Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 11, November
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have appeared as an attractive candidate for delivery of various drug molecules or considered as extraordinary molecular carriers for the targeting, intracellular trafficking and delivery of a huge array of biomolecules including DNA, RNA, proteins, peptides, drugs, genes and other molecules of therapeutic significance. Particularly gold nanoparticles have attracted inte...
Fungal infections in critically ill or immunosuppressed patients were increasing in incidence in the human population over the last 1-2 decades. There were few advances in antifungal therapy and, until recently, there were few choices from which to select a treatment for systemic mycoses. However, in the past decade, there have been several developments in this area. Antifungal agents are sufficie...
Arterial thrombus formation are due to mainly platelet activation and aggregation which are considered to be central to pathological changes occurring in the vessel leading to the various complications and mortality . Antiplatelet drugs are used to prevent and help in the reversal of platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis which was the major culprit in the pathology of myocardial infarcti...
The delivery of therapeutic agents transdermally has received considerable interest because of the safety and convenience of drug administration via this route. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. A transfersome is an artificial vesicle designed to be like a cell vesicle, and used to deliver drugs or genetic material into a cell. Transfe...
This article addresses the basic concepts of herbal technology which is used worldwide. 21st century is the century of Biology mechanical and propelled by scientific knowledge and hi-tech expertise. Herbal technology, are going to be the most influential elements that are fundamental for success and welfare for the people of nations.Information on the herbal technologywas collected via electronic ...
The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory). Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the det...
Poor patient compliance is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice. The unfavorable pharmacokinetic of the drug, the inconveniences of the standard form of such drug application and the side effects due to the administration route often are the reasons for this. The high and self-optimizing deformability of typical composite transferosomes membrane, which are adaptable to ambient tress allow...
SWALLOWABLE WIRELESS CAPSULAR ENDOSCOPY: A NOVEL BREAKTHROUGH IN THE BIOMEDICAL INDUSTRY AND FUTURE PROGRESS
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a medical procedure which has revolutionized for the first time a painless inspection of the small intestine. It is a simple, safe, non-invasive, reliable technique, well accepted and tolerated by the patients, which allows complete exploration of the small intestine. WCE has vitamin size pill which captures images of the digestive tract and entire small bowel, ...
Drug delivery to liver is one of the most challenging research areas in pharmaceutical sciences. The some physiological barrier such as opsonization, mechanical entrapment by pulmonary vascular bed, uptake by RES represents an insurmountable obstacle for a large number of proteins and drugs, including antibiotics, antineoplastic agents and antiviral agents to target liver disorders. Therefore, var...
TAHLAB (SPIRULINA) AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE – A REVIEW
Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina) & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue...
Arthritis is a major cause of disability conventionally treated for long term with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids. NSAIDs are nonselective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and cause GI toxicity, antiplatelet effects, cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity and anaphylactic reactions in selected patients. Corticosteroids have multiple side effects, including gastrointestinal bleeding, ...
Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide which is widely exploited for its various applications. It has received much attention as a functional biopolymer especially in pharmaceutics and medicine because of its better biodegradability, biocompatibility, versatility and availability. The unique biological applications of chitosan are attributed to these specific properties. The chemical and biological ...
Life expectancy is increasing as a result of advancement in medical science and the availability of better healthcare services. As the risk of dementia increases with increasing age, the number of persons with dementia in the general population is also rising. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately 70%...
In contrast to the problematic health and economic effects of acute and chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are still few data dealing with the effects of smoking. Smoke exposurecan result in aberrant cell growth. In our experiments, pyrolyzed components of cigarettes have been shown to induce a strong stress response in cultured cells. We used human embryonic lu...
EVALUATION OF THROMBOLYTIC AND MEMBRANE STABILIZING ACTIVITIES OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH
The crude methanol extracts of aerial parts ofAbrus precatorius L., leaf of Magnolia pterocarpa Roxb. and Dracaena spicata Roxb. and leaf and bark ofRavenala madagascariensis Sonn. as well as their hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates were subjected to screenings for thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities. Among the extractives of A. precatorius, the...
The aim of the present study was to formulate lornoxicam into rectal suppositories as a new dosage form, to avoid its reported gastric irritation and to provide a rapid onset of action for children. Suppositories were prepared using fatty bases namely; witepsol H-15, suppocire AML, CM, witepsol E-75 and water soluble bases; mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol), PEGs, with different molecular weights....
APPLICATION OF LYSOZYME AND DEXTRAN CONJUGATED LYSOZYME AS NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN THE TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL SKIN WOUND IN MICE
Background: Skin wound infected by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common and painful lesion. Tetracycline is commonly used as the antibiotic of choice for its treatment. Aim: to determine the effectiveness of hen egg white lysozyme and dextran conjugated lysozyme in decreasing the bacterial count of experimentally induced skin wound infection in mice. Methods; Lysozyme was conjugated...
In different parts of India, Bombax malabaricum (Family: Bombacaceae), is well known for its traditional use in inflammation, prolapse of uterus or vagina, menorrhoea, diarrhoea, wound etc. Literature survey showed that the leaves of Bombax malabaricum have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic and antioxidant activities. Although the plant has much potentiality, proper pharmacognostical stand...
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a pleasant smelling perennial shrub, which grows in several regions in the world. The plant is reported to have high economic and medicinal values. The objectives of this research was to determine antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from leaves of Thymus vulgaris collected from Oman. The other objective was to det...
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TULOBUTEROL IN API AND ITS PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
A simple, accurate, sensitive and reproducible UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Tulobuterol (TLB) in bulk and also in its pharmaceutical dosage formulations. The proposed method showed absorbance maxima at 212 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over a concentration range of 25-125µg/mL. The respective linear regression equation being Y =0.009x +0.014 for TLB. Results...
Lippia nodiflora L. is an important medicinal plant of Verbenaceae family and are used traditionally for several ailments. The present study deals with the detailed physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical evaluation of aerial parts of Lippia nodiflora L., in order to explore the authentic plant material suitably for its traditional claims. Thephysicochemical evaluations and fluorescence an...
QSAR AND PHARMACOPHORE MODELING BASED DRUG DESIGNING FOR SPLEEN TYROSINE KINASE (SYK) PROTEIN FOR HUMAN USING ACCELRYS DISCOVERY STUDIO SOFTWARE IN LINUX SERVER
From this current research, Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) protein and gene information is analyzed by different genomics, proteomics tools & databases. One crystal ligand 4DFL was collected from protein data bank (pdb). From different literature review 131 syk protein inhibitors were collected. Molecular modeling of these 131 molecules was done through Accelrys discovery studio (ADS). Choose ap...
PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF LIPASE FROM STREPTOMYCES VARIABILIS NGP 3 AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER
Partial purification and bioremediation of waste water by lipase from the marine actinomycete Streptomyces variabilis NGP 3 (Accession no: (JX843530)) were carried out. The optimum incubation period, pH, temperature and agitation speed for enzyme production were fifth day (61.2 U/ml), 9.0 - 9.5 (105 U/ml), 35ºC (39.4 U/ml) and 120 rpm (38.7 U/ml) respectively. Lactose (2.0 g/l) and peptone (0.6 a...
FORMULATION DEVLOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERE OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM BY USING NATURAL POLYMER
The present work is regarding formulation, development and evaluation of losartan potassium microspheres using natural polymer. The mucoadhesive microspheres of losartan potassium were successfully developed by W/O emulsion solvent evaporation technique using two different natural polymers katira gum and babul gum. Total 12 batches were formulated. Six formulations were prepared by using each natu...
The compound 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine hydrochloride salt is a genito-urinary antiseptic drug under the trade name Pyridinium. This study is directed towards the occurrence of an oxidation reaction to convert the tertiary amine present in 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine hydrochloride to form an N-oxide derivative as an impurity in the process for its preparation. This was done by the indep...
OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF TOTAL FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES FROM TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM SEEDS WITH RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
Trigonella foenum-graecum is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae. The distinctive cuboid-shaped, yellow to amber coloured fenugreek seeds are frequently encountered in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. In this study, Trigonella foenum-graecum is used as an experimental matrix. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of total flavonoids from Trigonella foenum-graecum is studied with dua...
IN-VITRO STUDY OF ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY ON THE FRUITS EXTRACTS OF COCCINIA INDICA (WIGHT &ARN.) INDUCED MAXIMAL ELECTROSHOCK SEIZURE (MES) MODEL IN RATS
Aim of the study:In-vitro study of Anticonvulsant activity on the fruits extracts of Coccinia indica (Wight &Arn.) induced maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model in rats. Materials & methods: For the assessment of anticonvulsant activity, the animals were divided into five groups of five animals each albino rats. Group I received Normal saline, Group II received Phenytoin, Group III...
EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COCCINIA INDICA LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Coccinia indica is a climbing, herbaceous, branched tropical vine native to tropical Asia, including India. Being a part of Indian traditional medicine for ages, it has been widely used in reducing blood sugar among various other uses. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the reported anti-diabetic potential of methanolic polyherbal extract of Coccinia indica leaves in streptozot...
COMPARATIVE IN VITRO DRUG RELEASE STUDIES OF GLIMEPIRIDE SOLID DISPERSIONS & METFORMIN MICROCAPSULES
The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of Glimepiride and Metformin in the management of patients with type 2 DM. The present invention is directed to a pharmaceutical composition in the form of a capsule with increased bioavailability as well as the process for obtaining said composition. The tablet of the present invention comprises two active ingredients comprising two oral...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF 2-(4-FLUORO BENZYLTHIO)-N-(SUBSTITUTED PHENYL)PYRIMIDINE-4-AMINES
Reaction of 4-fluorobenzylchloride with 2-thiouracil (1) gave 2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (2), which on chlorination with POCl3 furnished 4-chloro-2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)-4-chloropyrimidine (3). This intermediate when treated with various substituted anilines gave desired targeted compounds 4(a-k) in 50-90% yield. Structural assignments of the synthesized compounds were based on their...
A liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the determination of the clinical trial combination of Solifenacin succinate and Tamsulosin hydrochloride. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved on an eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6 mm X 150 mm, 5µm) column using isocratic reverse phase technique. The mobile phase employed was ACN: 20Mm sodium phosphate buffer (0.2% Triethylam...
FORMULATION & OPTIMIZATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF SIMVASTATIN USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
The aim of the work is to formulate sustained release matrix tablets of simvastatin and to optimize them using Response Surface Methodology. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated as per pharmacopoeia methodology. A central composite design for 2 factors at 3 levels each was employed to systematically optimize drug release profile. Concentration of HPMC K15M (X1) and ...
The present study was carried out to assess the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between nebivolol and cefixime following single oral dose administration in hypertensive patients. Therapeutic dose of nebivolol alone and combination with cefixime were administered to a separate group of hypertensive patients. Serial blood samples were collected at pre-dose (0.0) to 48 h post-dose following each tre...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF MARAVIROC IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY UV SPECTROSCOPY
The aim of present work is to develop and validate simple, sensitive, economical and accurate Spectrophotometric methodhas been developed for determination of Maraviroc in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. Maraviroc in Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 shows maximum absorbance at 210 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 5-25 µg/mL, The LOD and LOQ were found to ...
Microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) has emerged as frontier in pharmaceutical research for synthesis of newer drugs and implementing GREEN chemistry. Arylacetamides are pharmaceutically interesting as they show various biological activities such as analgesic, local anesthetic, antiarthritic, antiarrhythmic activities, etc. In arylacetamides the nature of aromatic ring and its substituent i...
The aim of this research wok is to formulate and evaluate Ciprofloxacin solid dispersions system by using the different techniques. This will increase the solubility of the drug or Ciprofloxacin and give the immediate release of the drug from the formulations. The main objective is to formulate a drug product as immediate release oral solid dosage form of Ciprofloxacin solid dispersion system whic...
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a common progressive disease among men, with an incidence that is high among elderly. Velvanga parpam (VP) has been employed as traditional remedy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) which is a herbo mineral formulation. As a mandate, steps were taken to evaluate safety profile of VP in rats and mice following OECD guidelines. Acute toxicity studies, diff...
VARIATION IN β – SITOSTEROL CONTENT FROM CASSIA FISTULA L. FRUIT PULP COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS
Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae) fruits are reported to possess a wide range of therapeutic properties. In the present work, an HPTLC method has been developed and validated for estimation of β-sitosterol content in C. fistula fruit collected from different geographical regions in and outside India and its polyherbal formulation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on HPTLC plates pre-coated with...
ACETYLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENSET STARCH AND EVALUATION OF ITS DIRECT COMPRESSION AND DRUG RELEASE SUSTAINING PROPERTIES
Enset (Ensete ventricosum, Musaceae), a plant widely cultivated in south and southwest of Ethiopia, has been shown to be a rich source of starch. In an effort to produce directly compressible matrix-forming excipient, native enset starch was acetylated. Starch acetates (SA) with degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.672 and 2.142 were evaluated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the modifie...
Histopathological changes in developing stomach caused by lead acetate exposure at different days of the postnatal development were investigated in Swiss mice. In this study, pregnant Swiss mice were exposed to 533 mg/kg BW of lead acetate from 10th day of gestation to 21st day of lactation. The pups of exposed groups were sacrificed at 1, 7, 14 and 21 day of lactation period, and the effects of l...
A series of different 6-Methyl - 4- aryl -5 - (5-aryl -1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl ) -1,2,3,4-tetrahydro pyrimidin-2- (1H) - one / thione ( IIIa-g) have been synthesised fromEthyl - 6- methyl- 2- oxo / thioxo – 4-substituted phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro pyrimidine-5-carboxylate (Ia-g) followed by reaction with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol gave 6 - methyl-2-oxo / thioxo – 4 -substituted phenyl - 1,2...
In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungiAspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition...
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Crataeva magna (CM) in CCl4 induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Stem bark of CM were collected, and subjected to continuous hot extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, for 72 h with solvents like chloroform, ethyl acetate and distilled water separately. Liver damage was induced in rats...
Two Simple, accurate, precise and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for estimation of Montelukast sodium (MON) have been developed and validated. The zero order spectroscopic method (Method I) and area under curve method (Method II) have developed. The proposed methods are validated according to ICH Q2B guidelines. The Montelukast sodium gives maximum absorbance at 241nm in chloroform and obser...
A NOVEL STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GUAIPHENESIN, CHLORPHENERAMINE MALEATE & DEXTROMETHORPHAN HBr
An isocratic HPLC method with UV detection at 225nm is described for simultaneous determination of Guaiphenesin, Chlor-pheneramine Maleate & Dextromethorphan HBr. Chromatographic separation of all three drugs were achieved on Purospher star RP-18e column (Merck) using Mobile phase as 74% Buffer (prepared by dissolving 1.8g dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate in 1 litre of HPLC grade water, adj...
NOVEL TOPICAL QUICK PENETRATING SOLUTION OF HEPARIN IN MANAGEMENT OF SUPERFICIAL THROMBOPHLEBITIS: RESULTS OF RANDOMIZED ACTIVE CONTROLLED TRIAL
Aim: To compare safety and efficacy of topical quick penetrating solution (QPS) of heparin 1000 IU/ml versus heparin gel 200 IU/g in the management of post infusion superficial thrombophlebitis. Methods: Total 202 patients of early, medium and advance stage ofsuperficial thrombophlebitis were randomized to receive either treatment. Treatments were applied 3 times daily until healing or for a ...
Herbal medicines have been broadly used in developed countries hence they are natural and comparatively safe. They contain plant materials as their pharmacologically active components. Infertility is one of the most extremely tragic all over the world. Despite recent advances in the treatment of male infertility, the problem has not been satisfactorily tackled. The male infertility is mainly due t...
Ras proteins in association with GTP and GDP act as a bio-molecular switch for signaling cell growth, cell survival and signal transduction. The presence of mutated Ras proteins is found to vary in different cancer types and the highest occurrence of about 90% is observed in pancreatic cancer. The Ras GTPase binding site is mainly involved in signal cell proliferation. Hence, this binding site h...
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibility of enzyme therapy through microencapsulation of serratiopeptidase (SP) in biodegradable nanoparticles of chitosan (CS). This drug has short biological half-life and thus frequent administration makes it a suitable candidate for controlled release. In this study, serratiopeptidase loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelat...
A quantitative structure activity relationship study on series of total thirty three pthalimide analogues reported compounds was taken. Pthalimide analogues have several advantages over present ant diabetic drugs. The present drugs target insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency. So, it is believed that agents will be available alternative to other second line treatment options including sulfo...
A Simple, Rapid, Precise, Accurate, Robust and Stability indicating Reverse Phase HPLC method has been developed to estimate Capecitabine in tablet dosage form using mobile phase mixture consisting of Phosphate buffer : Acetonitrile (80:20) v/v at the flow rate of 1.2ml/min. The Hypersil BDS C8 column (250mm x 4.6mm x 5mm) was used as the stationary phase. The mobile phase was run for 15 min at ...
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate lead toxicity on the male reproductive system during developing period of neonates. Methods: Histopathological alterations were observed in testis of neonates on PND 1 and PND 21. Lead acetate was administered via oral gavaging at 320 mg/kg BW to pregnant Swiss mice from 10th day of gestation upto 21st day of lactation. OralExposure of 160 mg/kg...