Volume 2 (2011) - Issue 4, April
MUTUAL PRODRUGS- A SWOT ANALYSIS
Mutual prodrug is a form of prodrug in which two pharmacologically active agents are attached to each other in such a way that each drug acts as a promoiety/carrier for each other and vice versa. The association may be “synergistic” if the carrier shows the same biological action as that of parent drug or may provide “additional” benefit if it shows new pharmacological action which is lack...
SIGNIFICANT ROLE OF HYDROTROPES IN EXTRACTION OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS- A REVIEW
A hydrotrope is an organic substance that increases the solubility of surfactants and water insoluble phyto-constituents such as esters, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, and fats in an aqueous solution. These are amphiphilic substances composed of both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups. The hydrophobic part of the molecule is benzene substituted polar segment while ...
TRANSFEROSOMES: AN EMERGING TOOL FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY
Transdermal drug delivery is proving to be superior to the conventional oral delivery of drugs owing to its distinct virtues. But it has got its own limitations as well- inability to transport large molecules, inability to overcome the barrier properties of stratum corneum and many more. Using this route of drug delivery along with novel approaches can help to solve these problems. Formulating the...
KANENGISER’S EVALUATION METHOD: AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR DETERMINING OCULAR IRRITANT POTENTIAL IN COSMETICS
A growing interest in usage of cosmetics has created the need for greater precision in evaluation and has stimulated research into cosmetic medicine. Ocular irritation testing represents an important step in the safety evaluation of cosmetic products. The objective of this study was to introduce a method of assessing ocular irritancy in human subjects and to illustrate the significance of a new ...
CHEWING GUM AS A DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
It is well known fact that the right drug delivery system is critical to the success of a pharmaceutical product. A novel drug delivery system creates additional patient benefits that will add new competitive advantages for a drug and, thus, conserve or increase revenue. Chewing gum as drug delivery system holds tremendous potential not only in smoking cessation and oral health care arenas but a...
PYRIMIDINE: THE MOLECULE OF DIVERSE BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE
Pyrimidine nucleus is one of the most important heterocycles exhibiting remarkable pharmacological activities. The present review provides a broad view of the biological and medicinal activity possessed by compounds having pyrimidine nucleus....
MELATONIN: A NOVEL BIOMATERIAL FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY
The mainly deliberate endocrine product of the pineal gland, melatonin, has been reported to be involved in the feedback between neuroendocrine and immune functions and to exert oncostatic action, at least in certain experimental conditions. Melatonin seems to be a vital part of the immune system, by exerting direct and/or indirect stimulatory effects on both cellular and humoral immunity. Likewis...
PHYTOMEDICINES AND COGNITION
Learning is the process of acquisition of information and skills, while subsequent retention of that information is called memory. Learning and memory together called as cognition. Also, memory is a process involving encoding, storing, and recalling information. Thus, memory records various facts and events, make it available for further use, and hence can be considered as most valuable health ass...
BRAIN DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON RECENT EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL FINDINGS
The blood- brain barrier (BBB) denies many therapeutic agents access to brain tumors and other diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite remarkable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the brain diseases and the actions of neuroactive agents, drug delivery to the brain remains a challenge. For more than 20 years, extensive efforts have been mad...
PHYTOSOME- A NOVEL APPROACH FOR HERBAL DRUG DELIVERY
The bioavailability of some orally administered botanical extracts is erratic and poor due to limited gastro-intestinal absorption. Bioavailability can be improved by using new delivery systems which can enhance the rate and the extent of solubilization into aqueous intestinal fluids and the capacity to cross biomembranes. Phospholipids based drug delivery system have been found promising for bett...
EFFECTS OF THE EUDRAGIT AND DRUG COAT ON THE RELEASE BEHAVIOUR OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG BY SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE
Solid dispersions traditionally have been used as effective methods to improve the dissolution properties and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Furosemide a loop diuretic belonging to Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Class IV, has very poor water solubility. The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble drug, fur...
MICROBIAL CONCRETE: THE PIONEERING WORK ON REPAIRING CONCRETE
The global demand of concrete is increasing every year and generally is considered as most consumed material on earth. But concrete is vulnerable to deterioration, corrosion, and cracks, and the consequent damage and loss of strength requires immensely expensive remediation and repair. One such mechanism that receives increasing attention in recent years is the ability for self-repair. So a nove...
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF 2- AMINO- 4- CHLOROPHENOL AS A POTENTIAL IMPURITY IN CHLORZOXAZONE BULK DRUG
2-amino-4-chlorophenol (ACP) is a synthetic precursor of the skeletal muscle relaxant; chlorzoxazone. A rapid simple colorimetric method was proposed for the determination of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol as a potential impurity in chlorzoxazone bulk powder via its reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine in presence of alkaline oxidizing agent (K3[Fe(CN)6] / NH3) and measuring the produced red color at 520 nm...
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MELT- IN- MOUTH TABLETS BY SUBLIMATION TECHNIQUE
In the present study Rizatriptan benzoate, which is the bitter drug requires taste, masking. β- Cyclodextrin is used in taste masking, which improves the patient compliance and also increases the rate of dissolution. Solid dispersion of drug and β- Cyclodextrin were prepared which was optimised in 1: 8 ratios, which gave satisfactory results for taste masking. This was then characterised using D...
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON LEAF AND STEM OF CRESSA CRETICA LINN.
Cressa cretica is halophytic plant belongs to family Convolvulaceae, growing extensively all over India. The entire plant is medicinally important and used extensively in traditional system of medicine. The present work attempted to summarize the macroscopic characters of the plant Cressa cretica. The microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, fluorescent analysis of the ...
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CRATEVA MAGNA BARK ON TAB-VACCINE INDUCED PYREXIA
Objective - Crataeva magna is a potent medicinal plant in the Indian systems of medicine. Traditionally used for inflammation, fever, arthritis, bronchitis, urinary calculi and cough. The objective of the present work was to study the antipyretic activity of plant Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC belonging to family Capparaceae. Materials & Methods - In the present study the alcoholic extracts of ...
ANTIMICROBIAL AND TOXICITY STUDY OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF DILLENIA INDICA LINN. BARK EXTRACT
The methanolic extract along with some organic soluble fractions of the bark of Dillenia indica Linn. were tested against four Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacteria and against three pathogenic fungi. n-Hexane and dichloromethane fractions showed remarkable activities against all the tested bacteria but n-Hexane fraction showed highest activity against Shigella dysenteriae and its zone of...
EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY HERBAL PRACTITIONERS IN CENTRAL PROVINCE- KENYA
The antimicrobial effects of selected medicinal plants commonly used by herbal practitioners in central province Kenya was evaluated on different bacterial strains- Staphylococcus aureus (Gram +ve cocci) - ATCC 20591, Salmonella typhi (Gram –ve rod) - ATCC 2202, Escherichia coli (Gram-ve rod) - STD. 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (Gram-ve rod) - ATCC 2...
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXIC, ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTHUS ACIDUS
The in vitro activity of the petroleum ether extract of fruit part of Phyllanthus acidus was tested for cytotoxic antibacterial and antioxidant activities as well as for phytochemical screening. The plant was collected from Savar, Dhaka. Phytochemical screening of petroleum extract of phyllanthus acidus revealed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside and steroid. The extract exhibited antibacteri...
STUDY OF ELECTRODE KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF TINIDAZOLE POLAROGRAPHYCALLY
The electrochemical reduction of anti- parasitic drug “Tinidazole” has been carried out in aqueous solution in the pH range 2.3 to 11.3 by Direct current (DC) polarography. Tinidazole exhibits one or two reduction peaks depending on pH. In basic medium one reduction peak was observed. Along with different pH, studies of drug have been carried out with different concentrations of drug and at di...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA (L.) DEL AGAINST CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
The various parts of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del (Balanitaceae) is used in Ayurvedic and other folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as syphilis, jaundice, liver and spleen problem, epilepsy and yellow fever. This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of ethanol extract of aerial part of Balanites aegyptiaca on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity i...
SYNTHESIS OF NEW SERIES OF THIENYL ACRYLATE DERIVATIVES VIA BAYLIS-HILLMAN REACTION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
A series of new Thienyl acrylate compounds were synthesized via Baylis-Hillman reaction and tested to demonstrate in vitro antimicrobial activity. Some of these compounds exhibited a very good activity against Gram positive strains. The structure of these newly synthesized compounds were conformed by 1H NMR, IR, Mass and Elemental analysis, some of them were also confirmed by 13C NMR....
ORAL SUPPLEMENTATION WITH RUTIN, A FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDE, INHIBITS ETHANOL INDUCED HEPATIC LIPID ACCUMULATION IN EXPERIMENTAL RATS
Our aim was to determine the effect of rutin, a flavonol glycoside on ethanol induced hepatic lipid accumulation in experimental rats. Male albino Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 received isocaloric glucose. Hepatic injury was induced in groups 3 and 4 by administering 20% ethanol via intragastric intubation for 60days. In addition, groups 2 and 4 were given rutin (100...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS
The objective of the present study was to develop venlafaxine hydrochloride orodispersible tablet by using conventional techniques which are simple and cost effective such as use of superdisintegrant technology. In this, sodium starch glycollate and Crosscarmellose sodium were used in the rapid disintegration of the tablets. In this various trials were conducted for the selection of optimum concen...
DESIGN AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS OF RANOLAZINE
Sustained-release drug delivery system containing Ranolazine (an anti-anginal drug) with different ratios of pH dependent polymer, Eudragit L100-55 was designed by wet granulation method. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and polymers were studied by FTIR spectrophotometer and found to be compatible. The in vitro release of Ranolazine SR tablets was studied in 900 ml of 0.1N HCl as dis...
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH ECTOPIC TUBAL PREGNANCY
Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to know the variable histopathological changes in the fallopian tube after having ectopic gestation and its correlation with predisposing factors. Materials and Methods: 100 fallopian tubes having ectopic gestation for study group and 25 fallopian tubes received after sterilization operation for control group submitted in department of pathology bet...
PREDICTION OF THREE DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF, γ- HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE DEHYDROCHLORINASE (LINA) IN SPHINGOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS UT26
The present study undertaken to predict the three dimensional structure of γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase (linA) in Sphingomonas paucimobilis UT26. γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase (linA) catalyzes the initial steps in the biotransformation of the important insecticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) by the soil bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilisUT26. Stereo chemical analy...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF DORZOLAMIDE HCl IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
Repaglinide is widely used as a hypoglycemic drug for the treatment of chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of the present study was to improve the bioavailability of repaglinide by nasal delivery using degradable starch microspheres. Degradable starch microspheres were prepared by an emulsion polymerization method and formaldehyde was used as a cross linking agent. The formulations wer...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF DORZOLAMIDE HCl IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
Three Simple, precise, accurate and economical UV methods have been developed and validated for the quantitative estimation of Dorzolamide HCl in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Dorzolamide HCl has the absorbance maxima at 253 nm in zero order spectra (Method A). In the first order derivative spectra, showed absorbance maxima at 238 nm (Method B) and in the second order derivative spectra, sh...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA LEAF POWDER AND ITS DIFFERENT EXTRACTS ON GLYCEMIC, INSULINEMIC AND LIPIDEMIC STATUS OF TYPE 2 DIABETIC MODEL RATS
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral feeding of A. indica leaf (powder, aqueous and 80% ethanol extract) in STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ to 48hrs old pups and experiments were carried out three months later. For chronic experiment type 2 rats were divided into 5 groups: 1) Water control, 2) Glibencl...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL DISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF CINNARIZINE USING DIRECT COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE
In the present work, oral dispersible tablets of cinnarizine were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient’s compliance. Five different superdisintegrants viz. crosspovidone, sodium starch glycolate, crosscarmellose sodium and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) and pregelatinized starch were used along with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102) and di...
IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF COUMARIN ON CHEMICAL INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIC RATS
The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of coumarin in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NA) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in experimental rats by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (45 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)), 15 min after the i.p. administration of NA (110 mg/kg b.w.). Diabetic rats were administered coumarin intragastrically ...
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC RHIZOME EXTRACT OF HEDYCHIUM CORONARIUM
This study was aimed to investigate analgesic and neuropharmacological actions of the methanolic extract of rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium. The analgesic activity was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions using tail immersion method and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice respectively. The extract, at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, produced a si...
NANODROP SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF RANOLAZINE IN THEIR BULK
Nanodrop spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the estimation of Ranolazine in bulk. Ranolazine exhibited λmax at 272nm in water and obeyed linearity in the concentration range of 12.5-2000 ppm. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of Ranolazine in bulk with good accuracy and precision. The method herein described can be employed for quality contr...
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM LINN.
The ethanolic extract of whole plant of Coriandrum sativum Linn., family: Umbelliferae, was assessed for its possible analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, and gums. In acetic acid induced writhing in mice, the ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibi...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL THIOPHENE ACRYLATE DERIVATIVES
This study deals with the synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of some novel Thiophene acrylate compounds. Totally fourteen compounds have been synthesized with different heterocyclic moieties on the Thiophene acrylate in order to study their influence on the antimicrobial activity. These compounds demonstrated potent to weak antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria...
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL FRACTIONATION FROM METHANOL EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF RUELLIA PROSTRATA POIR (ACANTHACEAE)
Aerial parts of Ruellia prostrata were subjected to extraction and further fractionation to obtain antioxidant rich fraction. Different concentrations of methanolic extract and its n-butanolic fraction were subjected to antioxidant assay by DPPH method, Nitric oxide scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The fractions showed dose dependent free radical scavenging property in all the models....
DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHRONOPHARMACEUTICAL DRUG DELIVERY OF THEOPHYLLINE
Chronopharmacokinetic studies have been reported for many drugs in an attempt to explain chronopharmacological phenomena and demonstrate that the time of administration is a possible factor of variation in the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The present study aimed at preparing a novel time dependent pulsed release system containing ‘pellets in-capsule’ device plugged by biodegradable polymers f...
ADRENAL MYELOLIPOMA ASSOCIATED WITH CHOLELITHIASIS- A CASE REPORT
Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign endocrinologically inactive tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic cells in varying proportions. Most lesions are small, unilateral and asymptomatic, discovered incidentally at autopsy or on imaging studies performed for other reasons. Its characteristic appearance on sonography and computed tomography enables preoperative diagnosis with a hi...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF TUBEROUS ROOT OF IPOMOEA DIGITATA LINN. AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY.
Hepatitis is major health problem in human being due to various chemical including therapeutic agent and environmental toxin and this can leads to illness like jaundice, which sometime may lead to even death. Ipomoea digitata Linn. is used in ayurvedic formulation for various disease conditions and commonly known as “Vidarikanda”. The present study deals with hepatoprotective activity hydroeth...
STUDIES ON ANTIBACTERIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE SEEDS AND LEAVES OF FICUS RACEMOSA
The seeds and leaves of Ficus racemosa have shown considerable antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties while their antibacterial activities were found low. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties in different concentration. For antioxidant activity, here we used free radial scavenging activity of plant extracts against stable DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl ...
EFFECT OF COTRIMOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS IN HIV-1 INFECTED PATIENTS ATTENDING JOS UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL
Many chemo prophylactic approaches to manage or prevent opportunistic infections using many drugs have been reported. Based on the reported cases of chemo prophylactic approaches to manage opportunistic infections, the effect of Cotrimoxazole on HIV patients was studied. Seventy two patients with CD4+ cell counts ≤ 350cells/µl were recruited for the study. Each patient received cotrimoxazole tw...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NEW 3, 4- DIHYDROPYRIMIDINONES
A number of aldehydes were reacted with acetyl acetone or ethyl acetoacetate and urea under Biginelli reaction conditions to give the corresponding 5-acyl-4-(substituted-aryl)-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-one. The 5-acetyl-derivatives were converted into pyrimido-oxazoles, pyrimido-pyrazoles, and chalcones. Some Mannich bases were also synthesized. Some selected compounds were tested for their ...
EFFECT OF GRANULATION TECHNIQUE AND DRUG-POLYMER RATIO ON RELEASE KINETICS OF GLICLAZIDE FROM METHOCEL K15M CR MATRIX TABLET
The effect of different percentages of a hydrophilic polymer and impact of granulation technique on the release profile of gliclazide from matrix system was investigated. Matrix tablets of Gliclazide were prepared by both direct compression and wet granulation process using METHOCEL K15M CR. Release kinetics of Gliclazide matrix tablets were determined using USP paddle method at Phosphate buffer (...
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA (L.) PERS
The plant Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers is reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Sesbania grandiflora, commonly known as "sesbania" and "agathi," is widely used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. Sesbania grandiflora is a fast-growing tree with a typical adult height of between 3 and 5 m. The leaves are regular and rounded and th...
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF THE PLANT OF BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM WILLD.
The plant of Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) was shaded dried, and then these were made into coarsely powdered by using dry grinder. The powdered roots of the plant (200gm) was packed in soxhlet apparatus and continuously extracted with petroleum ether (40-600C) till complete extraction. After completion of extraction, the solvent was removed by distillation and then concentrated extract obtained w...