Volume 6 (2015) - Issue 3, March
Apoptosis, a well choreographed gene-directed cellular destruction, plays an important role in a variety of biological events, including morphogenesis, homeostatic maintenance of various tissues and removal of harmful cells while dysregulated apoptosis has been implicated in a variety of disease such as cancer, systemic and organ specific autoimmune disease and neurodegenerative disorders. Apoptos...
Over the past few decades the nasal route has gained widespread interest as a promising and an alternative route to oral and parenteral drug delivery. The nasal mucosa being highly vascularized and permeable provides a rapid onset of therapeutic action. It is a convenient, compliant and needleless mode of drug delivery suitable for the treatment of both acute and chronic diseases. In addition, nas...
A budding interest in Nanopharmaceuticals had generated a number of advancements throughout recent years with a focus on engineering novel applications. Nanophytomedicines are prepared from active phytoconstituents or standardized extracts. The world market for nanomedicine is estimated to reach $130.9 billion by the fiscal year 2016. Liposome nanoparticle (NP) with entrapped doxorubicin was repor...
Lovastatin is a naturally occurring drug of statin family used for lowering cholesterol. It is found that it can be useful for treatment or management of multiple diseases and has immense medicinal significance. On one side, this drug is used to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, while other reports indicate that it also promotes cell survival to alleviate certain disease conditions. Antivi...
Synthesis of heterocylic compound has always drawn the attention of chemist over the years mainly because of their important biological properties. Particularly, the role of β–lactam which are endowed with unique structure and potent biological activity. The β-lactam heterocycles are considered as an important contribution of science to humanity since they have been constituents of living orga...
Population control is a significant issue worldwide especially in developing countries like India. Population breakout has responsible for various deleterious effects on life surviving resources on the earth. Therefore fertility regulation is necessary for the conservation of life supporting resources as well as good reproductive life of both males and females. Various chemical methods of cont...
CONVOLUTION STUDY AND THE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE EFFECT ON LANSOPRAZOLE DELAYED-RELEASE CAPSULES AND APPLICATION OF SIMILARITY FACTOR TO TWO-STAGE IN – VITRO DISSOLUTION PARADIGM
Lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, is used to treat ulcers in the stomach and duodenum. In order to protect this acid labile drug from being degraded in the gastric medium, the marketed oral dosage forms are formulated into delayed release pellets and tablets. The aims of this research were (1) to investigate the principal site of drug release and absorption rate between an over-the-counter (O...
The investigation of terrestrial plants origin aimed at searching new natural biologically active compounds is a central issue of this kind of studies, through structure elucidation combined with biological tests. We investigated the biologically active secondary metabolites from Leucas lavandulaefolia towards various effects on the behavior of Aphanomyces cochlioides zoospores and with antimicrob...
INTERACTION OF TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE WITH IRON: KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND CONDUCTOMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS
The interaction of the antibiotic, tetracycline hydrochloride (TC.HCl) has been investigated employing three simple spectrophotometric and conductometric methods. In methods (A and B), a kinetic spectrophotometric procedure based on the oxidation of (TC.HCl) by Fe3+ ion in the presence of 1, 10 - Phenanthroline (o-phen) (A) and 2, 2′- Bipyridyl (bipy) (B) was developed. The formation of the ferr...
HALOGENATED TRIAZINEDIONES BEHAVE AS ANTAGONISTS OF PKR1: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO PHARMACOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION
Different prokineticin receptor antagonists, based on the triazinedione scaffold, were synthesized by a new efficient method. Here we demonstrated that 5-benzyltriazinediones substituted in position para of the benzyl group with halogens provide compounds endowed with interesting selectivity for the Prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1). BRET technology indicates that such substitution results in increas...
Malathion is a widely used organophosphorous pesticide that a large number of populations are undesirably exposing themselves to severe health risk due to taking up the contaminated foods, water and vegetables containing malathion. The present study was carried out through histopathologic test to evaluate the extent of damage caused by malathion in the liver and kidney tissues of mice. Twenty five...
IN – VIVO CONFIRMATION OF A 49.6 KDA PROTEIN PILI OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI TO PREVENT DESTRUCTION OF GASTRIC CELLS AGAINST LIVE HOMOLOGOUS BACTERIA IN MICE
Peptic ulcers is one of the major gastrointestinal disorder in human being that generally associated with the infection of Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium in stomach. It is also linked to the development of the stomach cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo properties of the sub-unit pili proteins with molecular weight of about 49,6 kDa in m...
Antihypertensive properties of plant can be evaluated by in vitro method on inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity. In this research, we investigate the inhibitory effect of several common edible plants on blocking ACE activity. ACE activity was evaluated by using N-hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) as substrate and the inhibitory effect of extracts were determined based on t...
DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL 1-(2-(4-FLUORO BENZYLTHIO)PYRIMIDIN-4-YL-AMINO)-4-(SUBSTITUTED PHENYL)AZETIDIN-2-ONES
A series of novel 1-(2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl-amino)-4-(substituted phenyl)azetidin-2-one analogues (3a-e) were synthesized starting from 2-thiouracil. Reaction of 2-thiouracil with 4-fluorobenzylchloride gave 2-(4-fluorobenzylthio) pyrimidin-4(3H)-one which on chlorination with POCl3 yielded 2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)-4-chloropyrimidine. Further reaction of compound 2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)...
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE AND EZETIMIBE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
A simple, rapid, sensitive, precise, accurate and economic isocratic stability indicating RP-HPLC chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Glimepiride and Ezetimibe in bulk and tablet dosage form. The method was developed through a Hypersil ODS C18 (150mm x 4.6 mm, 5m) column, mobile phase comprised of phosphate in water as buffer PH adjusted to 4.8 wit...
AN EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SOME OIL YIELDING LAMIACEOUS PLANTS FROM MORNI HILLS (HARYANA, INDIA)
The present study was conducted to explore the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of essential oil extracted from the leaves of plants of family Lamiaceae from Morni hills in the north-eastern part of the state of Haryana, India. Ten plants- Hyptis suaveolens, Mentha longifolia, M. pulegium, Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus incanus, P. striatus, Pogostemon benghalensis, Rabdosia rugosa, S...
Background: The main activities of community pharmacists are processing of prescriptions, care of patients or clinical pharmacy, monitoring of drug utilization, extemporaneous preparation and small scale manufacture of medicines, responding to symptoms of minor ailments, informing health care professionals and the public, and health promotion. Objectives: To assess community drug retail outlets se...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF LYOPHILIZED FLOATING BEADS CONTAINING GINGER EXTRACT AND NIGELLA SATIVA OIL
Lyophillized floating beads have been investigated as a possible gastro-retentive dosage forms containing Ginger (Zingiber Officinalis) extract ( ZOE) and Nigella Sativa oil (NSO). Emulsion gelation method was used in preparation of ZOE-NSO entrapped floating alginate beads. Drug content and floating properties of the beads were found to be satisfact...
A new RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of amprolium hydrochloride and sulfaquinoxaline sodium in a powder dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved by isocratic mode with Phosphate buffer and Acetonitrile (30:70; v/v), as mobile phase and using C-18 RP-Amide (25.0cm × 4.6 mmi.d, 5µ particle size) as stationary phase, with a flow rat...
STUDY ON PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENS OF AN ENDANGERED ORCHID-HABENARIA PLANTAGINEA LINDL
Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is used as a medicinal plant in several countries. In this study, ethanol, chloroform and water extracts of Habenaria plantaginea were evaluated for antibacterial activity against bacterial (MTCC) strains. Antibacterial activity of this plants extracts were performed using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts showed m...
ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT SOLVENTS EXTRACT OF RUMEX VESICARIUS LINN. ON SOME SELECTED BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL ISOLATES
The Antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial) properties of the different solvents extracts (benzene, pet ether, acetone, chloroform, methanol and aqueous) of Rumex vesicarius Linn plant plants, on four bacterial (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and four fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Tricoderma reesei, Penicillium funiculosum and Fusa...
NEURO-PROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF ORTHOSIPHON STAMINUS (BENTH) LEAF METHANOLIC FRACTION THROUGH ANTIOXIDANT MECHANISMS ON SH-SY5Y CELLS: AN IN-VITRO EVALUATION
In present study to evaluate the mechanisms behind the antioxidant and neuro-protective potential of Orthosiphon staminus methanol bio active guided fraction (OMF) using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell culture model was carried out. In in-vitro studies, mechanisms of neutralization of H2O2 induced toxicity by OMF using MTT, LDH, ROS, MMP, MDA, Comet assay was performed. Regulation of anti-oxidant...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND PHARMACOTECHNICAL EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ORAL CANDIDIASIS
Itraconazole is an anti-fungal drug. It prevents growth of several types of fungi by preventing the fungi from producing the membranes that surround the fungal cells. It is active against fungal infections such as aspergillosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and candidiasis, as well as fungal infection localized to the toenails and fingernails (onychomycosis). The oral liquid is typically used ...
CELLULOSE AS SOLE SUBSTRATE FOR BIO ETHANOL PRODUCTION: DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURAL MOLECULAR MODEL OF ENDOGLUCANASE III FROM TRICHODERMA REESEI USING BIOINFORMATIC TOOLS
One of our greatest challenges in improving nation’s economy is to reduce the dependence on imported petroleum products. To accomplish this, we need a variety of alternative fuels, which includes ethanol produced from cellulosic materials. Cellulose is a rich natural biopolymer on earth and most dominating agricultural waste. Apart from the fossil fuels, bioethanol is used as chief renewable ene...
INFUSION OF ADRENOMEDULLIN-2 ANTAGONIST INDUCES APOPTOSIS AND CHANGES m-RNA EXPRESSION LEVELS OF ADM2 RECEPTORS IN PLACENTA OF PREGNANT RATS DURING LATE GESTATION AND CAUSES FETOPLACENTAL GROWTH RESTRICTION
Adrenomedullin-2 or Intermedin (ADM2/IMD) is newly identified novel hormone belongs to peptide family like AM, calcitonin, CGRP, amylin and it is widely distributed in various tissues including ovaries, uterus & placenta. The aim of present study was to investigate the role endogenous ADM2 in fetoplacental development in pregnant rats during late gestation period through infusion of ADM2 antag...
Inflammation is common and essential protective response to the harmful stimuli such as infectious agents, antigen-antibody reactions, thermal, chemical, and physical agents, and ischemia. The oxidative stress is produced by free radicals, predominately reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause tissue damage from oxidative stress. Antioxidants play an important role in neutralizing such free radi...
Optimization of total carotenoids production is dependent on various cultural and physical parameters for pigmented yeasts. The carotenoid production of the red yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa MTCC11835 was optimized using response surface methodology. The carotenogenesis in yeasts is known to be affected by different nutritional factors and environmental stress factors. Effect of various growth pa...
Metal oxide in the nanorange acquires distinctive properties that depend on size, chemical composition and surface chemistry. Among the metal oxide nanoparticles, the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are commonly used for their antimicrobial properties. ZnO nanomaterials are incorporated into a variety of skin coatings because of their antimicrobial and/or antifungal properties. Most of the futu...
CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF SIMVASTATIN AND SITAGLIPTIN IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
To develop and validate simple and precise methods RP – HPLC (Method A) and Dual wavelength method (Method B) for simultaneous estimation of Simvastatin (SIM) and Sitagliptin (SITA) in combined dosage form. Methods used are Method A, the chromatographic separation was achieved by using mobile phase acetonitrile: methanol: water (50:30:20), a C18 column. The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES AND ESSENTIAL OIL CONSTITUENTS OF COMBRETUM SORDIDUM EXELL
Plants in Combretaceae family are traditionally reputed to be anthelmintics and antimicrobial agents. Dried aerial parts of Combretum sordidum (Exell) were ground to fine powder and extracted using ethanol. Ethanol extract was partitioned to obtain hexane and ethylacetate extracts successively. These extracts were screened for secondary metabolites using standard methods and evaluated for their an...
IN-VITRO CYOTOTOXIC STUDIES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. USING AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SEED POWDER AND CALLUS
In the traditional system of Indian medicine Caesalpinia bonducella Flem. is widely used for its medicinal properties. All parts are valuable as it contains various secondary metabolites. Seeds contain 20-30% of oil. On the basis of phyto-chemical analysis of the seed it is known to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and furano di terpenes. The plant possesses antidiabetic, antiox...
The aim of this study is to investigate the cholesterol lowering property of bacterial isolates. Different cultures of the bacteria were isolated from cow milk. Out of the cultured bacterial isolates Lactobacillus species, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were screened. Three isolates such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei were identified based on...
OPTIMIZATION OF ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUND PRODUCTION BY A MODERATELY HALOPHILIC STREPTOMYCES WERRAENSIS HB-11
A moderately halophilic strain of actinomycete HB-11, having ability to produce antifungal compound was isolated from soil samples collected from the region of Mumbai sea port, India. The strain HB-11 was identified as Streptomyces werraensis on the basis of its morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is found to be active against both filamentous as well as yeast fungi incl...
FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND ESTIMATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE CONVENTIONAL TABLETS IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM AND ITS COMPARISON WITH MARKETED FORMULATIONS
Oral route of drug administration have wide acceptance up to 50-60% of total dosage forms. Solid dosage forms are popular because of ease of administration, accurate dosage, self-medication, pain avoidance and most importantly the patient compliance. This study was aimed at development of Propranolol hydrochloride and flunarizine dihydrochloride conventional dissolving tablets in combined dosage f...
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CULTURED MYCELIUM OF TEN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF OYSTER MUSHROOM, PLEUROTUS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
The antioxidant activity of cultured mycelia of ten species of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus species namely P. ostreatus, P. flabellatus, P. sapidus, P. citrinopileatus, P.roseus, P.sajor-caju, P.florida, P.cystidouses, P.fossulatus, and P.eryngii was examined. The extracts were screened for their ability to scavenge DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide radicals and also for ferric reducing power and lipid...
DETECTION OF ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAF EXTRACT OF LANNEA COROMANDELICA BY GC-MS TESTING AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Lannea coromandelica (Anacardiaceae) is a tropical tree commonly called as Indian ash tree. Its various parts is said to possess medicinal property and used in Ayurveda and other ancient system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments including treatment of inflammation, gout, cholera, leprosy, vaginal troubles etc. Its Pharmacological study revealed anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hy...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPTLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE
An Accurate, sensitive, precise and stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Glimepiride and Metformin hydrochloride. The method was developed using TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase and 0.5% Ammonium Sulfate: Methanol (7.5:2.5 v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometric analys...
VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL, TRAMADOL AND DICYCLOMINE IN TABLETS
A new simple stability indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Paracetamol, Tramadol and Dicyclomine in combined pharmaceutical dosage form. An Agilent Zorbax SB C18 (250mmx4.6mm, 5microns) column with mobile phase containing ammonium acetate: acetonitrile (700:300 v/v) was used. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 mL/...
In this pilot study, Zarrouk medium was optimized in terms of biomass production and metabolites for the culture growth of, Spirulina species; Spirulina maxima and Spirulina platensis and their extract were tested against a nosocomial fungal species Candida albicans (C. albicans) to explore anticandidal activity. The corresponding growth and metabolite were measured in terms of turbidity, chloroph...
IMPACT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON GILLS OF FRESHWATER CRAB BARYTELPHUSA CUNICULARIS (WESTWOOD, 1836)
Environmental pollution is one of the undesirable side effects of industrialization and found responsible factor for environmental degradation. Water samples and crabs Barytelphusa cunicularis were collected from Gadhinglaj tahsil and analyzed for Physico- chemical parameters and heavy metals respectively. The results showed high range of pH and high values of...
SYNTHESIS OF MACROCYCLIC LIGANDS AND THEIR COBALT(II) COMPLEXES SPECTRAL CHARACTRIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES
Complexes of Co(II) with macrocylic ligands i.e., 2, 3, 9, 10 tetraphenyl – 1, 4, 8, 11 – tetraazacyclotetradeca – 1, 3, 8, 10 tetraene (BDP), 2, 4, 10, 12 – tetramethyl – 1, 5, 9, 13 tetraazacyclohexadeca 1, 4, 9, 12 tetraene (ADP), 2, 3, 9, 10 tetramethyl 1, 4, 8, 11 tatraazatetredeca – 1, 3, 8, 10 tetraene (DDP) have been synthesized. All these complexes were characterized by elemen...
In this investigation, Miconazole Nitrate topical gels were designed by employing various bioadhesive polymers like polyacrylates (carbopol 940), cellulose derivatives (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose) and natural polymers (sodium alginate) alone and in combination. The prepared gels were also characterized for different parameters like visual appearance, pH, c...
The present communication is mainly focused to study the antioxidant activities of the four different extracts (benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol) of five algae including Aphanothece pallida, Anabena variabilis, Aphanothece saxicola, Lyngbya major, Nitella flagelliformis. The total phenolic content varied from 2.99±0.23 to 25.38±0.22 mg/g, 4.20±0.135 to 14.10±0.13 mg/g, 3.07±0.2...
The plants used for the present study viz., Psidium guajava L and Citrus aurantium belong to the family Myrtaceae and Rutaceae respectively. Guava is native to tropical America. The young leaves are used as tonic in digestive disorders. Bitter orange is native of South Eastern Asia; grow in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. It is a rich source of provitamin A. The prese...
Ru (III) AZO SCHIFF BASE COMPLEXES: SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTICANCER STUDIES
The complexes of Ru(III) having general formula [Ru(L)Cl(PPh3)] where L= azo Schiff base derived from 2-aminopyridine, 2-hydroxy naphthaldehyde /vanillin and ethylene diamine have been synthesized. The ligands as well as complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infra-red and electronic spectral data. The azo Schiff base ligand acts as a t...
A STUDY ON DISTRIBUTION OF PROTEIN, LIPIDS AND CARBOHYDRATES IN MUSCLE AND LIVER OF MARINE ASSOCIATED UPENEUS VITTATUS
Fish makes a vital contribution to the survival and health of a significant portion of the world’s population. Upeneus vittatus, a marine species found in the coast of Bay of Bengal, Visakhapatnam was selected for the present study. An attempt is made to know the distribution of Protein, lipids and carbohydrates in muscle and liver of infected and normal Upeneus vittatus. It is observed that a s...
Depression produces serious emotional and psychological disorders and has severe consequences if not managed at proper time .With the progression of emotional load of depression one is unable to cope up with the extreme negative feelings and tend to create the world of their own thoughts which may end with the end of their life. Whatever forms of symptoms may be related to the grief, depression is...
Cinnarizine was microencapsulated with Eudragit RS100 using an o/o and o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effects of three formulation variables including the drug: polymer ratio, emulsifier (polyvinyl alcohol) concentration and volume of external medium on the entrapment efficiency and microspheres size distribution were examined. The drug release rate from prepared microspheres and ...
Ulcerative colitis is gaining more prominence these days because of its complications (both local and systemic), impairing the quality of life of patient and increased morbidity and mortality rate. For instance, a case was reviewed which proved the role of clinical pharmacist in the treatment plan and in providing a cost effective therapy. The review of the case resulted in a dosage error and pres...
In-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of Tridax procumbens plant parts (leaf and stem) were investigated by agar well diffusion method. The petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant parts were tested against two bacterial strains i.e., Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and two fungal strains i.e., Trichoderma reesei and Fusarium oxysporium. The results of antibacter...
BUCCAL MIDAZOLAM: COULD IT BE AN ALTERNATIVE FOR I/V DIAZEPAM FOR ACUTE SEIZURES IN MALNOURISHED CHILDREN
Acute convulsive disorders are the most frequent neurological disorders in children which require emergency drug treatment. Immediate management of a convulsive episode is must as, delay can lead to status epilepticus, which is a significant cause of neurological morbidity and mortality among children. Benzodiazepines especially diazepam is often used as first line and routinely administered intra...