Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 6, June
ANGIOGENESIS AND CANCER THERAPY
Cancer spreads by metastasis which is the ability of cancer cells to penetrate into lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through the bloodstream, and then invade and grow in normal tissues elsewhere. It is this ability to spread to other tissues and organs that makes cancer a potentially life-threatening disease. Cancer researchers involve in the study of the conditions necessary for cancer meta...
NANO – STRUCTURED HERBAL ANTIMICROBIALS
The use of traditional medicines of natural origin is being encouraged for the treatment of chronic disorders, as synthetic drugs in such cases may cause unpredictable adverse effects. The various strategies which have been identified to defeat drug resistance, the investigation of new and effective natural products exhibiting antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms is likely to p...
TRANSIENT RECEPTOR POTENTIAL (TRP) CHANNEL: AN EMERGING TARGET FOR PAIN
Pain perception begins with the activation of primary sensory nociceptors. Over the past decade, flourishing research has revealed that members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channel family are fundamental molecules that detect noxious stimuli and transduce a diverse range of physical and chemical energy into action potentials in somatosensory nociceptors. Here we highlight the role...
GREEN SYNTHESIS OF THIAZINE AND OXAZINE DERIVATIVES – A SHORT REVIEW
A survey of green synthesis of thiazines and oxazines revealed the moiety have attracted a great deal of interest of medicinal chemist, biochemist, pharmacologist and rendered as a lead molecule for designing potential bioactive agents. This review accompanying supplementary green synthetic information & its references would extend great deal of help to researchers in determining the best and ...
EXCITOTOXICITY AND CELL DAMAGE – A REVIEW
Excitotoxicity refers to the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged & killed by glutamate or related excitatory amino acid under conditions such as after intense exposure. This occurs when receptor for the excitatory neurotransmitter such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or AMPA are over activated. Such excitotoxic neuronal death may take part in the pathogenesis of brain or spina...
AN UPDATE ON DISEASE PROFILE OF CANCER WITH HERBAL TREATMENT
There has been a vast growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs popularly are increasing both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin, more therapeutic effect and less side effects. Since ancient cultures, tribal people methodically collected information on herbs and developed well-defined herbal drugs for the treatment of many diseases. In cancer, cells ...
MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY AND DEVELOPMENT OF ANTITUBERCULAR DRUGS
Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that has caused inestimable suffering and claimed millions of lives over the centuries. Resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have slowly emerged especially in developing countries due to the lack of health care organisation in order to provide the long and costly treatment adapted to patients. In fact, 90% of all TB cases occur in the developing w...
SOLID DISPERSIONS: A REVIEW ON DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM AND SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT
Solid dispersions, defined as the dispersion of one or more active pharmaceutical ingredient in a carrier at solid state and an efficient technique to improve dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs to enhance their bioavailability. Poor water solubility is one of the major problems for the various types of drugs and various approaches have been introduced for the enhancement of solubility of su...
BOSWELLIA SERRATA ROXB. A TRADITIONAL HERB WITH VERSATILE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY: A REVIEW
Boswellia serrata Roxb. is known as kundur in Unani medicine, belongs to the family Burseraceae. The plant is widely distributed in India, it occurs in dry hilly forests of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Assam, Orrisa, central peninsular regions of Andhra Pradesh etc. In ancient times Hindus, Babylonians, Persians, Romans, Chinese, Greeks and the people of old American civilization use...
GLIAL CELLS RESPONSES: IN OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME
Drug addiction represents one of the major medical, social, and economic burdens of human behavior. Opioids are powerful relievers; use of opioids for the treatment of pain has been associated with the potential disadvantages including development of tolerance, dependence. There are seven stages involved in opioid addiction. Identification of glial-mediated mechanism inducing opioid side effects i...
BIOSIMILAR: AN OVERVIEW
Biosimilars are defined as officially approved new version of innovator bio-therapeutic products for which the patent has expired. Biosimilars the ‘generic’ versions of biopharmaceuticals, continue to enter Indian pharmaceutical market, to treat a variety of diseases. Biosimilars available in India include monoclonal antibodies for treating various malignant and immunological disorders, growth...
A REVIEW OF PELLETS AND PELLETIZATION PROCESS – A MULTIPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Multiparticulate drug delivery systems like pellets, granules, micro particles, minitablets etc., prove to be promising and highly flexible systems with ease of formulating with different drug release kinetics. These multiparticulate dosage forms are essential where drug-excipients or drug-drug physicochemical interactions are possible in a single-unit formulation. In present times, pelletization ...
THREE GENERATIONS: PIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY GENERATIONS OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW
From this article, we get the knowledge about the transdermal patch, transdermal drug delivery system and anatomy of the skin. Now-a-days transdermal drug delivery, system is widely used in much disease. So, this article gives the knowledge about pre transdermal system, post transdermal drug delivery system and future of transdermal drug delivery systems and examines the benefits and limitations o...
DENDRIMERS – A NEW CLASS OF POLYMERS
Dendrimers are highly branched and reactive three-dimensional macromolecules, with all bonds emanating from a central core. Compared with traditional linear polymers, Dendrimers have much more accurately controlled structures, with a globular shape, a single molecular weight rather than a distribution of molecular weights, and a large number of controllable ‘peripheral’ functionalities. All th...
PEGINESATIDE- A NOVEL ERYTHROPOIETIN MIMETIC AGENT FOR THE TREATMENT OF ANAEMIA IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS
Anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects the overall health of the patients leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) have been the standard of care for the treatment of such patients since last 20 years. These agents have the potential to increase mean haemoglobin levels in both pre dialysis and dialysis maintenance phases hence low...
SOLUTION PROPERTIES AND THE MASKING OF UNPLEASANT TASTES OF NICOTINE – SWEETENER – WATER MIXTURES
Solutions properties of sapide molecules provide fundamental information on type (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) and degree of hydration. Physico-Chemical properties like intrinsic viscosity, Apparent Specific Volume (ASV) and related parameters for bitter molecule (nicotine) and bitterness inhibitors (carbohydrate sweeteners, artificial sweeteners) and their mixtures were determined to study the rol...
HETEROGENEITY OF IRON STATUS AND ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY DURING PREGNANCY IN CÔTE D’IVOIRE
Antiretroviral therapy for decades is the appropriate treatment for infected populations with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, it is associated with complications that affect the organism infected. The combination of antiretroviral therapy and pregnancy degrades iron metabolism. This work aims to evaluate and characterize the impact of the interaction between antiretroviral therapy and...
THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF n-C6H14 AND CH3CH2OH EXTRACT OF SOLANUM MELONGENA FRUIT AND LEAVES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
As part of a research initiative to evaluate plants used for their nutritional and herbal values, the antimicrobial activity of Solanum Melongena’s fruit and Moringa oleifera’s leaveswere investigated. Each plant part was subjected to selective extraction using solvents of varying polarity: n-C6H14, CH2Cl2, EtOAc and CH3CH2OH. The n-C6H14 and CH3CH2OH extract of these two plants were tested fo...
TARGETED DELIVERY OF CATALASE TO MACROPHAGES BY USING SURFACE MODIFICATION OF BIODEGRADABLE NANOPARTICLE
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by activated macrophages play a major role in causing liver disorders. Small antioxidants and scavengers are protective only at very high concentrations and they poorly detoxify toxic ROS. Catalase (CAT) is an antioxidant enzyme that scavenges ROS and has great potential for treating liver disorders. In the present research work, gelatin nanoparticles bearing...
NOVEL GENTAMICIN LOADED ELECTROSPUN NANOFIBROUS SCAFFOLDS FOR WOUND HEALING: AN IN- VITRO STUDY
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the backbone in controlling cell behavior in the living organisms during the process of wound healing. The design of a suitable biomimetic nanofibrous scaffold which mimics the properties of natural ECM is a need of present time. In order to create a novel and unique wound dressing material, composite nanoscaled eudragit scaffolds loaded with gentamicin were prepa...
SENSITIVE AND SELECTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SPIRAMYCIN IN PURE FORM AND IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
Three simple and sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of spiramycin (SPM) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets). The first and second methods, A and B, are based on the formation of charge transfer complex between drug and the chromogenic reagents quinalizarin (method A) and alizarin red S (method B) producing charge transfe...
AN IN VITRO INVESTIGATION OF SUITABILITY OF PRESS-COATED TABLETS WITH HYDROXYPROPYLMETHYLCELLULOSE ACETATE SUCCINATE (HPMCAS) AND SODIUM ALGINATE IN OUTER SHELL FOR COLON TARGETING
The aim of present study was to develop a new colon targeting formulation, which can minimize the escape of Mesalazine completely in upper gastro-intestinal tract and ensure availability of maximum amount of drug to achieve the desired site i.e. distal colon. The use of press coated tablets with Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and sodium alginate in outer shell was investig...
RP-HPLC ANALYSIS OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND VOGLIBOSE AND STUDY OF ITS DIFFERENT ANALYTICAL PARAMETER
A simple, specific, precise, and efficient method for the Simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCl and Voglibose tablet by a Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography method is developed and validated. Selected mobile phase were in a combination of acetonitrile: buffer pH- 6.5 in the ratio of 62:38. Optimized column is a stainless steel column packed with base octa decylsilyl silica gel...
STUDIES ON PENETRATION ENHANCERS IN CORPORATED CREAM OF CLOBETASOL-17-PROPIONATE: DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION
Topical corticosteroids have long been the chronic stage in the treatment of steroid responsive dermatitis. Creams containing 0.05% w/w Clobetasol-17-propionate (CP) as active ingredient are categorized as super potent class I topical dermatological corticosteroids. For the drug molecule to reach the cutaneous microcirculation, enhance, the systemic circulation, have to transverse both the lipophi...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, DNA-BINDING, PHOTOCLEAVAGE AND ANTI-MICROBIAL STUDIES OF COMPLEX [Ru(4-ETHYL- PYRIDINE)4(DPPZ)]2+
The new Ru (II) complex [Ru(4-Et-py)4(dppz)]2+ (dppz = dipyrido phenazine) have been synthesized and characterized by different analytical techniques like elemental analysis, LC-MS, 1H NMR , 13C NMR. The interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA has been explored by U.V. absorption spectroscopy, Fluorescence measurements, and viscosity measurements. Their photocleavage behavior towards ...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PREDNISOLONE TABLETS USING BIO-DEGRADABLE NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDES AS A CARRIER IN COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY
The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate naturally obtained polysaccharides (Tamarind seed polysaccharide and Pectin) as a carrier in colon targeted drug delivery systems a colon targeted drug delivery. The newer developments in this context aim for an increased selectivity of drug delivery by targeting mechanisms which have a closer relation to pathophysiological particularities o...
GREEN SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES PRODUCED USING IPOMOEA AQUATICA FORSK LEAF EXTRACT
Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate the synthesis and characterization of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and their antimicrobial effect on gram positive and gram negative bacteria by using hydro alcoholic leaf extract of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk (HAEIA). Material and Methods: AgNPs were prepared by green synthesis process from 1mM AgNO3 solution the aqueous silver ions when e...
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SYNTHESIZED AGENTS USING UGI MULTICOMPONENT REACTION
In the present study, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the synthesized agents derived from Ugi four component reactions (Ugi-4CR) has been described. The synthesized novel Ugi derivatives 7 (a-h) were characterized on the basis of I.R, 1H NMR and mass spectral analysis. Healthy Wistar Albino rats were used to carry out these activities. Analgesic activity was evaluated by Eddy hot pla...
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NYSTATIN-LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY
Solid lipid nanoparticle proved appropriate as prolonged release formulation for lipophilic drugs. The present work dealt with the preparation of the antifungal lipophilic drug nystatin into solid lipid nanoparticles ((Nyst-SLNs).) formulation for topical delivery with the aim to prolong its release and effectiveness. Hot homogenization and ultrasonication were applied in the production of (Nyst-S...
REVERSAL OF ROSIGLITAZONE HEPATOTOXICITY BY SILYMARIN ON RATS
The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatotoxic potential of rosiglitazone- an oral hypoglycemic thiazolidenedione class of drug. The hepatotoxic potential of rosiglitazone was assessed in-vitro on isolated rat hepatocytes before subjecting to in-vivo studies. The in-vitro activity was measured by trypan blue exclusion assay and determination of liver marker enzymes. The hepatotoxi...
ATLAS OF MACRO-MICROSCOPY OF RAW DRUG SOLD AS MUSTA – CYPERUS ROTUNDUS (L.)
The quest for eternal health has made mankind to intensively research the nature itself. Nature has a rich source of medicinal plants, the proper use of which is necessary to maintain health. According to WHO, almost 80% of the population of developing countries has utmost faith in traditional medicines, of which plants are the important source. WHO recommends macroscopic and microscopic studies o...
DESIRE FOR FERTILITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) IN SELECTED ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY (ART) CLINICS OF HORRO GUDURU WOLLEGA ZONE, NORTH WEST OROMIA, ETHIOPIA- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Background: Most recently fertility issues in HIV positive men and women are becoming increasingly important. Because of ART access and its good life effect, it is expected that the need and desire to get married, to have children and to have sexual partners for PLWHA would change with the regard to reproductive health. In Ethiopia HIV positive individuals may or may not have desire to have childr...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF THE AERIAL PARTS OF VIBURNUM PUNCTATUM BUCH. – HAM. Ex. D. DON
The genus Viburnum punctatum Linn. Under the family Caprifoliaceae (formerly) and Adoxaceae (currently) consists of about 200 species throughout the world. Many of these species have been recognized for their medicinal properties from very early times of this century. The aerial parts of Viburnum punctatum was collected from Nilgiri hills, Tamilnadu, India and was authenticated by Dr. A. B. Rema...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTACID ANALGESIC TABLET
The present study deals with formulation of a combined analgesic and antacid effervescent tablets. Paracetamol is the model drug used. It is poorly soluble in the water and hence the formulation is in the form of an effervescent tablet so that the disintegration time of the drug is not hindering the action. The mixture of magnesium and aluminium hydroxide is used as the model antacid. The present ...
POST-GRADUATE PHARMACY STUDENTS PERCEPTION ABOUT CHANGES REQUIRED IN PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND USE OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SELECT COLLEGES IN SOUTH INDIA
A pilot study was conducted to understand the study habits of the post-graduation (PG) pharmacy students’ in India and their perspective on the use of a Learning Management System (LMS) in line with the current system of education to meet the industrial requirements in Indian scenario. The researchers administered of an open labeled, questionnaire to understand students’ study pattern, expecta...
ASSESSMENT OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG PHARMACY PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH- WEST ETHIOPIA
Background: Job satisfaction represents one of the most complex areas facing today’s managers when it comes to managing their employees. The level of job satisfaction among pharmacy personnel is of importance because it may affect performance and retention. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and factors associated with it among pharmacy professionals working at selected heal...
EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF DODONAEA VISCOSA JACQ INALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR ALBINO RATS
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing activity of leaf extract of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq in diabetic wistar albino rats. Wound is defined as a loss or breaking of cellular and anatomic or functional continuity of living tissue. Normal wound healing response begins the moment the tissue is injured. Wound healing is the process of repair that follows injury to the skin and ot...
HOMOLOGY MODELING AND DOCKING STUDIES ON HIV REVERSE TRANSRIPTASE INHIBITORS
The usefulness of computational methods in drug design process is no longer a point of debate. The contributions from this evolving field have become apparent to both pharmaceutical scientists and academic biomedical researchers. As all the computational drug design are based on statistical and mathematical calculations there is strong evidences present for each and every step, thus research by ch...
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 115 CASES OF GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GLIOSARCOMA
Background: Glioblastoma Multiforme is the commonest of all astrocytomas. It accounts for 12-15% of all intracranial neoplasm and 50-60% of all astrocytic tumors. Most common site of occurrence is cerebrum and age incidence is highest in fifth and sixth decade. Gliosarcoma constitutes 2% of all brain tumors, 5% of all astrocytomas and 8% of anaplastic astrocytomas. The cell of origin of sarcomatou...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF Ni(II) AND Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH SOME NITROGEN- OXYGEN AND NITROGEN SULPHUR DONOR LIGANDS
Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Schiff base thiosemicarbazones (L1) and semicarbazones (L2) derived from pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic suscepectibility measurements, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of the complexes in DMSO determine the non-electrolytes and...
A VALIDATED RP- HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL AND DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
A reversed-phase-liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of Paracetamol (PCM) and Dicyclomine Hydrochloride (DICY) in their bulk drug and marketed formulations. A reversed-phase C-18 Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5μm) with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile: Phosphate Buffer pH (5.5): triethylamine (75:25:0.02 v/v/v) was used with 1.0 ml/ m...
STABILITY INDICATING HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF QUETIAPINE FUMARATE
A simple, sensitive, selective, precise and stability indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for determination of quetiapine fumarate both as a bulk drug and from tablets was developed and validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The HPTLC method employed aluminum plates precoated with silica gel G 60F254 as stationary phase. The solve...
EFFECT OF LIGHT AND HEAT ON STABILITY OF CRUDE CAROTENOID EXTRACT FROM NATURAL SOURCES
Carotenoids are accessory coloring pigments found occurring naturally in the plants and some photosynthetic organisms. Recently there has been an increased focus on the health benefits and food applications of these natural pigments. The stability and bioavailability of carotenoids vary significantly across a range of processing paradigms. The present study was planned to investigate stability o...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECTS TWO β2 ADRENERGIC AGONISTS ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MODERATE TO SEVERE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA PATIENTS
Background: β2- agonist drugs are frequently prescribed in asthmatics. Apart from bronchodilation they affect biochemical and physical parameters of the body. Method: Total 80 patients were divided into two groups. Group I (n=40) received Albuterol- 2.5mg./2.5ml. TDS and Group II (n=40) received Levalbuterol- 0.63mg./2.5ml, TDS via nebulizer for 4 weeks. Baseline and post-treatment estimatio...
DESIGN, FORMATION AND EVALUATION OF A CO-DRIED DIRECTLY COMPRESSIBLE EXCIPIENT “TSAG-15” AND ITS UTILIZATION IN THE FORMULATION OF A RAPID RELEASE-MOUTH DISINTEGRATING ASCORBIC ACID TABLETS
A research was conducted to design a directly compressible filler binder characterized with rapid release and mouth disintegrating. Acacia gum was obtained from local source and was purified using a standard method. Tapioca starch was also extracted from cassava tuber using a standard method. Both primary excipients were evaluated for power properties and coprocessed at varying concentration using...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND ESOMEPRAZOLE MAGNESIUM TRIHYDRATE IN BULK DRUG AND IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
Two simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Diclofenac Sodium (DIC) and Esomeprazole Magnesium Trihydrate in bulk drugs and synthetic mixture. Method A, Simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method) applies measurement of absorptivities at two wavelengths, 280.00 nm, (λmax of Diclofenac Sodium) and 301.00 nm,( (λmax of...