Volume 6 (2015) - Issue 12, December
RECENT APPROACHES AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS OF NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDES: A REVIEW
Polysaccharides obtained from gums and mucilages are extensively used natural materials for conventional and novel dosage forms. Many natural gums are studied for use in novel drug delivery systems out of which polysaccharides, resins and tannins are most extensively studied and used. Because of advances in drug delivery technology, natural polysaccharides are included in novel drug delivery to fu...
BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF ETOPOSIDE; UPSHOT OF CELL DEATH
Etoposide is an antineoplastic agent employed for healingvarious malignancies in human. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin and was introduced in 1971. The primary mode of action of etoposide is the inhibition of the function of the enzyme topoisomerase II. It stabilizes DNA-enzyme complex, and accumulation of this complex enhances the probability of double-stranded DNA breaks. Ho...
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF SOME POTENTIAL ANTI-DIABETIC HERBS USED IN INDIA CHARACTERIZED BY ITS HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY
In the last few years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these 2500 species are in India, out of which 1...
IN SITU GEL -SUSTAINED NASAL DRUG DELIVERY
In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the nasal cavity, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gel depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. In the r...
SYNERGISTIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS DERIVED FROM GINGER, GARLIC AND TULSI
This review article is focused at highlighting the therapeutic values of phytochemicals derived from the natural herbs ginger, garlic and tulsi. It is shown that the phytochemicals derived from these natural herbs work synergistically and exert similar pharmacological profile. The main actions include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recommendations are made to follow the antioxidant ...
THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM: A REVIEW
The irreversible effects of modern therapies and increasing drug resistance have augmented our reliance on medicinal plants for herbal remedy against the deadly and infectious diseases. Hypericum perforatum or St. John’s wort (SJW) family Clusiaceae has been used to treat depression, mental disorders, wounds, peptic ulcers, malaria, gout and arthritis. Various compounds of the plant are known as...
REGULATORY PROCESS FOR IMPORT AND EXPORT OF DRUGS IN INDIA
This article mainly focuses on the approval process of drug import and export from India. Now a day’s foreign pharmaceutical companies have a better legal foundation for releasing new drugs in India. The Indian medical regulatory system has become more complicated, and new drugs can take a year or more to be approved for marketing. Ever-changing laws and regulations are driving demand for regula...
PHARMACOTHERAPY OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A REVIEW
Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia is not a normal part of aging and worsens over time. The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information. Microscopic changes in the brain begin long before the first signs of memory loss. Two abnormal structures called plaques and tangles are prime suspects in damaging and killing nerve cells. Cu...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE MEDICINAL HERBS AND ANIMAL MODELS FOR THEIR SCREENING – A REVIEW
The liver is a vital solid organ in the upper abdomen that helps in digestion, detoxification and has other synthetic, metabolic and storage functions. Liver diseases are a major problem worldwide; viral hepatitis, alcohol, malnutrition, autoimmune and drugs being most important causes. Currently there is no way to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term and liver transplan...
AN IN VITRO STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF PISTACIA ATLANTICA SUB KURDICA EXTRACT ON MICROTUBULE PROTEINS: A POTENTIAL ANTI-CANCER COMPOUND
Natural products derived from plants and herbs have always had an important role in drug development. Especially in case of cancer, there is a huge demand for effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents with natural base and low toxic effects on normal non-cancerous cells. In this work, we have studied the effects of Pistacia atlantica sub kurdica (Baneh) extract on microtubule proteins ...
FORMULATION DESIGN, IN-VITRO AND BIOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF SITE SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR DISTAL GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT
The present study was designed to evaluate oral compression coated tablet formulation to achieve time and site specific drug release system to target lower GIT. A pectin based compression coated tablet formulation of different ratios and concentration of ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate phthalate were designed and evaluated physico chemical parameters and for tinidazole release, compression c...
SPECIFIC TARGETING OF FOLATE RECEPTOR BY METHOTREXATE CONJUGATED MODIFIED MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES: ENZYMATIC RELEASE AND CYTOTOXIC STUDY
Magnetic nanocarriers have been used for specific drug delivery to release therapeutic drugs into target cancer cells. We used bifunctional methotrexate (MTX) conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) (~37 nm) engineered by dopamine–polyethylene glycol to targeted folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells. For this purpose, MTX was chemically loaded on to MNPs with N, N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide ...
CHARACTERIZATION AND SCREENING OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN THE EXTRACT PREPARED FROM AERIAL ROOTS OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS
Ficus benghalensis is has been used in traditional medicinal practices such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and homoeopathy. All parts of the tree such as fruits, aerial roots, bark and leaves are known to be traditionally associated with diarrhea, dysentery, menorrhagia, nervous disorders and tonic properties. However, in Ayurveda it is mainly known for the diabetes treatment.There are no reports givi...
ANALYTICAL METHOD VALIDATION FOR DETERMINATION OF RELATED SUBSTANCES OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE (IMPURITY-1) IN DEXMEDETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION
Dexmedetomidine, approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1999 as a sedative for use in the intensive care unit, is a potent and highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with significant sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects mostly used in the intensive care units. This article describes validation for determination of related substances of dexmedetomidine (impurity-1) in dexmed...
DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF EFFERVESCENT TABLETS OF PROMETHAZINE
The objective of present study was to develop effervescent tablets of promethazine (PMZ) for the treatment of emesis. Effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were optimized using 32 full factorial design. Amount to sodium starch glycolate(X1) and amount of sodium bicarbonate (X2) were selected as independent variables, whereas disintegration time (Y1), amount of carbon ...
EFFECT OF ACAMPROSATE IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIC AND INFLAMMATORY PAIN IN WISTAR RATS
Neuropathic pain is a persistent chronic pain caused by primary lesion or dysfunction of neurons which is primarily characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia. There is some evidence that acamprosate might inhibit Ca2 influx through NMDA and voltage-dependent Ca2 channels. λ-carrageenan (0.1 ml of 1% w/v) into i.pl. region of the hind paw was injected to produce acute inflammation. Unilateral perip...
DESIGN EXPERT-SUPPORTED DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC) METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RESVERATROL IN BULK DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a new, simple, selective and economical stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the quantitative determination of resveratrol in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations. A Box-Behnken design supported optimization was carried out to identify the optimum chromatographic conditions. The developed method was validated for linearity, range, ac...
FORMULATION DESIGN, IN-VITRO AND BIOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF SITE SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR DISTAL GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT
In the present studies was designed to evaluate oral compression coated tablet formulation to achieve time and site specific drug release system to target lower GIT. A pectin based compression coated tablet formulation of different ratios and concentration of ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate phthalate were designed and evaluated physico chemical parameters and for tinidazole release, compress...
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF FIVE WILD EDIBLE FRUITS OF MEGHALAYA STATE IN INDIA AND EFFECT OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM
The antioxidant activities of five wild edible fruits e.g. e.g. Debregeasia longifolia, Helicia erratica, Ilex venulosa, Rhus semialata and Spondias axillaris collected from Meghalaya state in India were determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power capacity, estimation of total phenolic content, flavonoid c...
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF WITHAFERIN-A IN RANGER CAPSULE
A simple, accurate, precise and robust reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Withaferin-A in polyherbal formulation namely Ranger Capsule. The chromatographic method was carried out isocratically with Phenomenex Luna C18 (2) (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 μ) and good resolution was achieved with acetonitrile: water (60: 40v/v) mobile...
GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCOMPONENTS IN JUICE SAMPLE OF INDIAN CANE: SACCHARUM BARBERI
Sugarcane is the major cash crop of the Indian tropical and sub-tropical region. Mostly the foremost part of Indian economy is based on sugarcane crop, which is cultivated major state in India. Phyto-components are the compound that occurred in plant naturally and play important role for biologically activity (Anti fungal, Anti cancer Anti diabetic etc), to prevent the many disease, scavenging and...
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE AERIAL PARTS EXTACTS OF CAESALPINIA MIMOSOIDES LAMK
Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. is a prickly climbing shrub belongs to Leguminosae family. various parts of this plant have been used in the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, wound healing and arthritis. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti inflammatory property of different extracts of aerial parts by in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro methods were estimated by protein denaturatio...
EFFECT OF LIFESTYLE MODIFICATIONS ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS
Aim: The aim of the study is to assess effect of lifestyle modifications and implementation of DASH diet in daily life on blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Method: A prospective observational study was conducted for a period of six months from Dec- 2013 to May-2014. The data was collected by self prepared form and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Counselling on lifestyle changes and i...
DEVELOPMENT OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CEFTRIAXONE SODIUM IN DIFFERENT BRANDS OF PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION INVOLVING DIAZOTIZATION
A simple, precise, and robust spectrophotometric method for the determination of Ceftriaxone sodium has been investigated and validated. The proposed chemical reaction involved involves the reaction primary amine of Ceftriaxone sodium with nitrite solution in acidic medium to form a diazotized product followed by the reaction of the diazotized product with suitable coupling reagent to obtained a c...
HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MONTELUKAST AND OLOPATADINE IN ITS COMBINED DOSAGE FORMS
High performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of Olopatadine (OLO) and Montelukast (MONT) in their combined dosage form. Merck HPTLC aluminum plates of silica gel G60 F254, (10 × 10 cm) was used for separation of combined with 250 μm thickness using Chloroform: Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Triethylamine (6: 4.5: 2.5: 0.8, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase. HPTLC ...
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF DRUGS BY USING CERIUM (IV) AND RHODAMINE B COUPLE: A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDY
Simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods for quantitative determination of five drugs viz., Tramadol Hydrochloride (TDH) , Dobutamine (DOB), Trimetazidine (TRMZ), Terazocin (TRZ) and Esmolol (ESM) were developed. The method for each drug depends upon oxidation of drugs by Ce (IV) (Excess) and estimating the amount of un reacted Ce (IV) by Rhodamine-B dye at 557 nm. The ...
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF TRANS-CINNAMALDEHYDE AND PIPERINE COMBINATION AGAINST CARRAGEENAN INDUCED PAW EDEMA
Inflammation is one of the unique mechanism that help body to protect itself against burn, infection, allergens, toxic chemicals, or other noxious stimuli. It is a defense reaction of the body in order to eliminate or reduce the spread of injurious agent. However, over reaction of the body may be harmful or undesirable. This has resulted in extensive development of anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite...
EFFECT OF FIVE DIFFERENT CULTURE MEDIA ON MYCELIAL GROWTH OF AGROCYBE AEGERITA
A preliminary experiment was carried out to analyse the growth performance of Agrocyba aegerita mushroom cultures using chemosynthetic media. This study is mainly aimed to different media such as Yeast Malt Agar Medium (YMA), Saboraud’s Dextrose Agar Medium (SDA), Glucose Peptone Agar Medium (GPA), Malt Extract Agar Medium (MEA) and Potato Dextrose Agar Medium (PDA) on the growth of mycelium of ...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY THIRD ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE
Candesartan cilexetil, a prodrug is a racemic mixture containing one chiral center at the cyclohexyloxy-carbonyloxy- ethyl ester group. It is soluble in dimethyl formamide, acetone, methanol, 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution and insoluble in water. Objective of the present study is to develop a simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and rapid derivative spectrophotometric method for the estimation of...
INVESTIGATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CEFOTAXIME SODIUM IN DIFFERENT BRANDS OF PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
A simple, precise, and robust spectrophotometric method for the determination of Cefotaxime sodium has been investigated and validated. The proposed chemical reaction involves the reaction of primary amine of Cefotaxime sodium with nitrite solution in acidic medium to form a diazotized product, followed by the reaction of the diazotized product with suitable coupling reagent resulting in a colored...
QUANTIFICATION OF CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATE FROM MOUTH RINSE AND SKIN DISINFECTANT SOLUTIONS USING A VAIDATED CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE
The study presents a simple and rapid chromatographic technique for the estimation of chlorhexidine gluconate for mouth wash using a combination of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The separation was carried out on a stainless steel column 250mm × 4.5mm packed with octadecyle silane particles. The detection was carried out using a dual lambda absorbance detector at 254nm wavelen...
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF PHYTOSOME OF LAWSONE
Lawsonia inermis L. (Lawsone) is reported to contain carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins, xanthones and fatty acids. The plant has also been reported to have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Lawsone has low bioavailability because it is less soluble in water and...
EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA ON HYPERGLYCEMIA INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RAT BRAIN
The present study evaluates antidiabetic effect of A. indica leaf extract (AILE) and A. indica bark extract (AIBE) on antioxidant enzymes in the brain of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500mg/Kg body weight) and A. indica bark (100mg/Kg body weight) was given once daily for 21days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end ...
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF FLOATING EFFERVESCENT TABLETS OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE
The main objective of the present work is to develop Floating Effervescent matrix tablets of Ranitidine hydrochloride using different polymers viz. hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Xanthan gum and Guar gum. Varying ratios of drug and polymer like 1:0.6 and 1:1 were selected for the study. After fixing the ratio of drug and polymer for control the release of drug up to desired time, the rele...
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR PSEUDOEPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND FEXOFENADINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was described for determination of Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride (PSE) and Fexofenadine Hydrochloride (FEX). The chromatographic separation was achieved on Kinetex C18, (250 x 4.6 mm i.d), Particle size 5µm. The mobile phase contains a mixture of 0.005 M Dioctyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate Buffer in a mixture of 50 volume of Methanol, 10 volume of A...
BUFFER AND EMULSIFIER OPTIMIZATION IN CREAM WITH ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND SENSITIVITY
Introduction: Green tea contains epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) that widely use as antibacterial. Formulation development with buffer and emulsifier addition is needed to increase its stability and effectiveness. Buffer addition will increase EGCG stability while emulsifier will increase the cream stability. Objective: This study aimed to determine the optimal formulation from buffer combination ...
SEA BUCKTHORN (H. RHAMNOIDES L.) MEDIATED ACUTE HYPOXIC TOLERANCE IN THE SKELETAL MUSCLE OF RATS BY DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM AND ENHANCED ANTIOXIDANTS
Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia differentially affects physical performance and survival amongst individuals. The present study was designed to investigate the role of metabolic enzymes, antioxidants and bioenergetics molecular markers in the differential hypoxic tolerance of animals exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia and the effect of herbal supplementation in augmentation of hypoxia tolerance. Adu...
STUDIES ON FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF CELECOXIB MATRIX TABLET CONTAINING COMBINATION OF EQUAL RATIO OF NATURAL GUMS GUARGUM AND CYCLODEXTRIN, AMYLOSE AND PECTIN FOR COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY
Backdrop: The design, development, formulation and in vitro evaluation of colon targeted drug delivery system with natural polysaccharides was studied with Guargum, Cyclodextrin, Amylose and Pectin. Hence it motivated us to find the combined effect of the natural polysaccharides with Celecoxib matrix tablet for specific targeting to colon. Process: Celecoxib matrix tablet was prepared by drug with...
PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF ACORUS CALAMUS.
In vitro antioxidant activity test was carried out on partially purification of methanol extract of Acorus calamus. Partially purification was done to obtain ten fractions. Partial purification was carried out by using hexane: ethyl acetate solvent system. These fractions were studied for the polyphenolics and antioxidant activity. S6 –S9 fractions shows maximum radical scavenging activity, ...
EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION OF BROMELAIN FROM PINEAPPLE AND DETERMINATION OF ITS EFFECT ON BACTERIA CAUSING PERIODONTITIS
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a multiple fruit belonging to the Bromeliaceae family, has a crude extract Bromelain accumulated in the stem, fruit, peel and leaves of the pineapple which shows proteolytic activity. The present study was carried out to assess the accumulation of bromelain in the different parts of the pineapple. The techniques homogenization with sodium acetate buffer, follo...
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT – PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS IN PUNICA GRANATUM
The antioxidant activity of pomegranate fruit was evaluated using in vitro tests. Phenol content was more in G-137, 11.8±0.11 mg/g dry wt followed Arakta variety 10.1±0.05 mg/ g dry wt., respectively flavonol and flavonoid content was high in mrudula 3.5±0.05 mg/g dry wt, 7.0±0.05 mg/g dry wt., and proanthocyanin content was high in Bhagwa variety 19.62±0.05 mg/g dry wt, Anthocyanin conte...
IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SELECTED DIHYDROXY FLAVONE BY TPA INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUCOCYTES
The present study involves the investigation of anti-inflammatory activity for 2’, 4’ dihydroxy flavone by TPA [12- O- Techanoyl 13 – Myristate] induced inflammation in Polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNL]. The cell viability was assayed by Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, MTT assay, release of Cathepsin D, Nitrite and TNF-α levels. Diclofenac sodium was used as the standard drug. The select...
EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM MORUS ALBA LEAVES SUPPLEMENTATION ON GASTRIC TISSUE GLUTATHIONE LEVEL IN INDOMETHACIN INDUCED ULCERS IN RATS
Context: The leaves Morus alba have been traditionally used in Asian countries for treatment of different ailments. Objective: Present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract from Morus alba leaves supplementation on gastric tissue glutathione level in indomethacin induced ulcers in rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract from Morus alba leaves were administered at the ...
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF MEDICINAL AGENTS WITH NATURAL PRODUCTS
In Advances drug design technologies, a large no of drug molecules are being introduced in every year but many of these molecules have problems like their solubility, stability, bioavailability and its long lasting side effects. Low bioavailability is one of the serious but curable problems in case of the drug molecule. Low bioavailability happens because a lot of molecules unable to permeation th...