Volume 8 (2017) - Issue 6, June
Cinnamaldehyde is derived from the cinnamon essential oil (EO) having many biological and pharmacological significance. This review article explains the source, chemistry, physico-chemical characteristics of the molecule. The synthesis of its different analogous has been duly highlighted. The different applications narrating the various usage have been reported. It is expected that this review sha...
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of death from an infectious disease till date. Recent data shows that currently 9.6 million people are infected with TB. Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries and it is among the top 5 causes of death for women aged 15 to 44. TB is a leading killer of HIV-positive people and around 1 in 3HIV deaths was due to TB. Furthermor...
Syzygium cumini (L.) is a widely used medicinal plant for the treatment of various ailments. The plant contains anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin as its chief active constituents. These active cons isoquercetin, kaempferol tituents impart multiple pharmacological activities to the plant which includes antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial...
Compounds with teratogenic effects can cause genetic defects during pregnancy and subsequently lead to unwanted abortions. Unwanted abortions and postnatal genetic defects can impose economic and psychological burden on the community. This systematic review was conducted to report medicinal plants with teratogenic and abortion-inducing side effects that are used in Iran. To conduct this systematic...
Up to 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) discovered today by the pharmaceutical industry through combinatorial chemistry and high through put screening are highly lipophilic or poorly water soluble compounds, so the number of such compounds has dramatically increased and the solubility behaviour of these drugs has become one of the most challenging aspects in formulation development. So amongst t...
Oral drug delivery is the most preferred route for the various drug molecules among all other routes of drug delivery, because ease of administration which lead to better patient compliance. So, oral extended release drug delivery system becomes a very promising approach for those drugs that are given orally but having the shorter half-life and high dosing frequency. Extended release drug delivery...
PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE BRINGS GENETICS AND IMMUNOLOGY TOGETHER TO EVOLVE A NEW DIMENSION IN TREATING CHILDHOOD CANCER: A REVIEW
Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been the cornerstone of cancer management for decades. Since a decade or so, targeted therapies by way of Imatinib and Trastuzumab arrived that specifically target cancer cells and reply on specific molecular changes to identify them. These are in fact the standard treatment at present in several forms of cancer. But now in recent times, the fifth pi...
Tea has been considered as a health promoting drink & stimulant. Globally 4842.1 thousand tons tea consume annually. But due to change in soil characteristics, indiscriminate use of pesticide & fertilizer lead to accumulation of toxic heavy metal like Lead(Pb), Arsenic(As), Copper(Cu), Nickel(Ni) & Cadmium(Cd) in tea leafs & bud. Tea market in India is not well regulated, an abunda...
Liposomes have been established as a promising novel drug delivery vehicle in several different basic sciences. Liposomes are microscopic spheres with an aqueous core surrounded by one or more outer shells consisting of lipids arranged in a bilayer configuration. Liposomes are acceptable superior carriers having ability to encapsulate hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs and protect them from degradat...
Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine and various cultures can be valuable resources for discovering new drugs. This review was conducted to report Iranian medicinal plants effective on sexual dysfunction (sexual desire disorders, erectile dysfunction, and premature ejaculation). To conduct this systematic review, the search terms Sexual*, Aphrodisiacs, Erectile, and Libido* combined with ...
DUAL STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLY (N-ISOPROPYLACRYLAMIDE-co-ACRYLIC ACID) COPOLYMERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN IBUPROFEN DELIVERY
A series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(NIPAM-co-AA)) nanoparticles with different contents of acrylic acid were synthesized via free radical polymerization route. Their pH- and thermo-responsive behaviors were investigated using 1H-NMR, FT-IR and SEM, dynamic light scattering, scanning calorimeter and zeta potential measurements. The results elucidated that the P(NIPAM-co-AA) e...
Pharmacovigilance compiles and analyzes spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) notifications reports on pharmacovigilance databases. Benzodiazepines have been related to skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders ADRs (SSTD-ADRs); tetrazepam was withdrawn in 2013 because of these ADRs. We intended to locate possible associations between cutaneous ADRs and benzodiazepines marketed in USA; for that, ...
AMELIORATED SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF GLIMEPIRIDE BY CYCLODEXTRIN TERNARY COMPLEXES EMPLOYING AMINOACIDS
The purpose of the current investigation was to ameliorate the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of an anti diabetic drug Glimepiride by cyclodextrin ternary complexes employing aminoacids. Initially, Glimepiride (GMP) binary complexes with β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) and Hydroxy propyl β-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were formulated by physical mixing, kneading, solvent evaporation and spray drying tec...
Purpose: We studied by microarray analysis the tissue angiotensin system organization. We elucidated the expression of chymase, cathepsins D, G and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), potentially involved in intraparietal angiotensin II formation and atheroma. Methods: mRNA gene expression was measured by an Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) using RN...
The present work aimed to explore in vivo the effect of Helix Aspersa Crude Extract (HACE) on the chemo-induced damages occurred in rat colon specially on the histology of the crypts foci in liberkhun glands. The toxicity of HACE was evaluated with different HACE concentrations. With the concentration of 160 mg, animals showed the best gain weight, stayed normal and all animals survived. Therefore...
IMPACT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SUPPLEMENT ON EXTRACTION OF C-PHYCOCYANIN (C-PC) FOLLOWED BY POLY-β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB) FROM NOSTOC MUSCORUM
The extraction of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Nostoc muscorum revealed that PHB yield after C-PC extraction was not found differ significantly as without C-PC extraction. Under photoautotrophic growth condition, the test cyanobacterium accumulates PHB and C-PC with a maximum yield of 40 and 57 mg l-1 respectively at the stationary phase, i.e. on day 21 of incubation...
In the present study, a series of novel biologically active 8-benzylidene-6-tert-butyl-4-phenyl- 5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydro-benzo-1, 3-thiazin – 2 -imines (TB1-TB12) were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities. Initially, 2,6-dibenzylidene-4-tert-butylcyclohexanones were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone with various aromatic aldehydes in the ...
SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION OF MELATONIN FROM BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS: IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC AND HYPOGLYCAEMIC ACTIVITIES OF THE EXTRACTS
Brassica campestris Linn. (yellow mustard), a common Indian condiment, possesses melatonin as an important antioxidant. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) process parameters was conducted to obtain an extract having the best combination of yield of melatonin and maximum in vitro hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic activities, along with a desirable balance of ω6 to...
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA LINN. (NONI) LEAF EXTRACT ON OBESITY, DYSLIPIDEMIA AND ADIPONECTINEMIA IN RATS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME
Pharmacological activities have been reported for the fruit, leaf and root extracts of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni); however, the plant has not been widely studied for its antidyslipidemic effects on obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Objective: to evaluate the effects of aqueous M. citrifolia leaf extract on obesity and adipose tissue cell dynamics associated with triacylglycerol and adiponecti...
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF CASPASE 8 EXPRESSION AND APOPTOTIC INDEX ACTIVITIES OF CALVATIA CRANIIFORMIS CRUDE EXTRACT IN BALB/C MICE INOCULATED WITH H22 CELLS
Objectives: To identify Immunomodulatory, apoptosis induction and anticancer activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Calvatia craniiformis regarding the size of tumor mass and immunohistochemical detection of caspase 8 expressions and apoptotic index in mice inoculated with H22 mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells as therapeutic experimental system for human hepatocellular carcinom...
ENUMERATION OF ORGANCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS IN BEANS GROWN IN FIVE DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA
Pesticide residues in food and crops are a direct result of application of pesticides to crops growing in the field. Large quantities of pesticides are being used to control various pests, which normally infest the economically important plants. Beans- grown across the country and provides an important source of income for the small and marginal farmers. Bean growing in five districts of Karnataka...
This study presents in vitro biomimetic synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles using the enzyme, NADPH dependent-Nitrate reductase purified from fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. The synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles was accomplished in the presence of a synthetic peptide having amino acid sequence (γ-Glu-Cys-Glu-Cys)-Gly, which acted as binding molecule. The nanoparticles were synthesized in the size range of ...
Dental biofilms are majorly developed by Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic microorganism and are one of the major effects of glucosyltransferases (Gtf) produced by it. This study was conducted to determine the antagonistic potential of probiotic bacteria against S. mutans biofilm formation. We studied the anti-biofilm formation ability of three Lactobacillus species viz L. rhamnosus, L. acidophil...
DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE PHYTOCOMPONENTS FROM HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA (LINN.) LEAF BY GC- MS
Annona squamosa Linn.commonly called as custard apple, is an edible tropical fruit belongs to the family Annonaceae, is said to show varied medicinal effects, including insecticide, antiovulatory and abortifacient. Hence the present investigation was carried out to determine the phytochemical composition of A. squamosa leaf extract using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry technique, while th...
MORPHOMETRY OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN NORTH INDIAN POPULATION: A CADAVERIC STUDY
Aims and Objectives: The present study was conducted to find out morphometry of thyroid gland in different age groups. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 human thyroid glands in the Department of Anatomy, Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak in North Indian population. Results: In present study, mean length of right and left lobe of thyroid gland was found to be 29.88±7.03 mm and 29.4...
EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF KANDELIA CANDEL AND RHIZOPHORA APICULATA- AN IN VITRO APPROACH
Objective of the present work was to evaluating the antidiabetic property of Kandelia candel and Rhizophora apiculata extracts by using in vitro assays. The serial exhaustive extraction was carried out with a series of solvents: chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water with increasing polarity using Soxhlet apparatus. The concentrated and dried extracts were evaluated for antidiabe...
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects and motor coordination activity of Huperzine-A in rats. Wistar rats were treated orally with Huperzine-A (0.5, 1, 2 & 4 mg/kg) and diazepam (2 mg/kg p.o) as a standard anxiolytic drug then exposed to Elevated plus Maze (EPM) and Light Dark Box (LDB). The effects of the Huperzine-A on motor coordination were evaluated by actoph...
One of the factors responsible for malaria pathogenesis is the suppression of host immune responses. This suppression enhances parasitemia and diminishes the host immune response to malaria-expressed proteins and other pathogens. Hemozoin is a key metabolite associated with severe malaria anemia (SMA), immunosuppression, and cytokine dysfunction. Targeting of this pigment may be necessary in the d...
Mental disorders are commonly occurring and often seriously impairing in many countries throughout the world. The total number of people suffering from anxiety or depression amount to 615 million, Close to 10% of the world’s population is affected. Chrysanthemum indicum is an ancient herbal medicine used as an anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety in many Asian countries. The elevat...
PERFORMANCE OF ASSOCIATION RULES FOR DENGUE VIRUS TYPE1 AMINO ACIDS USING AN INTEGRATION OF TRANSACTION REDUCTION AND RANDOM SAMPLING (TRRS) ALGORITHM
Association rule mining is the recent research area in data mining. Frequent Itemset Mining techniques is one of the prominent techniques in pattern mining. In this system frequent itemset mining is used to find the frequent amino acids patterns in Dengue Virus Type1 data set. This system uses an integration of Transaction Reduction and Random Sampling (TRRS) approach to identify the frequent patt...
BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANO PARTICLES FROM LEUCAS ASPERA (WILLD.) LINK AND ITS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL AGAINST CARRAGEEN INDUCED PAW EDEMA IN RATS
Synthesis of metal nanoparticles has become an important branch of nanotechnology and there is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applications. The present study was carried to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the ethanolic extract of the Leucas aspera and evaluate its in-vitro anti inflammatory activity. The synthesis was done by using the ethanolic s...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALTERNANTHERA BETTZICKIANA (REGEL) G. NICHOLSON AND ITS PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENTS
The present investigation evaluates preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G. nicholson an edible green medicinal herb tested against various Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. The plants were evaluated against two Gram positive bacterial species such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis; two ...
IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF ESCITALOPRAM LOADED NANOPARTICLES AFTER EXPOSURE TO NEUROBLASTOMA CELL LINES
The aim of the present studies is to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of newly formulated polymeric nanoparticles (ETP NP’s) of Escitalopram oxalate (ETP) on NB41A3 cell lines. They were made by ionic gelation method with particle size range between 60 - 115nm, showing spherical morphology. Moreover, zeta potential of the same was recorded as -1.89 ± 0.052 mV and its permeability release showed 9...
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF STANNOUS CHLORIDE (SnCl2) AND DIMETHYLTIN DICHLORIDE (DMTC) ON DIAZOTROPHIC GROWTH AND NITROGEN METABOLISM OF NOSTOC MUSCORUM
Stannous chloride (SnCl2), an inorganic salt and Dimethyltin dichloride (DMTC), the organic species were found to influence the survival and nitrogen assimilatory system of Nostoc muscorum. A difference in the survival fractions suggested for differential susceptibility of the strain to the toxic effects of the either tin species. Growth of the Nostoc muscorum cells, measured as a function of grad...
Cholesterol is a waxy substance which is made in the body by the liver but is also found in some foods. It plays a vital role in how every cell works and is also needed to make Vitamin D, some hormones and bile for digestion. The concept of energy of a graph was introduced by I. Gutman in the year 1978. In this paper, we compute Siedel Energy, Maximum Degree Energy, Distance Energy, Harary Energy ...
AMELIORATED ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAVES CHLOROFORM EXTRACT (MKCE) AGAINST LEAD INDUCED HEPATIC DYSFUNCTIONS IN MICE
Lead is a well-known hepatotoxic and all-pervading heavy metal. Ingestion of lead induces structural dysfunctions, physiological distortion and biochemical impairment in the liver. The present study was aimed to ascertain the ameliorated effect of chloroform extract of Murraya leaves against the deleterious effects of lead on hepatic function parameters. Murraya koenigii Chloroform Extract (MKCE) ...
In the present study, an attempt was made to design and evaluate mucoadhesive bilayer tablet of losartan potassium (angiotensin II receptor antagonist), in order to overcome bioavailability problems, to reduce dose dependent side effects and frequency of administration. The losartan potassium mucoadhesive buccal tablet were prepared by wet granulation method using chitosan as a mucoadhesive polyme...
The excessive exploitation of medicinal plants during recent years raises the issues regarding their quality, safety and efficacy. In this respect, there has been a rapid increase in the standardization of medicinal plants with therapeutic potential. In spite of the new techniques, identification and evaluation of plant drugs pharmacognostic study is more cheap and reliable. Abrus precatorius L. o...
EFFECT OF ACIDIC, NEUTRAL AND BASIC pH ON SOLUBILITY AND PARTITION-COEFFICIENT OF BENZOIC ACID BETWEEN WATER-BENZENE SYSTEM
Solubilization is depends on solute-solvent interaction, dissociation of solute in solvent into ionic form, temperature, pressure, hydrogen bonding, dielectric constant, polarity and non-polarity of substance, pH, etc. Partition coefficient was determined in two immiscible solvents in aqueous and organic layer. Benzoic acid was selected for present study for its solubilization in different pH buff...
EFFICACY OF GRIFFITHSIA PACIFICA KYLIN ON IN VIVO ANTI DIABETIC AND ALTERATIONS IN ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF STZ INDUCED RATS
In recent years there is more research work taken in Marine sources for its pharmaceutically valuable compounds and active medicines for anticancer, anti diabetic, anti oxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory. The present study investigated for the medicinal value of red algae Griffithsia pacifica Kylin (GPK) and its alterations in enzymatic activity of STZ induced diabetic rats. The resul...
PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AND AWARENESS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT FOR THE ABOVE AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Background: According to World Health Organization the global prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder ranges from 14% to as high as 42%.Teachers are generally prone to neck, shoulder and low back pain . The work tasks of school teachers often involve significant use of a head down posture, such as frequent reading and marking of assignments. According to World Health Organization working with a hea...
ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACOVIGILANCE AMONG THE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN A NORTHERN INDIAN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL – AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
Objective: Underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is the major drawback encountered in the pharmacovigilance programs. Inadequate knowledge and skill about pharmacovigilance among the health care professionals are the major reasons for underreporting of ADRs. This study was done to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of undergraduate medical students about pharmacovigilance as t...
SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERISATION OF Cr(III) COMPLEXES DERIVED FROM 2-BENZOYLPYRIDINE AND 2-BENZOYLTHIOPHENE WITH THIOSEMICARBAZONE AND SEMICARBAZONE
The complexes of chromium(III) are synthesised with thiosemicarbazone (L1&L3) and semicarbazone (L2) derived from 2-benzoylpyridine and 2-benzoylthiophene having general composition [CrL2X2]X (Where L=L1&L3(L1&L3= thiosemicarbazone ligand and L2= semicarbazone ligand) and X= NO3- and OAc-) have been synthesised. The complexes and ligand under study are characterised by elemental analys...
Background: Immunization is the most cost-effective intervention for infectious diseases which are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a scarcity of information on the vaccination status of young adults and the role of socioeconomic conditions in India. Objectives: Present study explored the adult vaccination status and influence of income and education of parents on adu...
PREVALENCE AND CORRELATION OF VIRAL INFECTION (HEPATITIS B OR/AND HEPATITIS C) AMONG HYPERTENSIVE AND DIABETIC PATIENTS IN MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA WHO UNDERWENT HEMODIALYSIS
Background: Increase prevalence of viral infection such as hepatitis B or/and hepatitis C are followed by high incidence of mortality among hemodialysis patients. Objective: To determine prevalence and correlation of viral infection (Hepatitis B or/and Hepatitis C) among Hemodialysis Patients that died for the last five years in Indonesia and Malaysia in relation to gender, age, causes, and countr...
The article is dedicated to studying the impact of the cases causing trauma on the self – realization of students. The levels of the self – realization of students who often subject to traumas with different professions and who rarely subject to trauma are distinguished, and the impact of trauma on the level of their emotional tolerance and academic achievements is determined. It is establishe...
ASSESSMENT OF PYRAZINO-PYRIMIDINE COMPOUND AND SOME INFLAMMATORY BIOMARKERS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES
Neopterin, pyrazino-pyrimidine compound, is a metabolite of guanosine triphosphate and is produced by the activated monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation by interferon gamma produced by T-lymphocytes. Aim: This study purposed to analyze the serum level of neopterin and to evaluate its correlation with other markers of inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes at various s...
Background: Antiaris toxicaria is a tree in the mulberry and fig family of Moraceae. The leaf is used to remedy various ailments but the preparation depends on individuals. There is a need to set a standard for its preparation that would ensure optimum therapeutic benefits. Medicinal plants are generally reputed as cheaper and safer alternatives to synthetic drugs but these are often adulterated...
DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BORASSUS FLABELIFFER LINN. FRUIT PULP COLLECTED FROM SEVERAL PARTS OF SRI LANKA
Borassus flabeliffer Linn. (Palmyra Palm) is widely distributed in the Northern parts of Sri Lanka. Its leaves, fruits and pith have various uses. Palmyra based industries provide living for many families in that region. Palmyra pulp obtained from the ripe fruit is used in many traditional food items in the Jaffna Peninsula and surrounding areas. It is also being used in folk medicine to cure vari...
A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of Atenolol (ATN) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The method was optimized selecting chromatographic conditions of 60: 40 acetonitrile: water, Inertsil_ column(ODS-3 250 mm × 4.6 mm 5 ?m), 20 ?L injection volume, flow rate of 1 mL/min at ambient temperature (30 °C), a...
DRUG THERAPY PROBLEMS AND THEIR PREDICTORS AMONG HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS ON FOLLOW UP IN DIL-CHORA REFERRAL HOSPITAL, DIRE-DAWA, ETHIOPIA
Background: The objective of this study was to assess drug therapy problems (DTPs) and their predictors among hypertensive patients on follow up at Dil-Chora Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: Hospital based cross-sectional study involving medical record review was conducted from February-to-April 2015 using a structured questionnaire and this was complemented by a face-to-face interview. Adult...
CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICAL STABILITY EVALUATION OF SNAKEHEAD FISH (OPHIOCEPHALUS STRIATUS) POWDER NANOEMULSION
Snakehead fish powder containing albumin has macromolecule size which is difficult to penetrate into membrane cell. So, It was formulated into nanoemulsion utilizing the best comparison of surfactant, co-surfactant and oil. Nanoemulsion of snakehead fish powder was characterized by particle size analyzer. The snakehead fish were extracted by atomizer (-40 °C, 1atm) to gain powder which was formul...
SYNTHESIS OF NEW FLAVANOID AND CHALCONE DERIVATIVES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT BY GREEN CHEMISTRY APPROACH
Flavanoids are plant secondary metabolites, synthesized by microwave assisted synthesis and green chemistry approach since, the conventional method of synthesis uses various organic solvents, hazardous by product, tedious work that requires more reaction time. Flavonoids have general structure of 15-carbon skeleton which consists of two phenyl ring (A and B) and heterocyclic pyran ring(C). Flavone...