Volume 11 (2020) - Issue 7, July
Helicobacter pylori (HP) as a non-invasive microbe, has been cloned in the stomach. The most important side effects of HP are inflammation, peptic ulcer (PU) and gastric cancer (GC). Control of inflammation, leads to preventing other HP side effects and antibiotic resistance, therefore it is important to use of natural anti-inflammatory compounds. In present study, review the effect of Zingiber of...
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) provides an alternate safe way of drug delivery compared to other invasive techniques. Documented advancement in transdermal science provides sustainable delivery of drug molecules, improved bioavailability, the better therapeutic efficacy of embedded drug’s and ability to deliver the drug at a constant rate and also reduces the adverse effects associated ...
Health may be defined as the capability to adapt and manage physical, mental, and social concerns throughout life. Oral health is a key indicator of overall health, wellbeing, and quality of life. WHO defines oral health as “a state of being free from chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral infection and sores, periodontal (gum) disease, tooth decay, tooth loss and other dise...
This review enumerates the classification, role, and importance of carbohydrate derivatives and glycomimetics. Carbohy-drates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. Carbohydrates are the most abundant dietary source of energy for all organisms. They are precursors for many organic compounds such as fatty acids and amino acids. They can participate in the structure of cell membranes and cellular fun...
The contemporary development in the drug delivery system is a seamless process. Any delivery system targeting a molecule to a particular site is always been appreciated. This requirement can be fulfilled through a specialized drug delivery system that can easily target the drug at the site of action without compromising its efficacy and quality. Few new drugs typically cannot be effectually delive...
Microspheres are small spherical free-flowing particles, with diameters 1 μm to 1000 μm consisting of proteins or synthetic polymers which are biodegradable in nature. They are prepared to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery to improve, bioavailability, stability and to target the drug to a specific site at a predetermined rate. Microspheres are of various types and are prepared by diff...
Cancer is a genetic disorder that results from genetic or epigenetic alterations in the somatic cells and has abnormal cell growth which may be spread to other body parts. In 2018, 18 million cancer was recorded globally in which 9.5 million cancer cases in men, 8.5 million cases in women, and 9.6 deaths were also recorded in the same year. The most spreading cancer globally is prostate, breast, l...
POTENTIAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DHATURA SAFED (DATURA METEL L.): AS A DEADLY POISON AND AS A DRUG: AN OVERVIEW
Plants have great potential for the treatment and management of many diseases and have been used in many countries for the treatment of different diseased conditions. The medicinal value of plants lies in their bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological actions in living beings. Many medicinal plants contain some chemical constituents that may cause harmful effects to...
Nanotechnology is going to revolutionize the world. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), nanotechnology refers to the study of all particles in the range of 100 nanometers or less. One of the most important advantages of the smaller particle size is the ratio of surface atoms or molecules to the total number increases. That means they have large surface areas that lead to inc...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CHITOSAN BASED MUCOADHESIVE BILAYERED BUCCAL PATCHES OF CARVEDILOL
Carvedilol is a non-selective β blocker with α1 blocking activity used in the treatment of congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, and left ventricular dysfunction. Following administration by the oral route, it undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism resulting in low bioavailability of 25-35%. The aim of the present study was to incorporate carvedilol in bilayered chitosan containing m...
CONTRIBUTIONS OF WILD MUSHROOMS IN LIVELIHOOD MANAGEMENT OF ETHNIC TRIBES IN GURGURIPAL, WEST BENGAL, INDIA
The folk population of Gurguripal has mycophilic inclination, and wild mushrooms play a significant role in sustaining their livelihood. Explorative survey work was undertaken to document the ethnomycological knowledge of wild mushrooms occurring in forest areas of Gurguripal. In the present study, 166 informants from 9 villages were interviewed and information was collected through semi-structure...
IN-SILICO TOOLS IN THE PREDICTION OF COUMARIN SCHIFF BASES AS POTENTIALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
In the present study two subclasses of coumarin derivatives were selected 14 coumarin sulphonamides and 14 coumarin schiff bases i.e., totally 28 compounds from our earlier research work. A comparative study for two subclasses of coumarins by using various CADD (online and offline) softwares. Computational calculations and predictions of important molecular properties suggest that among the two su...
The present study describes formulation optimization, in-vitro evaluation and ex-vivo assessment of indomethacin loaded binary ethosomal gel using central composite design. Two formulation factors, concentration of lipid and concentration of ethanol were optimized for their effects on vesicle size (Y1), zeta potential (Y2), polydispersity index (Y3), entrapment efficiency (Y4) and % cumulative d...
A growing concern of microbial resistance and potential risks associated with existing synthetic preservatives have put industries and researchers under immense pressure to develop newer and safer alternatives based on moieties obtained from natural sources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preservative effect of the selected derivatives of naturally occurring phenylpropanoids. Alumin...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CLASS-2 RESIDUAL SOLVENTS IN LULICONAZOLE BY HS-GC
A simple headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of residual solvents like methanol, methyl isobutyl ketone, cyclohexane and toluene in luliconazole by Flame ionization detector (FID). The separation was achieved on 30 m long DB-624 column, 0.53 mm in inner diameter, and 3.0 µm in film thickness. The headspace and chromatogr...
Bombax ceiba is a traditional medicinal plant that is beneficial in the treatment of diuretic, hemostatic, antidysenteric, emetic, antipyretic, astringent, and commonly known silk cotton tree, semal, kapok tree. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the biologically active compounds from the ethanolic extract of the leaves. The EtOH extract was subjected to silica gel (60-120 mesh) ...
DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION FOR HAIR GROWTH CONTAINING ECLIPTA ALBA, HIBISCUS ROSA-SIENSIS, TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM LINN.
Gelling agents such as Carbopol 934 and HPMC K 100 were used in different concentrations for the preparation of Topical polyherbal extract gel formulations containing (%w/w) Eclipta alba, Hibiscus rosa-siensis, Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. Prepared gel extract of various herbal ingredients were characterized by different parameters like gelling capacity, pH, Homogeneity, Grittiness, Extrudabili...
The recent work is based on the extraction and purification of natural gum from the bark of plant Terminalia elliptica (local name - Saaj) and the use of this gum to prepare pulsatile Drug Delivery System of Atenolol for the chronotherapy of cardiovascular diseases. Three formulations CF1, CF2, CF3 of core tablets were prepared by direct compression technique by varying concentrations of crospovid...
COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS SP. OF ETHNOMEDICINAL SIGNIFICANCE
The global prevalence of infectious diseases caused by microorganisms is a major public health concern worldwide. The emergence of antibiotic resistance and related toxicity issues are limiting the use of antibiotics and prompting research for alternative therapy. Plant-derived drugs are gaining popularity due to their efficacy and safety. Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea are two commo...
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE QUANTITATION OF TRIFLURIDINE IN HUMAN PLASMA BY USING LC-MS/MS TECHNIQUE
The main objective of the current study was to develop a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) technique for the quantification of trifluridine (TFD) in human plasma. Chromatography was processed on Phenomenex-RP-C18 (5 µm, 250 mm × 4.6 mm) column comprising acetonitrile, methanol and 5 mM ammonium formate (45:40:15, v/v) as a mobile phase, infused at a flow ...
OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF BIO-ACTIVE METABOLITES BY ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIOIDES ISOLATED FROM MANGROVE PLANT LUMNITZERA RACEMOSA LINN.
A study has been undertaken with an aim to isolate potent endophytic fungi from mangrove plant Lumnitzera racemosa Linn. Among the 10 different fungal strains isolated, one potent strain with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity was found. Basing on the morphological, cultural and molecular characteristics, the potent fungal strain was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides. Production of bioa...
ATTENUATION OF QUORUM SENSING ASSOCIATED VIRULENCE FACTORS AND BIOFILM FORMATION IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PAO1 BY PHOMA MULTI-ROSTRATA PUTY3, A SAPROPHYTIC FUNGUS, ISOLATED FROM CARICA PAPAYA
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most emerging multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogens, which poses a threat to immunocompromised patients. Treatment of P. aeruginosa in the affected patients has become difficult because of its ability to develop resistant strains against most of the conventional therapeutic antibiotics. Quorum sensing plays a crucial role in the virulence nature of P. aer...
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEIN AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF TURBO BRUNNEUS R. CYPRAEA ANNULUS L. AND BABYLONIA SPIRATA L.
The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular weight of protein and in-vitro antioxidant activity of marine gastropods Turbo brunneus, Cypraea annulus, and Babylonia spirata. The molecular weight of the protein was determined using SDS-PAGE, and its antioxidant potential was carried out by DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power activity and H2O2 radical scavenging activity. The mole...
ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PHYMATOSORUS SCOLOPENDRIA (BURM. F.) PIC. SERM. THROUGH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROSCOPY
Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. F.) Pic. Serm. belongs to the family Polypodiaceae which is commonly known as musk-fern or wart-fern. Medicinally, the experimental plant possesses insect repellent, anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator activity and hence used ethnomedicinally by tribal people, but was not explored for its bioactive compounds. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the...
Justicia gendarussa belongs to the Acanthaceae family. The leaves and young shoots are anti-periodic, antispasmodic, cardiotonic, carminative, diaphoretic, emetic and febrifuge. The presence of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, proteins, flavonoids, triterpenes and saponins in the ethanolic extract was revealed by the preliminary phytochemical screening, keeping in view of medicinal impor...
NANOCURCUMIN SELECTIVELY ACTIVATES ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE IN MIDDLE UTERINE ARTERY OF GOAT (CAPRA HIRCUS)
Objective: The present study is designed to investigate vasorelaxation mechanisms of Nanocurcumin in the middle uterine artery (MUA) of both non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant (P) Capra hircus (Ch). Methods: MUA rings were mounted in an automatic organ bath and the contractile response was recorded isometrically by highly sensitive force transducer connected to a power lab data acquisition system. Nan...
A rapid, fast, accurate, and precise method was developed for the estimation of lenvatinib in human plasma using methotrexate as an internal standard by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromate-graphy (RP-HPLC). The separation was carried out by using zodiasil C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 m) as a stationary phase and 0.01 N sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (pH: 4.8): acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55 ...
Objective: Many studies have demonstrated the antioxidant properties of extracts of Coleus aromaticus. The purified Coleus aromaticus leaves protein was studied to investigate its in-vitro antioxidant activity, preventing oxidative DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and its protective effect on lymphocyte cell viability. Materials and Methods: In-vitro antioxidant capacity by DPPH assa...
A simple, precise, and sensitive stability-indicating high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for the analysis of Darunavir in bulk and in the tablet dosage form. The separation was performed on pre-coated silica gel 60 GF254 plates using Toluene: Methanol: Triethylamine (8.5:1:0.5 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The retention factor (Rf) was found t...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE IN-SITU GEL OF AMIKACIN BY USING 32 FULL FACTORIAL DESIGN
Objectives: This work aimed to formulate and evaluate amikacin, fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent containing an in-situ gelling system based on sol-to-gel transition for ophthalmic delivery to overcome the problems of poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional formulations based a sol-to-gel transition in the cul-de-sac upon instillation. Methods: In t...
IN-VITRO AND EX-VIVO STUDIES ON SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF LIMONIA ACIDISSIMA AND APPLE CIDER VINEGAR ON ANTI-UROLITHIATIC ACTIVITY
Kidney stones are aggregations of minerals such as calcium, oxalate, phosphates, uric acid, cysteine, etc. which can obstruct any part of the urinary system. This can turn fatal if left untreated as the major route of excretion is blocked causing the toxicity level to rise in the body which might lead to organ failure, coma and death. Limonia acidissima (wood apple) and Apple cider vinegar were fo...
DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE N-(5-P-TOLYL-1,3,4-THIADIAZOL-2-YL) BENZAMIDEANDITS DERIVATIVES WITH EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY
A number of N-(5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl) benzamide derivatives were synthesized from aromatic acid. The antibacterial activity of these newly synthesized N-(5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl) benzamide derivatives against Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria was also studied using the minimum inhibition concentration method. The synthesized compounds were showed better results ...
Parkinsonia aculeata (family - Caesalpiniaceae) is a large spinous shrub found in warmer regions of the world. It is a well known medicinal plant that has significant and promising biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antispermatogenic, etc. The phytochemical investigations of the leaves, flowers, and stem have revealed the presence of various glycosides, fla...
EXPLOITING NATURAL POLYMER REINFORCED MICROSPHERES AND INVESTIGATING ITS CHARACTERISTICS FOR SUSTAINED RELEASE
The objective of current research work is exploring the use of natural mucilage for sustained release characteristics for the formulation of microspheres. Orifice ionic gelation method was used to formulate the microspheres by using complex-forming polymer sodium alginate in combination with isolated mucilage. Mucilage from Colocacia esculenta corms were isolated and combined with sodium alginate ...
ISOLATION AND TAXONOMIC CHARACTERISATION OF POTENTIAL ANTAGONISTIC SIMPLICILLIUM LANOSONIVEUM VJCH-19 FROM MANGROVES OF ADAVULADEEVI, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA
Objectives: The intention of the present study was to isolate and identify cultural conditions of potent fungal strain VJCH-19 with antagonistic activities isolated from mangrove ecosystems of Adavuladeevi, South coast, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: The soil samples were collected from the mangrove habitats and shade dried. The serial dilution plate technique was employed for the isolation of ma...
Feronia limonia (F. limonia) is an underutilized edible fruit commonly known as kaitha. The study was performed to compare the effect of three solvents at different concentrations on antioxidant activities of F. limonia fruit. Fruits were extracted in different solvents viz., ethanol, methanol, and acetone at concentrations of 50%, 70%, and 90%. Each extract was analyzed for total phenol and flavo...
SENSITIVE AND RAPID SIMULTANEOUS QUANTITATION OF RALOXIFENE AND ITS TWO MAJOR ACTIVE METABOLITES 4-GLUCURONIDE RALOXIFENE AND 6-GLUCURONIDE RALOXIFENE IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH TRIPLE QUADRUPLE MASS SPECTROMETER
Simultaneous estimation of parent and its metabolite(s) in a single method poses a threat when one has to monitor one mass transition while running the other compound on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer. This would again become critical once interference is observed at the retention time of compound of interest in-spite of its absence in the sample. In this paper, a selective and sensitive ...
ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF NEW RARE EARTH METAL(III) COMPLEXES OF SCHIFF BASE LIGANDS WITH 1-H INDOLE-(2, 3-DIONE): SYNTHESIS, PHYSIO-CHEMICAL, MAGNETIC, ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SPECTRAL STUDIES
New complexes of La (III) and Nd (III) with bidentate Schiff base ligands, 1-H indole-(2, 3-dione) hydrazinecarbothioamide (L1H), 1-H indole-(2, 3-dione) hydrazinecarboxamide (L2H) have been synthesized and characterised. The stoichiometry of the complexes is originated in the type of [Ln (L1, 2) 3].3H2O for both metals. The characterization and nature of bonding of these complexes were elucidated...
The present study involves the formulation and evaluation of floating in-situ gel containing piroxicam for the treatment of arthritis. In the FTIR and DSC study for compatibility of piroxicam with polymers, there are no significant changes observed so it is confirmed the absence of drug-polymer interactions. The gastric floating in-situ gel was prepared by using Sodium Alginate, HPMC K 200 M &...
FORMULATION, DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF DAPSONE DEPOT INJECTION IN ACNE: IN-VITRO/IN-VIVO STUDY
The aim of this work is to design and develop a controlled release drug delivery system of the anti-acne agent (dapsone), also used as a leprostatic agent. Dapsone is a strong anti-inflammatory agent that makes it a more powerful treatment in dermatological disorders; its treatment in acne requires long term steady-state concentration in plasma. Poor patient compliance and long term treatment by a...
This study is aimed at investigating both the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacteria of ear swabs and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Ear samples of one hundred (100) subjects using sterile swab sticks were collected. Sixty-seven (67) out of 100 samples collected yielded growth when incubated at 37 ºC for 24 h. Microbiological tests were carried out to characterize the bacterial is...
MICROENCAPSULATION: A STRATEGY TO SURPASS PHOTO INSTABILITY AND LOW PENETRABILITY OF SKIN LIGHTENING AGENTS
Objective: Kojic acid and arbutin are potent agents for effective treatment of hyperpigmentation. However, low photostability, low permeability and high irritancy exhibited by them make topical delivery a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop novel photostable and highly penetrable formulation of kojic acid and arbutin to combat hyper-pigmentation effectively at lower concentrations in c...
STABILITY INDICATING RP-UPLC-DAD METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF METFORMIN AND CANAGLIFLOZIN IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
The objective of the present work is to develop and validate a novel stability-indicating RP-UPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous analysis of Metformin and Canagliflozin in bulk and tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Waters UPLC system equipped with autosampler and PDA detector. A volume of 5 µL of sample or standard was injected into the column and the analy...
The objective of the present study is to evaluate phytochemical composition and HPTLC finger print profile of medicinally useful plant Martynia annua L. (Martyniaceae) root extracts. The CAMAG HPTLC system was used for the finger print profiling of root extract using the mobile phase chloroform: Methanol (9:1 v/v). The profile showed that the root extract of Martynia annua exhibited several peaks ...
The main objective of this research work was to check the presence or absence of the phytochemical chemicals in all the selected medicinal plant. Phytochemical analysis of these plants confirm the presence of various phytochemicals like saponins, tannins, amino acids, phenols, carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids and glycosides. A. catechu extract are analyzed by using TLC with...
EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF BACOPA MONNIERI, EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES AND TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS BRAIN
Bacopa monnieri, Tinospora cordifolia, and Evolvulus alsinoides are conventional Ayurvedic floras that are useful in the various neuropharmacological ailment. This research focused on the effect of ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (BME), Tinospora cordifolia (TCE), and Evolvulus alsinoides (EAE) were evaluated alone and in a combination of extracts (CEPs) by using scopolamine-induced oxidative...
Cr AND Pb CONTAMINATION IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL IN TWO DIFFERENT SEASONS AND THREE DEPTH OF THE SOIL LAYER SAMPLES NEARBY TANNERY WASTE DISPOSAL ZONES AT RANIPET, VELLORE DISTRICT IN THE SOUTHERN INDIA
This paper investigates the determination of trace metals named Chromium and Lead set down in the soil as well as in the groundwater due to the tanning industries area of Ranipet town, Vellore city. The tanneries discharge untreated tannery effluents, which get mixed with the soil, water of the Palar river, and underground in this area. The determination of metals was performed for the soil that ...
SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF VARIOUS VARIABLES OF FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF LERCANIDIPINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN
The oral route of drug administration is the most common and preferred method of delivery due to convenience and ease of ingestion, but it is problematic if the drug is poorly soluble. Sufficient drug absorption, reproducible bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered drug substances are highly dependent on the solubility of that compound in an aqueous medium. Also, the the...
Plants and plants-based medicines have been used to treat many ailments since the ancient times. Family Orchidaceae to which orchids belongs is the largest family among monocotyledons. The genus Eulophia comprises perennial terrestrial orchids with fleshy tubers, rarely pseudobulbs. One such perennial herb having underground tubers, Eulophia nuda, belonging to family Orchidaceae, has been tradit...
PRELIMINARY QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTO-PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDISATION EVALUATION OF THE PULP (WITHOUT SEED), PERICARP, LEAVES AND SEED OF AEGLE MARMELOS L. (BAEL).
Aegle marmelos L. (Bael), is a commonly occurring herb which has biomedical potency to treat many types of diseases such as diarrhea, hepatoprotective, epilepsy, stomachalgia, digestion related problems etc. The different parts of Aegle marmelos (L.) were collected, dried and coarsely powdered. The present study deals with the physio-chemical constants standardization parameters such as pH, solubi...
FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF SELF- NANOEMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR WATER INSOLUBLE DRUG USING STATISTICAL DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
The objective of the work was to formulate a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of zaltoprofen and to study the impact and interaction of various formulation variables on the formulation by the design of the experiment. A 13-run 3-factors, 3-levels box behnken design (BBD) was used for optimization with 1 replicates at the center point. The concentration of phosal 53 MCT, tween 80,...
Parkinson's infection is a neurodegenerative issue portrayed by the cardinal manifestations of solidness, resting tremor, gradualness (bradykinesia) and decrease of development (hypokinesia). It is a maturing populace and in spite of the fact that there have been a few signiﬁcant leaps forward as far as the treatment of this crippling illness, for example, drugs levodopa, dopamine [DA] agonists,...
Background: Child abuse is a common episode, but rarely predictable. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the parent's awareness related to child abuse measures. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey of 400 Saudi parents about child abuse-related factors. All participants were 20 years or older. Results: Out of the 400 parents, 96/400(24%) (41/175 (23.4%) were fathers, and 55/225 (24.4%)...