Volume 7 (2016) - Issue 4, April
Conventional chemotherapy drugs show lack of specificity, including reduced activity on cancer treatment with higher toxicity to normal cells and develop resistance after prolonged period of administration. Recently, to nullify all adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy nanometer sized carriers came into role for total cure. The advanced research community is focused on smart drug delivery syste...
In recent years heterocyclic compounds analogues and derivatives have attracted wide attention due to their useful biological and pharmacological properties. Benzothiazole is a privileged bicyclic ring system with diverse applications. The small and simple benzothiazole nucleus is present in compounds involved in research aimed at evaluating new products that possess biological activities, such as...
Kamdhenu or Indian cow (Bos indicus) is worshipped as sacred animal by Hindus. The reason for worshipping is the tremendous therapeutic values of cow derived products like cow milk, cow milk curd, cow butter (ghee), cow urine, cow dung and a combination formulation Panchgavya. The use of these products has been well defined in ancient Ayurvedic texts like Charak samhita, Shushruta samhita, Brahad-...
Lab-on-a-chip (LOC), a scaled down microfluidic device for carrying out laboratory operations outside the scope of standard laboratories is a rather appealing development in the field of science and technology for the whole laboratory has been reduced to a small chip capable of carrying out various functions. Keeping to its word, micro, miniaturized volume samples and reagents has ebbed the time t...
CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTICOAGULANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT AND ORGANIC FRACTIONS OF THYMUS ZYGIS L. SUB SP. GRACILIS
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant activities of aqueous extract and organic fractions of Thymus zygis. Water, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol were used as extractant solvents. The fractions were analyzed by HPLC and screened for their antioxidant activity in vitro using different assay. In vivo, the fractions were evaluated by us...
EVALUATION OF MIXTURES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PSEUDOCEDRELA KOTSCHYI AND BOSWELLIA DALZEILII AS INTERACTING PRODUCTS IN REGULATION OF PHAGOCYTOSIS AND LYMPHOCYTES PROLIFERATION
The current study aimed to test the effect of the aqueous extract of Boswellia dalzeilii and Pseudecedrela kotschyi using three different mixing ratios (B. dalzeilii:P. kotschyi) 3:1, 2:2, and 1:3. The assays concerned the study of the interactions in the modulation of phagocytic index, nitric oxide production, lysosomal enzymes and myeloperoxydase activity in macrophages and regulation of lymphoc...
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM IN BULK DRUG AND DOSAGE FORM FORMULATION
Losartan potassium in tablet dosage form, separation achieved with C 18 column (Kromasil 100-5C18250mm x4.6mm E82860 i.d., 5µm particle), ambient temperature with isocratic mode with mobile phase containing 40:60 Acetonitrile: Buffer consist of 10.5mM of disodium hydrogen phosphate and 10mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3.5 adjusted by 10 % Orthophosphoric acid and at flow rate 1.0ml/m...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Ramadan fasting and life rhythm eating rhythm on some elimination parameters, such as the antipyrine clearance, urinary volume and pH. A single oral dose of Antipyrine was administred to 14 healthy volunteers at 08:00 p.m. All the volunteers were submitted to four treatment phases; the first one was carried out 1 week prior to Ramad...
PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF PRIMAQUINE TO PATIENTS WITH UNCOMPLICATED FALCIPARUM MALARIA IN HALMAHERA INDONESIA
Malaria remains one of deadly diseases in Indonesia which mainly occurred in Tobelo, North Halmahera. Genetic factor is one of significant factors where the gene acting in protein and enzyme coding influences the drug pharmacokinetics. However, no studies have been carried out on the pharmacokinetics of anti-malaria of primaquine in Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to know the kinetic pr...
A CLINICAL STUDY EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF IVABRADINE ON INFLAMMATION IN PATIENTS WITH NON ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES
There is a strong association between elevated heart rate (HR), systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis. We assumed that HR lowering by ivabradine might decrease inflammation in patients with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Objective: Study the effects of ivabradine add on treatment on High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in patients with NSTE-ACS. Met...
VIRTUAL SCREENING OF COFORMERS FOR ATORVASTATIN Co-CRYSTALLIZATION AND THE CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THE Co-CRYSTALS
Atorvastatin calcium (ATC) is very slightly soluble in water and it is classified under BCS class II drugs. A widely used method to enhance the solubility of drugs is co-crystallization. In this work, we screened six co-formers for ATC by employing molecular docking method. The work was continued by co-crystallization process using slurry method, solubility assay of the mixtures using HPLC, and ch...
The combination of agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) young leave with α-tocopherol (α-TOH) showed a synergistic effect which helps to protect the food from lipid oxidation. The present study was designed to elucidate the acute toxicity of the mixture of A. crassna young leaves crude ethanolic extract (CE) and α-TOH on Balb/c mice. This acute oral toxicity study was carried out based on OECD 423 guid...
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL CHOLESTERYL LACTATE BASED FATTY ACID ANALOGS AND THEIR IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
A series of novel cholesteryl lactate-fatty acid conjugates (4a-i) were prepared by esterification of cholesterol with lactic acid, followed by coupling hydroxyl group of cholesteryl lactate with –COOH group of fatty acids including, saturated fatty acids of varying carbon chain of C10-C18, unsaturated fatty acids like 10-undecenoic, oleic ((9Z)-octadec-9-enoic), ricinoleic ((9Z,12R)-12-hydroxyo...
PREPARATION OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA LOADED CELLULOSE/CHITOSAN COMPOSITE FILMS AND THE EVALUATION OF DRUG RELEASE AND ANTIMICROBIAL CHARACTERISTICS
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is one of the major problems encountered by nearly 15 % of diabetic patients. Combinations of different antibiotics are used to treat the infection which makes the microorganism multi drug resistant. Among various types of drug delivery system, transdermal drug delivery is preferred in treating DFU because it delivers the drug directly to the wound site, which increases t...
THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF NOVEL HETEROCYCLIC THIAZOLIDINE COMPOUNDS AGAINST HUMAN LYMPHATIC FILARIAL PARASITE: AN IN VITRO STUDY
Objective: Following World Health Organization tropical disease research mandate, there is definitive need for search of new lead molecules for development of drug against human lymphatic filariasis. Thiazolidineone derivatives has shown versatile therapeutic potential. The present study has been undertaken to explore the possible antifilarial effect of such synthetic compounds against filarial pa...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMPLE EFFECTIVE HPLC METHOD FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF RELATED SUBSTANCE PRESENT IN SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE DRUG SUBSTANCE
An efficient and sensitive RPHPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of Sitagliptin Phosphate process impurities in drug substances which were identified and characterized by LCMS, FTIR, 1H NMR, C NMR techniques. The method was carried out on a Symmetry shield RP 18 column at 25°C using a 1 % Perchloric acid and acetonitrile in gradient mode of pump. The flow rate is 1.2 ml/min...
DOSE OPTIMIZATION OF CEFTRIAXONE-SULBACTAM COMBINATION IN PEDIATRIC USING IN-VITRO SYSTEMS AND STOCHASTIC SIMULATIONS APPROACHES
Increase in complexity and cost associated with pediatric safety and efficacy studies have reduced the interest of pharmaceutical companies to study bio-therapeutics in pediatric population. Dose recommendations are being made as per patient body weight or body surface area, with the assumption of linearity in body size dose adjustments. In the present study, newer approach i.e. flat fixed age-bas...
The present study relates to the stable fixed dose combination comprising of Aceclofenac as a glycolic acid ester of Diclofenac is having analgesic and anti-inflammatory action and Thiocolchicoside, as a glycosulfurated analogue of colchicine which is well known centrally acting muscle relaxant in unit dosage form and to the preparation method thereof. Aceclofenac is very susceptible to decomposit...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL MIXED METAL TARTRATEC OMPLEXES AND STUDY OF THEIR IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
A series of six new mixed metal complexes of general formulation [MM12(L)n]xH2O, where M= Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd,M1=Fe, L= Tartrate ligand, x=1,5,6 and n = 3, are synthesized using tartrate as a bidented ligand. The newly synthesized complexes were characterized using various analytical techniques such as IR, XRD, TGA, Elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility study etc. IR spectral data sugge...
GERMINATION OF FENUGREEK SEEDS IMPROVES HYPOGLYCAEMIC EFFECTS AND NORMALIZES INSULIN SIGNILLING PATHWAY EFFICIENTLY IN DIABETES
Recent reports show that germination process increases the hypoglycemic activity of seeds many fold, and can act in a better way for diabetes management. Despite large use of fenugreek seeds than any part of the plant for the treatment of broad range of maladies including diabetes, the anti-diabetic effects of germinated seeds have not been assessed. In the present study, the effect of 21 days ora...
COMPARISON OF ANTIHELMINTHIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN BISARYL BENZYL PIPERAZINE AND BENZIMIDAZOLE LINKED PIPERAZINE DERIVATIVES
Helminthes infections are more common in poor countries where people suffer from poor health hygiene and sanitation, though there are lot of marketed drugs available for these disease but the interesting thing about antihelminthics is that they are either pypirazine or benzimidazole derivatives, so as medicinal chemist the attention will be drawn towards these different moieties which exert same b...
Crataeva tapia L. (Family- Capparaceae) is an important medicinal tree, commonly called as ‘Varuna’. The plant has been reported to possess several medicinal properties. Propagation of Crataeva tapia L. is mostly by seeds, but germination percentage is very low mainly due to presence of hard seed coat. Conservation and propagation of species using biotechnological tools like plant tissue cultu...
PHYTOCHEMICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SAPINDUS EMARGINATUS VAHL. BARK EXTRACT FOR NEPHROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY
Gentamicin causes kidney cellular damage by alterations in biological functions. This study evaluated the nephroprotective potential of the ethanolic extract and its fraction originating from Sapindus emarginatus Vahl. (Sapindaceae) bark against the Gentamicin - induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Objective: To evaluate the nephroprotective effect of ethanol extract and its organic solvent fraction of ...
Aim: The objective of the present research work was to formulate and compare two different kinds of penetration enhancer in transdermal patch with placebo patch using a drug (Salbutamol sulphate) and compare for in vitro drug release. Study Design: The transdermal patches of Salbutamol sulphate were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using different ratios of Hydroxy propyl methylcellulose ...
A novel Assay method for the determinationof1-Deoxy nojirimycine(DNJ) was proposed by the authors using ion chromatography. The method was found to be accurate, simple and precise. A method precision RSD of 0.5%, RSD for intermediate precision of 0.6% and correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9999. A recovery of 99.7 to 100.1% at 50%, 100% and 150% levels was found. The DNJ solutions and mobil...
Metformin HCl (MH), is an oral anti-diabetic drug with less bioavailability, and a BCS class III, short plasma half-life as well as narrow absorption window. The objective of this research work is to obtain better delivery of MH to the upper part of GIT by increasing the mean residence time (MRT) in the stomach. For this, Gastroretentive swellable and floating sustained release tablets were prepar...
ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF AN ETHANOL EXTRACT OF COLEUS FORSKOHLII ROOT AGAINST GASTRIC CANCER CELLS IN-VITRO
Coleus forskohlii is an Indian medicinal plant it treat various diseases of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of an ethanol extract of Coleus forskohlii against gastric cancer in AGS cancer cell lines. Gastric carcinoma cells were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, Ao/EtBr staining for apo...
The present paper deals with the analysis of methane sulfonic acid, benzene sulfonic acid and camphor sulfonic acid counter anions in pharmaceutical ingredients (doxazosin mesylate, amlodipine besylate and clopidogrel camphor sulfonate) by suppressed conductivity anion chromatography. The diluent used for the preparation of sample solution was Milli-Q Water and injected into a standard chromatogra...
L-Glutaminase (EC.220.127.116.11) is an amidohydrolase which catalyses the hydrolytical deamination of L-glutamine resulting in the production of L-glutamic acid and ammonia. L-Glutaminase is gaining marked importance due to its application potential in cancer therapy, food industry and of high value chemicals like theronine. A variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast, and filamentous fungi, ...
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CROTALARIA BURHIA BUCH.-HAM. ROOTS IN RATS AND MICE
Aim: Present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Crotalaria Burhia roots (Henceforth, MECB) using various experimental animal model of pain. Materials & Methods: Analgesic activity was tested using acetic-acid induced writhing test, formalin test, hot-plate test and tail-flick test for pain in mice and rats. In this study we investigated analgesic activi...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NOVEL HYDRAZONE DERIVATIVES DERIVED FROM 3-((4-FORMYL-2-METHOXYPHENOXY) METHYL) BENZONITRILE
Hydrazones are an important classe of biologically active compounds found in many synthetic compounds. In view of their importance in synthetic chemistry, the present article reported that a new series of novel hydrazone derivatives (4a-e) were synthesized by condensation of 3-((4-formyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)methyl)benzonitrile(3) with different benzohydrazides and confirmed by their IR, 1H NMR, and M...
The inhibitory role of trace and major elements in urinary stone crystallization was investigated in five widely used anti-urolithiatic medicinal plants of North East India. Fifteen elements namely K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by Proton Induced X-ray Emission(PIXE) technique while light elements namely F, Na,...
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gum of Curcuma amada (mango ginger) as a tablet binder employing paracetamol as a model drug. Natural gums are economic, easily available and found useful as tablet binder. The physicochemical properties of a gum obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma amada were characterized by Fourier transmittance infra red (FTIR) and Differential scanning colorime...
IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM OPERCULINA TURPETHUM (L.) SILVA MANSO LEAF BY HPLC METHOD
Plants served as potent sources of bioactive compounds since ages. The understanding of phytochemical constitution of each and every plant on earth is the preliminary and the most important step in drug discovery. As Operculina turpethum(L.) Silva Manso is traditionally used for various ailments, the understanding of phytochemical composition of the plant is very essential. The present study was...
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF IMPURITIES FROM EMTRICITABINE AND TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE TABLET
Stability indicating RP-HPLC gradient method developed for simultaneous determination of impurities and degradation products from Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using column ACE C18 (250 x 4.6, 5μ). The mobile phase-A consists of 0.01M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with pH 4.0 adjusted us...
QUALITY BY DESIGN APPROACH FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SAXAGLIPTIN BY RP-HPLC WITH APPLICATION TO FORMULATED FORMS
Quality by Design (QbD) is a philosophy that refines the level of knowledge associated with a product that uses process understanding to deliver a product with the desired critical quality attributes. The objective of this present study was to develop and demonstrate an integrated multivariate approach to develop and quantify the constituent concentrations of saxagliptin drug in its pure and formu...
Migraine is an episodic headache disorder characterized by a combination of neurological, gastrointestinal, and autonomic symptoms. Eletriptan hydrobromide (EHBr) is a second generation triptan drug intended for treatment of migraine headaches. The main aim of the study was to prepare and evaluate elastic niosomes of EHBr (ENEH) and optimise the concentration of non-ionic surfactants and ethanol b...
SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA (LINN.) FLOWER
Calotropis gigantea L. flowers were widely used as a natural herbal medication. The objective of the present study was to screen the phytoconstituents and to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-cancer properties of Calotropis gigantea flower extract. The UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopic techniques were employed to screen the phytochemicals. The antibacterial property of the extract was evaluated thro...
CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS, IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ROOT EXTRACT OF TYPHONIUM TRILOBATUM
In the present study, the phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant activity, thrombolytic activity, membrane stabilizing activity, acute toxicity and anti-depressant activity were evaluated using Forced Swimming Test (FST) of the root extract of Typhonium trilobatum. Phytochemical evaluation was done by performing different chemical tests and the presence of flavonoid, carbohydrate and phenol...
Four crude extracts viz, methanol extract of fruit and n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol extracts of the leaf of R. tetraphylla were investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity at different concentrations (5, 50 and 100 μg). Antioxidant ability is expressed as equivalents of ascorbic acid and was calculated using standard graph. The results indicated that the leaf n-hexane and methanol extra...
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE SAUDI MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA
The present work aims to examine the antimicrobial activity of three medicinal plant extracts grown in Saudi Arabia namely Pulicaria crispa, Achillea fragrantissima and Cleome Africana against 10 clinical isolates of multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR) that belong to four species, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumonia. The antibacterial pot...
EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL, ANALGESIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA
Aim: Evaluation of the antimicrobial, analgesic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Averrhoa Carambola. Materials and methods: To test the antimicrobial activity the organisms used were S. aureus, Klebsiella sp, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, C. albicans. Zone of inhibitions produced by sensitive organisms were demarcated by a circular area of clearing around plant extract i...
SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF TRAVOPROST AND TIMOLOL MALEATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC
Travoprost and Timolol Maleate are used in treatment of glaucoma by decreasing intra ocular pressure. The present study was designed to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise, and specific reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of Travoprost and Timolol maleate in ophthalmic dosage form. Chromatographic separation of these two ...
The present study was carried out to detect the phytoconstituents present in the bulbous part of Eleutherine bulbosa using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The mass spectrum of the crude ethyl acetate extract was compared with the available library sources (NIST08LIB, WILEY 8 and FAME). A total of 24 compounds were identified. Most of the major constituents were phenolic ...
FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION & EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSION BASED GASTRORETENTIVE FLOATING TABLETS OF CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL
The objective of present study was to preclude of poor dissolution of relatively water insoluble and poorly permeable drug by formulating gastroretentive floating tablet using solid dispersion (SD) of the drug. It aimed to increase the drug solubility and gastric retention of the drug for better absorption profile. Cefpodoxime proxetil is an orally absorbed third generation cephalosporin antibioti...
Cucumis sativus (Cucumbers) have not received as much press as other vegetables in terms of health benefits, but this widely cultivated food provides us with a unique combination of nutrients. At the top of the phytonutrient list for cucumbers are its cucurbitacins, lignans, and flavonoids. These three types of phytonutrients found in cucumbers provide us with valuable antioxidant, anti-inflammato...
EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PLASTER FROM KENCUR (KAEMPFERIA GALANGA L.) RHIZOME ETHANOL EXTRACT
Kencur (Kaempferia galanga L.) is a plant of Zingiberaceae family. Some studies have shown that kencur can reduce inflammation because flavonoid kaempferol which is contained in kencur has anti-inflammatory activity. Optimized the use of the rhizome kencur, research was conducted on anti-inflammatory plaster containing kencur rhizome extract and its effectiveness for treating inflammation. The stu...
The most common cause of death is bone marrow failure. Chromosomal analysis is essential for the diagnosis, response to treatment and prognosis of leukemia. The present study was done to know the chromosomal abbreviation in chronic leukemia of patients with in age group of 2 to 60 years. 32 male and 21 female patients have been analyzed for this study. The chosen leukemic patients were those who w...
A new flavone glycoside 1 m. p. 223-225ºC, m. f. C34H42O20, [M+] 770 (FABMS) has been isolated from the stems of Taraxacum Officinal weber along with one known compound Taxifolin. A compound 1 was characterized as 6, 4′-dimethoxy-5, 7-dihydroxy-flavone- 7 - O - a - L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1®4) - O – β - D xylopyranosyl-(1®4)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by various chemical degradations and spectral a...
In the present paper QSAR studies related to some novel substituted pyrazole derivatives are reported. All the compounds were evaluated for antmicrobial activity viz- antifungal activity against A. niger. Their reported antimicrobial activities were used for Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptor of the comp...
The present work reports a prospective observational study to determine perioperative usage pattern of analgesics. Both general and regional anaesthesia and also different analgesics which is most effective to manage post operative pain were used. 120 patients were studied randomly as per criteria. Techniques of anaesthesia, pre, peri& post operative vitals and pain scores were noted in select...
EVALUATION OF NS1 ANTIGEN-CAPTURE ELISA AND IgM ANTIBODY CAPTURE ELISA IN ACUTE CASES OF DENGUE IN RURAL POPULATION IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH INDIA
Background: Dengue is a major public health problem in resource-limited countries like India. There has always been a quest for best serological test for prompt and accurate diagnosis and whether single test or a combination be used. Enzyme immunoassays based on the detection of dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1), and IgM antibody capture are available with different sensitivities and spe...
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SODIUM VALPROATE ON ENHANCEMENT OF MONOAMINE MEDIATED BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES AFTER ELECTROCONVULSIVE SHOCK (ECS) ADMINISTRATION IN RATS
Objectives: To obtain the data regarding the effects of sodium valproate on enhancement of monoamines mediated behavioural responses following administration of ECS for ten days to rats. Methods: Forty rats were selected for the study in which tonic-clonic seizures were developed fully after giving single maximal electroconvulsive shock (150V, 210mA). Four groups (n= ten in each) were received dif...
Background: The plant Hamelia patens belong to a family Rubiaceae, which is rich in active phytochemicals like flavonoids and alkaloids. Although Plant has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments still no systematic pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological work has ever been carried out on this potential plant. Aim: The present study was carried out for the standa...