Volume 2 (2011) - Issue 9, September
HERBAL MEDICINE: ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR CANCER THERAPY
In case of cancer, Traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal medicines have gained increasing acceptance worldwide in recent years and are being pursued by pharmaceutical companies as rich resources for drug discovery. For many years, traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been applied for the treatment of cancers in China and beyond. Herbal remedies are clearly a complementary and alternative m...
STIGMASTEROL: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Extensive research has been carried out from last decades to discover potential constituents from plant sources. Stigmasterol is an important constituent and has been isolated from plants. It is involved in the synthesis of many hormones like progesterone, androgens, estrogens and corticoids. In addition to stigmasterol many of its derivatives like, spinasterol, fucosterol, cyasterone, stigmaste...
CHITOSAN: A NOVEL EXCIPIENT IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION: A REVIEW
Chitosan is a cationic natural polysaccharide which is derived from the chitin of crustaceans, with crabs and shrimp-shell wastes as its principal source. Its properties includes extent of deacetylation and the average molecular weight of polymer as well as low toxicity and good bioavailability make it a novel excipient in pharmaceutical formulation as a relatively new development. Together with c...
PRODUCTION OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES, ITS EFFECT, DRUGS AND PLANT EXTRACT USED AS AN ANTIOXIDANT, CHELATOR ON THALASSEMIC PATIENT: A REVIEW
β- Thalassemia is an inherited genetic disorder which is caused by different kinds of mutations in the HBB gene in chromosome 11. Due to several types of mutation in β- gene, globin chains cannot synthesise completely and free α-globin is highly unstable and readily precipitates bound heme and iron. In β- thalassemia these precipitated iron, repeated blood transfusion and increased gastroint...
CASSIA TORA LINN.: AN OVERVIEW
Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) is well known plant widely distributed in India and other tropical countries. It is an annual under shrub and grows in wild wasteland. Different parts of the plant (Leaves, seed, and root) are reputed for their medicinal value. It is well recognized traditional medicine as laxative and is useful for treatment of leprosy, ringworm infection, ophthalmic, skin ...
A DETAILED REVIEW ON NANOEMULSION DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Nanoemulsions are submicron sized emulsions that are under investigation as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. These are the thermodynamically stable isotropic system in which two immiscible liquids are mixed to form a single phase by means of appropriate surfactant and cosurfactant. Nanoemulsion droplet sizes fall typically in the range of 20-200nm and shows narrow si...
DEVELOPMENT OF A SELF MICRO-EMULSIFYING TABLET OF CYCLOSPORINE- A BY THE LIQUISOLID COMPACT TECHNIQUE
Purpose: The aim of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate of Cyclosporine A, a poorly water-soluble drug by developing a self micro-emulsifying (SME) tablet formulation by using the liquisolid compact technique. A liquisolid system is formed by converting a liquid formulation into a dry, free-flowing and compressible powder mixture with selected carrier material and coating material. This...
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE PELTOPHORUM PTEROCARPUM FLOWER
The present study was designed to investigate in vivo analgesic and cytotoxicity as well as in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol: ethylacetate (1: 9) extract of the flowers of Peltophorum pterocarpum. Analgesic activity was assayed by acetic acid induced assay method wherein the extract showed moderate activity in a dose dependent manner. In respect of in vivo cytotoxicity, the flower...
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF FRUIT PULP OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Cordia dichotoma known as lasura, lisora, is a commonly known herb in Indian system of medicine to treat various disorders including diabetes mellitus without any scientific evidences. Therefore this study was designed to investigate in vivo hypoglycemic and antidiabetic potential of methanol extract of fruits of Cordia dichotoma in glucose loaded animals and alloxan induced diabetic animals. In b...
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTI-ARTHRITIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF THE ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF THE PLANT URGINEA INDICA KUNTH.
This study was designed to present the observation of the pharmacological properties to the bulb of the plant. The extract of the bulb of Urginea indica Kunth. were collected by using of alcoholic extraction. The anti-inflammatory action of the alcoholic Extract of the bulb of the plant Urginea indica was evaluated in rats (female) against carrageenan induced edema i.e., using plethysmographic met...
DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION USING HPLC FOR ASSAY OF ZIPRASIDONE CAPSULE
A reverse phase HPLC method is described for the determination of Ziprasidone HCl capsule by analytical method. Chromatography was carried out on an ODS C18 column using a mixture of buffer solution, acetonitrile and methanol (45: 40: 15v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min. Detection was carried out at 230nm. The retention time of the drug was 7-9 min. The method produced linear ...
SYNTHESIS OF FUSED [1, 4] DIAZEPINES BY BASE CATALYSED CONDENSATION OF 1, 2-DIAMINES WITH CARBONYL COMPOUNDS
Based on the principle of base catalyzed condensation reaction of 1, 2-diamines with carbonyl compounds, an efficient method for the synthesis of fused 1, 4-diazepines was developed. High yields were obtained for both electron-releasing as well as electron-withdrawing substituted 1, 4-diazepine derivatives by the mentioned method...
PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOTS OF AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR (LINN.)
Amaranthus tricolor Linn. belonging to the family Amaranthaceae is well known for curing a variety of ailments such as cough, throat infections, toothache, eczema, piles, diarrhea, gonorrhea, leucorrhoea and impotence. The present study deals with the pharmacognostic evaluation including examinations of morphological and microscopic characters, ash values, powder analysis, extractive values, moist...
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NOVEL SUBSTITUTED QUINOXALINE HETEROCYCLES
Substituted Quinoxaline have received considerable attention during last two decades as they are endowed with variety of biological activities and have wide range of therapeutic properties. A literature survey indicates that quinoxaline derivatives possess different pharmacological and biological activities, of which the most potent is anti-inflammatory activity. In view of above literature survey...
ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF SALVADORA PERSICA ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PHERETIMA POSTHUMA
Helminthes infections are the most common health problems in India, in developing countries they pose a large treat to public. These infections can affect most population in endemic areas with major economic and social consequences. The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Miswak prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further i...
EFFECT OF CEFTRIAXONE ON ISOLATED GASTROINTESTINAL, TRACHEAL AND UTERINE SMOOTH MUSCLES
The pharmacodynamic effect of ceftriaxone on smooth muscles was investigated in isolated organs. Maximum stimulation of isolated guinea pig's ileum, rabbit's duodenum and rat's fundic strip was achieved by addition of 1024 µg of ceftriaxone/ml bath. While in isolated rat's colon, it was achieved by 512 µg of ceftriaxone/ml bath. The effect of graded increased concentrations of ceftriaxone on i...
DETERMINATION OF ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS IN DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS
Preservatives are added to pharmaceuticals to ensure safety and shelf life. A number of Essential oil components are identified as effective antimicrobials. The antimicrobial activity is assessed of pure oils. Oils were evaluated based on Refractive index, Specific gravity and Antimicrobial activity. In present study Syrups were prepared using Peppermint, Rose and Orange oils in different concentr...
BIOEFFACY OF TWO TRADITIONAL BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AGAINST HUMAN HEAD LICE
Two plants, Spilanthes acmella and Boenninghausenia albiflora used against the insect Pediculus humanus by the Gaddi tribals of Himachal Pradesh were presently tested for their insecticidal activity. The methanolic extracts of these plants were prepared from different parts of the plant collected in different months of the year since the active principle is known to vary in different parts of the ...
EFFECT OF SOME MEDICINAL HERBAL EXTRACTS ON CLINICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
Medicinal plant products when compared with synthetic antibiotics minimize the infections at a major part. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants showed positive results for most of the phytochemical constituents namely tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, anthraquinones, protein and aminoacids, mixed oils and fats etc., This study provided a good medicinal plant based t...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1-(4-ARYL-2-THIAZOLYL) – AND 1-(4-ARYL-2-OXAZOLYL)-3, 5-DIARYL Δ2-PYRAZOLINE DERIVATIVES
A series of nine 1-(4-aryl-2-thiazolyl)-3, 5- diaryl and six of 1- (4- aryl- 2-oxazolyl)-3, 5- diaryl- 2- pyrazolin derivatives were prepared by reacting 3, 5-diaryl-1- thiocarbamoyl-/or 3, 5- diaryl- 1- carbamoyl- D2- pyrazolines with substituted phenacyl bromide in ethanol. The structures of the synthesized derivatives were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR as well as EIMS spectral data. Some of ...
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF FRUIT BODY EXTRACTS FROM DALDINIA CONCENTRICA (BOLTON) CESATI & DE NOTARIS
Aqueous and methanol extracts of fruit bodies of Daldinia concentrica were tested against five pathogenic fungi like Penicillium sps., Aspergillus fumigatous, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Mucour indicus and also five bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans . The antibacterial and antifungal ac...
PELLETIZATION OF LAMOTRIGINE SOLID DISPERSION FOR IMPROVED SOLUBILIZATION
Poorly solubility in water of many newly developed high-potential drugs is an obstacle in formulation development. The aim of this study was to increase the solubility of Lamotrigine which is a poorly soluble drug and comes under BCS class-II by using solid dispersion technique. Lamotrigine, PEG 4000 and PVPK-30 solid dispersion was prepared by solvent evaporation method and the formulation was ch...
EFFECT OF MAST CELL STABILIZER, KETOTIFEN ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN RATS
Background: Infiltration and degranulation of mast cells has been noted to occur in renal diseases and are reported to play a key role in inflammation. Degranulation of mast cells releases various inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, endothelins, growth factors and proteolytic enzymes. Ketotifen has been reported as stabilizer of mast cells. Thus, the present study is designed to investigate ...
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF GALLIC ACID AND ASCORBIC ACID IN POLYHERBAL TABLETS
An HPTLC method was developed for Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation of Gallic Acid and Ascorbic Acid in Polyherbal Tablets (Amalant and Sookshma Triphala Tablet) containing Embelica Officinalis, using precoated HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 as Stationary Phase and Mobile Phase for Gallic Acid is Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Formic Acid (6:3:1v/v/v) and for Ascorbic Acid is Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid G...
Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic Extract of Aerial parts of Momordica Cymbalaria Hook F
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of aerial part of Momordica Cymbalaria Hook F on acute inflammation and it justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of various types of pains and inflammation was evaluated in Albino rat. The aerial part of Momordica Cymbalaria Hook F extracted with methanol at an oral dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weig...
EFFECT OF LEAD TOXICITY ON DEVELOPING TESTIS OF MICE
Lead is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant that may have its toxic effects on the male. The present experimental animal study was designed to observe the changes in the testis due to excessive use of lead. Developmental effects were monitored in the male offspring of Swiss mice from Postnatal Day (PND) 1 till PND 21. Lead acetate reduced the number of pups per litter, percentage o...
SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME PHENYL ACETIC ACID HYDRAZONE DERIVATIVES
There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti platelet, anti malarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antis chistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. T...
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF HOLOSTEMMA ADA – KODIEN K. SCHUM., AN IMPORTANT RARE MEDICINAL PLANT
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Holostemma ada kodien root tubers. The above extracts exhibited a dose dependent scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, Superoxide radicals, and Nitric oxide radicals. Further, the MeOH, EtOAC extracts showed relatively higher reducing power compare to that of BH...
NOVEL AND VALIDATED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF BUDESONIDE FROM BULK AND TABLETS USING MIXED HYDROTROPIC SOLUBILIZATION TECHNIQUE
A novel, safe, accurate, sensitive and economic Spectrophotometric method was developed by application of mixed hydrotropy using solution containing 45% urea and 5% sodium citrate as hydrotropic solubilizing agent for the quantitative determination of poorly water-soluble budesonide from bulk and tablet dosage form. The solubility of budesonide increases more than 20 times in mixed hydrotropic s...
PREPARATION, OPTIMIZATION AND IN VITRO MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF ANTIFUNGAL MICROEMULSION
Recently much attention has been paid to the application of microemulsion as drug delivery system. Part of this interest appears as a consequence of their transparency, ease of preparation and long-term stability. These properties as well as their ability for incorporating drugs of different lipophilicity are some of the reasons why microemulsions have been thoroughly considered for pharmaceutical...
VERMICIDAL ACTIVITY OF MILLETTIA PACHYCARPA ON THE NEMATODE, HETERAKIS GALLINARUM
The stem and root barks, leaves and seeds of Millettia pachycarpa Benth. are used for various medicinal purposes in Chinese and Mizo traditional practices. The plant extract reportedly showed potent vermicidal activity on cestodes. The ethanol extract of the root bark was tested against the poultry nematode, Heterakis gallinarum Schrank. In vitro treatment at 37±1°C revealed that a serial dose o...
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC SEED COAT EXTRACT OF BORASSUS FLABELLIFER L.
The antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Borassus flabellifer L. (Arecaceae) seed coat (soft outer shell) was studied by agar well diffusion method in vitro. The tender seed coat of Borassus flabellifer was extracted with methanol. The effect of antibacterial potential was examined against Gram positive bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative bacteria i...
OPTIMIZATION OF GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF LABETALOL HYDROCHLORIDE USING SIMPLEX CENTROID DESIGN
Labetalol Hydrochloride due to its pH dependant solubility in range of 6-10 shows 10-80% variability in bioavailability, used in treatment of hypertension. Due to its short half life i.e. 3-6 hrs, it is administered twice a daily. Therefore to improve bioavailability and patient compliance in this study attempt has been made to develop an oral floating tablet of Labetalol hydrochloride. An optimiz...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE AERIAL PART OF THE LUFFA ECHINATA LINN.
The present work deals with development and standardization of phytochemical screening for quantification of ethanolic extract of aerial part of the Luffa echinata Linn. The scientific parameter is necessary to identify the exact plant material and to find its quality and purity. The present study deals with various, physical evaluation and preliminary phytochemical screening of various successive...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ONCE DAILY MATRIX TABLETS OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE USING HYDROXYPROPYL METHYL CELLULOSE BY WET GRANULATION TECHNIQUE
The aim of the current study was to develop once-daily sustained-release matrix tablets of metoprolol succinate, Selective β1- blocker used in cardiovascular diseases. The tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method. Ethanolic solutions of ethylcellulose (EC), polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 were used as granulating agents along with hydrophilic matrix polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC...
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL FILMS OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE
Delivery of the desired drug as mucoadhesives drug delivery systems has been subject of interest since last three decades. The various advantages associated with these systems made the buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. The oral transmucosal drug delivery bypasses liver and avoids presystemic elimination in the gastro intestinal tract and liver. The present investigation...
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROCAPSULES OF SODIUM VALPROATE
Mucoadhesive microcapsules of sodium valproate, an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy and in migraine, have been prepared from sodium alginate, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose-K4M, carbopol 934P & sodium CMC using 10% w/v calcium chloride solution by ionic gelation method. Drug: polymer ratios were 1:1 in all the formulations and polymer mixtures employed were 4:1, 5:1, 6:1, 7:1 ...
ESTIMATION OF ORLISTAT BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD
A simple, reproducible and efficient spectroscopic method developed and validated for determination of Orlistat in bulk and capsule dosage form. The drug was determined spectrophotometrically at 203 nm using methanol as a solvent. The percentage recovery study of the drug for the proposed method ranges from 100.17-99.53%w/w indicating no interferences of the capsule excipients. Linearity was obtai...
TRANSDERMAL PENETRATION EFFICACY OF ETHOSOMAL SYSTEMS WITH AND WITHOUT PENETRATION ENHANCER: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ethosomal systems are now a days attracting attention of many researchers. This study is designed to observe the effect of penetration enhancers in ethosomal formulations. Ascorbic acid is taken as a model drug; phosphatidylcholine and ethanol are taken for ethosome preparation. Propylene glycol is taken as a penetration enhancer. Ethosomes are prepared by solvent dispersion method with and withou...
BIO-ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR OMEPRAZOLE USING LC-MS/MS
Analytical methods employed for the determination of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices such as urine, plasma and serum are essential throughout drug discovery and development. It is well-known that, analytical techniques are constantly undergoing change and improvements and each analytical method has its own characteristics which may vary from analyte to analyte at different condition...