rural and urban area of Pa...
A considerable number of studies have already been performed involving the roots and stems of Berberis aristata and thus the following investigation has been carried out for the phytochemical study of ethanolic extract of heartwood of Berberis aristata. The heartwood (1.8 kg) of Berberis aristata DC. Var aristata (Berberidaceae) was exhaustively extracted in 95% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. Th...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF RITONAVIR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
A simple, precise, specific and accurate reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Ritonavir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 100mm, 3.5 μm) column using a mixture of Buffer: Acetonitrile (50:50) as the mobile phase at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min. Linearity was observed in concentration range of 50-1...
Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle are well documented but there are very few reports on the changes in serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid levels in various phases of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, present study was conducted on 50 healthy females in the age group of 18-35 menstruating regularly (cycle length between 25 and 35 days). The study demonstrated that serum calcium levels ...
New 5- phenyl- 1, 3, 4- oxadiazole- 2- thiol derivative was synthesized by the ring closure reactions of benzohydrazides with carbon disulphide in presence of ethanolic KOH followed by substitution with secondary amines at 2nd position. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR and LC-MASS spectral data. Most of them were tested for their anti-inflammatory and antibacte...
The study aimed to access the analgesic effect of Feronia limonia (FL, leaves of Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle). The leaves of FL were extracted with 95% ethanol and the dried extract (FLE) was administered intragastically (i.g.) at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Analgesic effect was evaluated in two experimental animal models. Pretreatment with single dose of FLE also produced dose-dependent anti-nocicep...
The purpose of the study was to determine the in vitro as well in vivo efficiencies of 1% carbopol hydrogel different preparations containing the meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor anti-inflammatory drug with b-cyclodextrin. The release of plain drug was then compared with release of from trans dermal gel containing physical mixture of drug and b-cyclodextrin, inclusion complex of drug and b-...
A NOVEL USE OF OXIDATIVE COUPLING REACTIONS FOR DETERMINATION OF ANTIBIOTIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
The present work describes new spectrophotometeric methods for the assay of four drugs namely Meropenem (MPN), Cefditoren Pivoxil (CTP), Mesalamine (MSL) and Cefdinir (CDN) in both pure form and Pharmaceutical formulations. All methods involve the oxidative coupling reaction of MPN, CTP, MSL and CDN with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) in presence of Fe(III) in an acidi...
STUDY THE EFFECT OF PROCESS VARIABLES IN FLUID BED GRANULATION ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GRANULES
The purpose of this research was to improve the granulation efficiency and the final granule characteristics for the any kind of the material that is to be granulated via FBG process. The fluid bed granulation process is an influenced by various processing parameters like atomization pressure, binder addition rate, in let temperature etc. These process variables largely affect the granulation effi...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF RISPERIDONE IN BULK DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
A simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the deterrmination of Risperidone in raw material and capsule. The λmax of Risperidone was found to be 202nm. Risperidone obeys linearity within the concentration range of 2.5 to 20µg/mL and coefficient correlation was found to be 0.9991.The regression of the curve was Y= 0.0508X+0.0112. The %RSD value is below 2...
Casein microparticles cross linked with glutaraldehyde were prepared by steric stabilization process and the controlled release of drug from the particles were evaluated in-vitro. Casein is a natural biopolymer present abundantly in milk is utilized because of its biocompatibility through oral route. Methotrexate loaded Casein microparticles of size 0.5 to 5 µm were prepared. The release of metho...
OPTIMISATION OF SALBUTAMOL SUSPENSION AS METERED DOSE INHALATION (MDI) AND COMPARISON WITH A MARKETED MDI SUSPENSION
The direct delivery of therapeutically active drug to the pulmonary tract has proved to be a life saving tool for many Asthmatics. Salbutamol being a drug of choice in severe Asthma attacks, in the present study attempt was made to prepare MDI of Salbutamol in suspension formulation and compare it with the marketed MDI of salbutamol suspension. The proportion of C.F.C. propellant blend (p11 &...
ANTIDIABETIC AND GLYCOGENESIS EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA (LINN.) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycogenesis effects of the different fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform) of methanolic extract of Momordica charantia. The different fractions of the extract were administered intraperitoneally as a single dose of 150 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced as well as glucose i...
In the present study a new series of coumarin derivatives have been synthesized by condensation of ethyl acetoacetate and resorcinol. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectral analysis. These compounds were screened for their Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activities. Among the synthesized compounds II (a-1 to c-3)....
The methanolic extract of Nerium indicum showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, and starch in phyto-chemical investigation. Total phenolic content of the drug was estimated by Folin Ciocatteu’s method and was found to be 55.20 µg/10 ml. Analgesic activity was performed using three models they are Writhing, Tail-flick activity and Hot plate models. The methanoilc extract showed 44...
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF NEBIVOLOL HCL AND VALSARTAN IN SOLID DOSAGE FORM BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND RP-HPLC METHOD
A simple high-performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC and two reproducible ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of nebivolol HCl and valsartan simultaneously in combined pharmaceutical solid dosage form. The wavelength fixed for spectrophotometric measurement of valsartan at 246.6 nm, nebivolol HCl at 280.2 nm for the simultaneous equation and fo...
Emblica officinalis (EO) a native plant of India is used in a variety of conditions and to treat a host of ailments besides being a rich source of Vitamin C. The efficacy of this fruit powder administered orally in lead induced toxicity was investigated in rats. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of lead induced and treated rats were studied in liver and kidney. The changes observed in tox...
IN VIVO TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS PESTICIDE ON FEMALE ALBINO MICE: THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF CURCUMA LONGA
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) an Organophosphate insecticide was evaluated for its toxicity to produce reproductive disorders in rats following oral exposure. In the present study CPF was given to the mice at the dose levels of 10 and 20mg/kg body weight by Gavage method. A histological alteration of ovary and uterus was examined under light microscope. Its oxidative stress levels were studied by noting lipi...
The present study was aimed to evaluate total antioxidant capacities of eleven different commonly consumed aqueous fruit extracts viz. Ananas comosus, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Carica papaya, Citrullus vulgaris, Citrus sinensis, Malus domestica, Manilkara zapota, Musa paradisiaca, Phyllanthus emblica, Psidium guajava and Pyrus communis. The total antioxidant capacity was assessed using phosphomoly...
The study was obtained to develop oral controlled release matrix tablets of Lamivudine having different proportion of Guar gum (retardant polymer) and to study the effect of formulation factor such as polymer proportion on the in- vitro release. The prepared granules were evaluated such as angle of repose, loose bulk density, tapped bulk density and compressibility index and satisfactory results w...
Objective: The objective of the study is to design and evaluate oral sustained release tablet of lamotrigine using polymer such as HPMC K 4M, HPMC K 100M and methocel E50 LV at 15%, 25%, and 35% Concentration range. Methods: All the selected ingredients were weighed and passed through 40# sieve, blended in a Poly Bag except Magnesium Stearate for 10 minutes. The resultant mixture was made in to...
STUDIES ON ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF AMORPHOPHALLUS PAEONIIFOLIUS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
Acute diarrhoea is one of the principal causes of death in the infants, particularly in developing countries. An array of medicinal plants with anti-diarrhoeal properties has been widely used by the traditional practitioners; however, the efficacy of many of these anti-diarrhoeal conventional medicines has not been scientifically evaluated. Hence the present study was under taken to explore anti-d...