Volume 11 (2020) - Issue 8, August
COVID19 outbreak, originated from Wuhan, china is now declared as pandemic by WHO. HCQ has got special attention after various advisories are being issued by health authorities to utilize it for the prophylaxis of SARS COV2. Therefore, drug safety evaluation based on its pharmacokinetic & pharmacodynamics parameters & literature rationale for Evidence Based Medicine is required for its jus...
NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) show its effect by preventing prostaglandin synthesis, which reasons ulcer complications and mucosal damage all over the gastrointestinal tract. The world’s most accepted drug was aspirin for treatment of pain and inflammation without knowing that it has the ability to inhibit prostaglandin production by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase enzyme for the ...
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a big cause of liver-related fibrosis and cirrhosis. The level of fibrosis is usually in the past (established by histology). The prognosis is estimated using fibrosis progression rates (FPRs; the annual probability of progressing across histological stages). However, new non-invasive options are quickly replacing biopsy. As the rates of HCV cirrhosis go on increasing ...
Viruses are like hijackers. They invade living, normal cells, and replicate and create other viruses like themselves using those cells. This can destroy, harm, or change the cells and cause sickness. Various viruses in the human body invade other cells, such as the liver, respiratory system, or blood. Viruses are too small germs. Inside a protein matrix, they are made of genetic material inside of...
Birth defects induced by maternal exposure to exogenous agents during pregnancy are preventable if the agents themselves can be identified and avoided. This might be the causative effect in mechanical fetal diseases and retarded in the development of embryo and fetus. Often, the safety of a drug in the mother’s fetuses and nursing infants cannot be determined until it has been widely used. This ...
Acute renal failure (ARF) is characterized by a rapid, potentially reversible decline in renal function, including a rapid fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and retention of nitrogenous waste products over a period of hours or days. The mortality rate of patients with ARF has remained 25–70% despite the use of various pharmacologic agents. Due to the multiple causes of renal failure, many...
Solubility is the rate-limiting step for bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs can be enhanced by incorporating active pharmaceutical ingredients into oral lipid-based drug delivery systems. Self micro emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is a researcher’s choice amongst other oral lipid drug delivery systems because it offers advantages...
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol in eukaryotic cells capable of carrying out antioxidant defense mechanisms in the cell for its survivability, mostly against free radicals, i.e., Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). GSH protects normal cells against carcinogenic transformation, but high GSH levels in cancer cells decrease sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy, producing resistan...
Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, affecting a larger population of the world, which arises due to defective insulin secretion by beta cells in the pancreas or insulin resistance by peripheral tissues. As the disease progress, microvascular complications like nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular complications are observed, which the leading causes of death...
The recent scenario of accomplishment with faultlessness indulges a bent towards the techniques that develop the final formulations with the precise use of experimental designs. Also, the application of computer-aided optimization techniques has proved to be favorable in the development of drug delivery systems with reliable results. The optimization techniques have a comprehensive range of design...
In today’s 21st century, Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the most researched material by world investigation of the growing industry due to their various reasons properties for use in many applications either in medical or other potential applications. Carbon nanotubes become increasingly popular in various fields simply because of their small size and amazing optical, electric, and magnetic propert...
The aim of this review paper is to provide throughout the information of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, used as a Khirni or Rayon in most of the tropical regions of India. It is native to India, mainly distributed as a wild tree in the southern part and North-central part of India. It is widely spread in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Maharashtra our efforts are...
Effective delivery of drugs can be made through various routes of administration, and the oral route is considered to be the most convenient for the administration of drugs to patients. Poor aqueous solubility was acknowledged as the main reason for the poor oral absorption of chemical entities. Apart from the conventional solubilization approaches like co-solvency, salt formation, solid dispersio...
MOLECULAR VERSUS CONVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND CANDIDA ALBICANS IN NON-STERILE PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
Notable progress has been made in methods that encourage the use of PCR as a rapid and accurate tool in quality evaluation of pharmaceuticals. In this study, monoplex and multiplex PCR based assays were developed and compared with standard conventional methods for rapid detection of three specified topical indicator pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, in ...
UV irradiation is one of the main causes of what is known as photoaging characterized by loss of skin elasticity and the appearance of wrinkles. In this study, the anti-wrinkle activity of grape seed extract (GSE) and Pomegranate seed extract (PSE) was studied through evaluation of their in-vitro antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and in-vivo anti-wrinkle activity in UVB-irradiated mice through topical ...
BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THEAFLAVINS AND FLAVONOIDS RICH EXTRACT (TFE) AND ITS SILVER NANOCONJUGATES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Black tea, the most widely consumed aromatic non-alcoholic beverage second to water, is prepared by boiling cured leaves of Camellia sinensis. It is reported that black tea contains plenty of bioactive constituents, including complex polyphenols like theaflavins (TF2A, TF2B, TF3) and thearubigins that exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties and also contribute to its quality and bioacti...
The present investigation deals with the assessment of neuroprotective effect Leucas aspera in streptozotocin (STZ) induced Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in rats. AD was induced by administering STZ (3 mg/kg, ICV) on day one and 3rd day after surgery. Surgery was performed on anesthetized rats with the help of the stereotaxic apparatus. STZ induced AD rats were treated with ethanolic extract of Leuca...
The compounds that are derived from the natural sources have been used for the treatment of cancer since ancient times. The tubers of Eulophia nuda, belonging to family Orchidaceae, have been reported for its anti-cancer use in the literature. There are many disadvantages to the conventional herbal drug delivery system. These disadvantages could be overcome by formulating these herbs using novel d...
MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES ON PHYTOCHEMICALS OF SOLANUM NIGRUM FRUITS FOR ITS HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY
Liver fibrosis is a wound healing process that is initiated in response to chronic liver injury caused by viruses, toxins, and hepatotoxic drugs. This disease is characterized by inflammation, followed by the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins to form scar tissue. Ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2) is identified as a host cofactor for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) entry. The fruits of Solanum nigrum po...
The current study work is focused on Dapoxetine hydrochloride buccal films. In recent days, buccal drug delivery has aimed at importance in many aspects compared to conventional tablets. The addition of mucoadhesive polymers to the formulation enhances the therapeutic levels of drug. Dapoxetine hydrochloride, a choice of drug used in the therapy of premature ejaculation in men. Dapoxetine hydrochl...
FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES OF SELECTED ANTITUBERCULAR AGENT
The purpose of this work was to develop prolonged-release solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of Rifampicin (RIF) for oral drug delivery and to improve the bioavailability of RIF. SLNs were designed by using Glycerol monostearate (GMS) and lipid core materials and polaxamer 188 as a stabilizer. SLNs were prepared by o/w microemulsion technique and characterized by particle size analysis, Fourier tran...
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO CHARACTERISATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE LAFUTIDINE SUPER PORUS HYDROGEL TABLETS
The aim is to design, develop & characterize a desired gastro retentive super porous hydrogel (SPH) formulations containing lafutidine is histamine H2-receptor antagonist that may be used alone or with other agents to treat inhibits stomach acid production. SPH‘s synthesized employing various composite agents viz., sodium alginate, pectin, Carbopol, and chitosan were subjected to density and...
ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANT AND MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
The present investigation aimed at the study of resistant plasmid patterns of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospital-acquired infection in urinary tract site are causes serious public health hazard throughout the world. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from patient admitted to the hospital. The antibiotic sensitivity of isolated uropathoge...
The main purpose of this investigation study is to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug Fluconazole. Fluconazole was selected as the choice of drug as it belongs to BCS class II i.e., drugs having low solubility and high permeability, which hinders in-vivo efficacy of drugs giving poor pharmacokinetic profile and low absorption. Solid dispersions are formed to i...
EVALUATION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF FILICIUM DECIPIENS AND ANALYSIS OF BIOMOLECULES PRESENT IN FRACTION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT USING GC-MS TECHNIQUE
Filicium decipiens belongs to the Sapindaceae family, which is commonly known as fern tree, is found in the Western Ghats of southern India, small highland areas of East Africa and Sri Lanka and it is a medium to a large evergreen tree. It is commonly cultivated in gardens and roadsides as ornamental, noise barriers and windbreak plant. Filicium decipiens traditionally used for the treatment of di...
A new series of chalcones have been designed and synthesized, which are incorporated with pyridine moiety chalcones possess heterocyclic rings like pyridine, pyrazole, indole, etc. These heterocycles are cyclic compounds in which one or more atoms of the ring are hetero atoms: O, N, S, P, etc. These are important components in many of the pharmaceuticals and therapeutic drugs. These are present in...
Background: The liver is the major detoxification organ that deactivates and removes toxic chemicals. The oxidative stress-mediated toxicity of chemicals involves destruction primarily to liver tissue (Hepatotoxicity), which could lead to cancer. Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, is reported to be an apoptosis inducer, antineoplastic and antioxidant. The present study is aimed to screen diosgenin ...
Chitosan-based porous scaffolds are of great interest in biomedical applications especially in tissue engineering because of their excellent biocompatibility in vivo, good texture, surface contact, controllable degradation rate and tailorable mechanical properties. These days biomaterials scaffolds have contributed as an alternative choice of therapy mainly due to the increase failure rates in a...
The present study was aimed to evaluate the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of fruits and leaves extract of Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis (Naudin) Pangalo (Family Cucurbitaceae). The ethanol and aqueous extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Extracts were incubated with bovine albumin under con...
FORMULATION CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF CEFIXIME TRI-HYDRATE HYDROGEL TABLET BY USING DESIGN EXPERT
The purpose of current research work has been made to formulate a gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS) of those drugs having a narrow absorption window or having good absorption at the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to deliver at stomach site and to improve the bioavailability of a drug. Gastro-retentive hydrogel tablet of Cefixime trihydrate was prepared by the direct ...
IN-VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF ALTERNANTHERA PHILOXEROIDES (MART) GRISEB AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT UROPATHOGENS
Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the major threats due to the wide usage of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs in the general population. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial potential of Alternanthera philoxeroides methanolic extract (APME) against multidrug-resistant UTI pathogens. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of c...
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA
The present study aimed to determine the pharmacognostical evaluation and phytochemical analysis of the plant part of Lagersreomia speciosa. In this study, a macroscopical, microscopical evaluation was done. Various quantitative parameters such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash sulphated ash, extractive value with various solvent were done. In the preliminary phytochemical analys...
The ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula extract obtained from successive extraction of Rosa damascene by Methanol; n-hexane & n-butanol was subjected to various phytochemical tests. The antioxidant activity was accessed by DPPH method. The anti-Parkinson’s activity was tested in albino Rats. Thirty albino rats (180-250 g) of either sex were divided into five groups and each group consist...
Herbal drugs have gained more importance and popularity in recent years because of their safety, efficacy, and low cost. The pteridophytes have an important role in folklore medicine, although neglected in modern days. These plants have been successfully used in different systems of medicines like Ayurvedic, Unani, Homeopathic, and other systems of medicines. Antimicrobial drugs are the greatest c...
In the healthcare system, the development and modernization of phytomedicine in phytochemistry play a central and important role in drug development. Isolation and purification of bioactive compounds from naturally occurring substance are of prime importance. A sensitive and reliable high-performance thin-layer chromatography method has been developed for the estimation of gallic acid in the alcoh...
QUALITY BY DESIGN (QbD) APPROACH FOR METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR AZILSARTAN MEDOXOMIL USING UPLC: APPLICATION TO HYDROLYTIC, THERMAL AND OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION KINETICS
Quality by Design (QbD) is a systematic approach for the development of products and processes. Azilsartan Medoxomil is a competitive antagonist of the Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor. A precise and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of Azilsartan Medoxomil from its marketed tablet dosage form applying Quality by Design...
EFFECT OF SATWA FROM THREE TINOSPORA SPECIES ON LIPID METABOLISM AND INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN ACETAMINOPHEN AND ALCOHOL-INDUCED HEPATO-TOXICITY IN RATS
To investigate the possible protective effects of satwa from three Tinospora species against acetaminophen and alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino wistar rats were divided into six groups (n=6); healthy control, negative control (Acetaminophen 1000mg/kg b.w./day, p.o. or 30%; alcohol 1ml/100g b.w./day, p.o.), positive control (Silymarin; 100mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.), Treatment 1 (Tinos...
This research explores Achyranthes bidentata L., Adhatoda zeylanica and Aeginetia indica L's pharmacological potential. Antibacterial disc assay (20 mg/ml), antifungal disc assay (20 mg/ml) and antioxidant DPPH/reducing energy assay (50 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml) were tested for biological operations of plant extracts (aqueous, methanol and acetone leaf extracts). Significant alkaloid cont...
Current investigation was aimed at designing a Rosuvastatin calcium loaded drug- in- adhesive patch (DIAP) to overcome the problems associated with the daily oral administration of the drug. The patches were prepared by solvent casting method using acrylate emulsion polymers like Covinax 525-78, Mowinyl 461 and Novacryl PSR 32, which served as sustained release matrix polymer and adhesive. Methoce...
SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NOVEL 1, 2, 3, 4-TETRAHYDROQUINAZOLINONE DERIVATIVES
In the study, we have successfully synthesized N-3 substituted tetrahydroquinazolinone by the reaction of isotonic anhydride with aniline derivatives. Thereafter novel derivative would be subjected to synthesize (1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroquinazoline) by Mannich reaction with ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. These synthesized compounds (2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f, 2g, and 2h) were characterized by FT-IR, 1H ...
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR DETERMINATION OF RELATED SUBSTANCE IN VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS
Recently, several methods have been developed for the determination of drugs and their impurities products by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The present paper describes highly specific, linear, precise, rugged, accurate, robust, and stability, indicating the RP-HPLC method for the determination of related substances present in Venlafaxine tablets as per ICH guideli...
Dorzolamide is commonly used to treat glaucoma, damage in the eye often caused by abnormally high pressure in the eye. It is one of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which is effective in decreasing intraocular pressure by decreasing the production of the aqueous humor. The main objective of the study was to entrap dorzolamide in a novel nanovesicular carrier system (spanlastics) to ensure sustain...
EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM SEEDS ON INHIBITION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION- IN-VITRO
Seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum Linn. (Fabaceae) are widely used for treatment in kidney stones in India. In This study evaluates the in-vitro effect of methanolic extract of Macrotyloma uniflorum (MEMU) on calcium oxalate crystallization. A methanolic extract of M. uniflorum seeds at different concentrations (250-1500 μg/ml) was subjected to in-vitro crystallization activity. The obtained results...
The present investigation deals with the preliminary phytochemical, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral analysis of Luffa cylidrica (L.) Roem (Cucurbitaceae) fruits. The results revealed that most of the phytochemicals evaluated were present in ethanolic extract as compared to the petroleum ether extract. Quantitative analysis revealed that the fruits...
HPLC, FTIR AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF RED SEAWEED HYPNEA FLAGELLIFORMIS GRAVILLE EX J. AGARDH 1851
The experiment was carried out to investigate the phytochemicals constituents of the red seaweed Hypnea flagelliformis (Greville ex J. Agardh. 1851) from Tuticorin coastal waters, Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India; by using HPLC, FTIR, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The selected seaweed was extracted with ethyl acetate (by soxhlet extraction method), furthermore subjected to HPLC...
In the present work, the aim was to prepare a self-emulsifying drug delivery system of poorly soluble analgesic, mefenamic acid to improve its solubility with a view to enhance its oral bioavailability. From the solubility studies the selected oil, surfactant and co-surfactant was soyabean oil; tween 80, span 20; glycerol. Blends of surfactant mixtures containing tween 80, span 20, and glycerol we...
The ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves & methanolic extract of rose hips of Rosa damascena were first subjected to various phytochemical tests and further assessed for their antioxidant activity by DPPH method. Different ratio of two drugs in the polyherbal formulation were based on antioxidant activity in albino Wistar rats. Thirty rats (180 -250 g) of either sex were randomly divid...
PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SODIUM DIETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE TRIHYDRATE AS NEPHROPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL IN RATS
Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the pharmacological evaluation of SDDCT as nephroprotective potential in rats. Material and Methods: The current study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological potential of SDDCT in Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The SDDCT found to be useful in suppression of nephrotoxicity. The pharmacological potential was evaluated in gent...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE ANTI-EMETIC THERAPY
Transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Transdermal patches of dolasetron have prepared by the solvent evaporation method using eudragit RL-100: eudragit RS-100 and ethylcellulose: PVP, using different ratios (8:2, 6:4, 5:5), in solvents like ethanol and methanol (1....
Three different species of seaweeds collected from south east coast of India such as Sargassum plagiophyllum, Padina gymnospora and Turbinaria conoides for evaluating anti-bacterial activity against selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Extracts prepared using solvents namely hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water against human pathogenic strains of Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcu...
EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LIVSPLIN SYRUP AND LI- VERVE TONIC FORMULATIONS AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
Liver diseases are a worldwide problem. Conventional drugs used in the treatment of liver diseases are sometimes inadequate and can have serious adverse effects like mild digestive problem, headache, nausea etc. It is necessary to search for alternative drugs and for treatment of liver disease to replace currently used drugs of doubtful efficacy and safety. Herbal therapies are free from side effe...
In the present study, we had developed Asenapine maleate (ASNM) loaded microemulsion (ME) to increase the solubility of Asenapine maleate by components of microemulsion including formulation concern, characterization, mucosal diffusion, stability and nasal ciliotoxicity of Asenapine maleate microemulsion (AME). For nasal delivery of Asenapine maleate, a challenge existing in formulation developmen...
ANTHELMINTIC EFFECT OF CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS ON THE TEGUMENT OF COTYLOPHORON COTYLOPHORUM BY LIGHT MICROSCOPE
The anthelmintic effect of alcoholic Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract on the tegument of Cotylophoron cotylophorum was studied by light microscopy. Live amphistome Cotylophoron cotylophorum flukes were collected from the infected rumen of freshly slaughtered domestic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at the local zoo abattoir in Udaipur. The control and anthelmintic treated C. cotylophorum with the a...
FORMULATION, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SUBLINGUAL ANTI-EMETIC TABLET BY MELT GRANULATION TECHNIQUE
Prochlorperazine maleate is used for the treatment of motion sickness and classified under BCS class II for treatment of emesis, the per-oral route is preferred route of administration but first-pass effect and poor bioavailability limits its application. To overcome these limitations, efforts were made to enhance the bioavailability of drugs via the development of a sublingual tablet by melt gran...
CURCUMIN LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES ENHANCED EFFICACY IN VASCULAR DEMENTIA AGAINST HOMOCYSTEINE INDUCED TOXICITY
Vascular dementia (VaD), a diverse group of brain disorders with cognitive decline is attributable to cerebrovascular pathologies. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur-SLNP) in vascular dementia (VaD) agains...
METHODS OF EXTRACTION AND FRACTIONATION OF BIO-ACTIVE COMPONENTS OF MORINDA COREIA FOR ANTI-TUBERCULAR AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES
In Asian countries, roots, barks, stems, leaves, and fruits of plants belonging to the Morinda species are considered as valuable traditional herbs. They are used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer. Anti-tubercular and cytotoxic activities of Morinda citrifolia (noni) have been reported, but Morinda coreia has not been explored ...
The application of nanobiotechnology is an emerging area of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present studies, tungsten nanoparticles were synthesized and reduced chemically, and character-rization was done by UV, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and XRD. The size of nanoparticles was found to be 20 nm. Further, these nanoparticles were teste for various biological applications. In antimicrobial activity, it...