Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 7, July
The article attempts to discuss the issues associated with technology transfer in the pharmaceutical industry. A major decision focuses on that point where the idea or process is advanced from a research- oriented program to target toward commercialization. The success of any program is highly dependent on the effectiveness of the communication preceding its implementation. The ultimate goal for s...
APPLICATION OF MODERN ELECTROANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES: RECENT TREND IN PHARMACEUTICAL AND DRUG ANALYSIS
The determination of drugs in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids is of pivotal importance in the pharmaceutical and medical sciences. Successful analysis requires sensitivities at ppb level or even less in biological fluids with high selectivity and minimal interferences from various artifacts. Till recently, biopharmaceutical analysis relied principally on spectrophotometric assay,...
Plant products such as leafs, barks, seeds etc., hold pharmacologically active moieties for drug discovery and development of semisynthetic drugs from natural products. However, as therapeutically effective these plant derived molecules may be, most herbal medicines lack in the scientific information regarding their constituents and impurities. In recent times, due to the development of chromatogr...
Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human cultivation. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. A review of chemical constituents present in various parts of Glycyrrhiza glabra and their pharmacological actions is given in the present article. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, is a c...
Pharmaceutical nanoparticles are submicron-sized, colloidal vehicles that carry drugs to the target or release drugs in a controlled way in the body. Controlled drug delivery offers advantages like reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, reduced side effects, and, consequently, better patient compliance. Biodegradable polymers are utilized to prepare Nanoparticles which offers advant...
Carissa spinarum L. is a small spinous evergreen shrub growing throughout India in dry regions.The plant used locally in Indian and Chinese system of medicines to cure various diseases. Carissa spinarum has also been used in the Ayurvedic medical system because of its therapeutic effects against liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic, viral diseases.Th...
Preservatives prolong the shelf-life of food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals by preventing their spoilage. Antimicrobials such as nitrites, nitrates, benzoates and sulfur dioxide destroy or delay the growth of bacteria, yeast and molds. Anti-oxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), and propyl gallate slow or stop the breakdown of fats and oils. Anti-enzyma...
Combinatorial chemistry is a new methodology by which we can simultaneously synthesize a number of possible compounds that could produce simultaneously a very large number of compounds, called libraries.Combinatorial chemistry involves the rapid synthesis or the computer simulation of a large number of different but often structurally related molecules or materials. Combinatorial chemistry is espe...
Biosensors have revolutionized the way of diagnosis by allowing detection of diseases at earlier stage & detection of altered amount of biomarkers in the body. All biosensors usually involve minimal sample preparation as the biological sensing component is highly selective for the analyte concerned. There are numerous biosensors available now-a-days such as electrochemical biosensors, optical ...
PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS POIR. – AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT: A REVIEW OF ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY, TRADITIONAL USES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
The medicinal plants are widely used by traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day life. In traditional system of medicine different parts of Phyllanthus reticulatus are used for curing various ailments. Bark is used as astringent and diuretic. Leaves are antidiarrheal and roots are used for asthma. Fruit of the plant is used in inflammation. Phyllanthus reti...
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was discovered in the late 1950s by investigators searching for folate-dependent enzymes involved in 1-carbon metabolism, with its already known application as anti-cancer and as antibiotics. This study focuses on structure of Dihydrofolate, its interaction with specific amino acids, mechanism of DHFR catalysis. The reason of study was to focus on compounds which can...
In recent decades, a variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Fast dissolving tablets are one of the fruitful results of these researches. Fast dissolving tablets disintegrate and/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without chewing and additional water. Mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric, and bedridden patients and for act...
Candidiasis or moniliasis is more common among the critically ill patients in Intensive Care Unit and in highly immunocompromised patients. This mini review explains the various risk factors for their acquirement and the various treatment options which were used in the past and the current new approaches used in the treatment of candidiasis in the different clinical settings...
Nasal drug delivery has occupied an important place in the field of drug delivery technology. Transmucosal nasal delivery is a promising drug delivery option where common drug administration’s (e.g. intravenous, intramuscular, and oral) are inapplicable. This route is also advisable for drugs undergoing extensive first pass effect. The physiology of the nose presents obstacles, but offers a prom...
The Present study focuses on the challenges facing the development of oral insulin the fact we have no formulation in market, being an attractive and advantageous over the regular injections. Physiological and biological factors of the insulin has great influence for the development of an oral formulation with many difficulties regarding the stability over gastric pH and proteolytic enzymes, selec...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF METRONIDAZOLE BENZOATE AND RELATED IMPURITES IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
A simple, selective, precise and reliable HPLC method of analysis has been developed and validated for determination of the metronidazole benzoate and related impurities, including metronidazole, 2-methyl-5-nitromidazole and benzoic acidin bulk and marketed formulations. The method employed CN-RP column as stationary phase and acetonitrile and 0.1% octansulfonic acid sodium salt as mobile phase. T...
A simple, selective, rapid and economical reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of metformin hydrochloride in bulk and dosage forms has been developed and validated. The separation was carried out on a Discovery reversed phase C-18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5.0 µm) with UV detection at 233 nm. The mobile phase contained 34% acetonitrile and 66% aqueous...
THE EFFECT OF HYRDRAZIDE GROUP ON THE OXYDATION OF FERROCENE AT TWO DIFFERENT ELECTRODES USING ROTATING DISK ELECTRODE (RDE) IN ORGANIC MEDIUM
Through this work we adopted Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) Voltammetry to study the kinetics of oxidation and the effect of hydrazide group on ferrocene in organic medium. Thus, two different electrodes (Pt and Gc) were used in ordre to determine this latter. According to the ferrocene taken as a witness the hydrazide group related to the ferrocene made oxydation more difficult. This ferrocenic de...
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE BARK AND LEAVES OF LANNEA COROMANDELICA (ANACARDIACEAE)
The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant, antimicrobial and thrombolytic effects of the Lannea coromandelica bark and leave extracts. After the initial phytochemical screening, the ethanolic fractions of the L. coromandelica bark and leaves were partitioned by solvents of different polarity. Methods used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extracts were total phenolic con...
Bacillus circulans strain isolated from dump yards of vegetable wastes was tested for its abilities to hydrolyze the structural polysaccharides. The effect of different production parameters such as pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source (Organic and inorganic), incubation time, inoculum sizes and surfactants on pectinase production by the isolated bacterial strain was studied. The enzyme...
VALIDATED RP – HPLC METHOD FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF ANDROGRAPHOLIDE IN TOXIROAK PREMIX, A POLYHERBAL MYCOTOXIN INHIBITOR
A new simple, rapid, precise, accurate and specific RP-HPLC method was developed to carry out the quantification of Andrographolide in the formulation vis a vis its standardization to ensure the batch to batch consistency in mycotoxin inhibition activity of the polyherbal formulation Toxiroak premix. An optimal condition of separation and detection were achieved on a Phenomenex luna C18 column (25...
The new chalcones of 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran derivatives are synthesized by reaction with various aromatic and hetero aromatic aldehydes using the method of aldol condensation. Characterization of these synthesized compounds performed with IR, 1H NMR, physical characteristics like molecular mass, melting point and elemental analysis. The data related to structural characterization were given indivi...
Nanotechnology is widely used for delivery of various drugs to the body for increasing the bioavailability, reducing toxicity and controlled release.Nanospheres are the solid particles which are spherical in shape, having the particle size range between 1-1000 nm and having better bioavailability. In nanospheres, the drug is physically and uniformly dispersed in the matrix system of the polymer. N...
An experimental study was carried out to select a suitable complex nutrient medium for growth and As(III) biosorption by an As(III) resistant strain Aspergillus niger X300 .For this purpose different complex nutrient were examined one by one. The recommended complex nutrients (gm%) were corn steep liquir, 20; rice bran extract, 10; paddy soak liquir, 10; wheat bran extract, 15 beef extract, 30, me...
In this research work we elucidated the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots (ARHE) in-vivo. Carrageenan induced paw edema methodology is used to induce inflammation and Diclofenac sodium is used as standard drug whereas Freund’s Complete adjuvant used to induce arthritis and Dexamethasone is used as standard drug. Asparagus racemos...
STABILITY-INDICATING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ATAZANAVIR AND RITONAVIR IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
A simple, rapid, precise and accurate isocratic reversed-phase stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Atazanavir (AT) and Ritonavir (RT) in commercial tablets. The method has shown adequate separation for AT, RT from their degradation products. Separation was achieved on a Hypersil BDS-C18, 5 μm, 125 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. column using a...
Aims: To study effect of piracetam in experimental models of depression. Methods: Mice (n = 6/group) pretreated with distilled water, fluoxetine (28 mg/kg) and piracetam - 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg for 7 days were subjected to tail suspension test (TST) on day 7. Rats (n=6/group) were pretreated for 7 days with distilled water, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and piracetam (300, 400, ...
To study the effect of herbal materials as anti-cancer agents, the first step is to evaluate their cytotoxic activity; thus in the present study, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts and fractions of Ferula szowitsiana, F. hirtella and F. oopoda in MCF-7, HT-29, A-549 and HepG-2 cells have been investigated through MTT assay. The result showed that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of F. szo...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND FAMOTIDINE BY REVERSED-PHASE THIN LAYER LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY / DENSITOMETRY METHOD IN BULK AND IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
The present work describes a validated reverse phase high performance thin layer liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of Diclofenac sodium and Famotidine in bulk and in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation of the drugs were performed on aluminum plates precoated with 200-μm layers of silica gel 60 RP-18 F254S as the stationary phase and the solvent system co...
The objective of the study is to design gastro retentive drug delivery systems for Amoxycillin trihydrate. It was prepared with the objective to obtain site-specific drug delivery for the stomach and to extend its duration of action. The sustained release of amoxicillin is desired because of its short biological half-life. The preparation was carried out by using guar gum as a carrier in the form ...
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins(PCDDs) and Polychlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDFs) represent a large group of industrial and byproduct compound is resistance to chemical and biological degradation and highly toxic.A series of 18 PCDD and PCDF compounds is subjected to QSTR studies by using differnt molecular descripters. The dependent variable used in this study represents log(EC50) values (EC50-...
“ARE SOCIAL PHARMACY COURSES NEEDED IN PHARMACY CURRICULUM IN LIBYA: FINDING FROM A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY WITH PHARMACY ACADEMICS”
The focus of this exploratory study was to investigate pharmacy academics’ perception of their role in the Libyan health. A cross sectional survey design was used in this study. Using a questionnaire developed following an extensive literature review, a survey cross was undertaken in Libya from June to September 2010. The respondents' were pharmacy academics who had graduated from pharmacy fac...
CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS AND PROSPECTS OF ITS ENDOPHYTES: A NEW AVENUE FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOACTIVE METABOLITES
Catharanthus roseus is a medicinal herb found in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world. This plant produces a diverse array of secondary metabolites that are pharmaceutically important like vinblastine and vincristine used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of several types of cancers. Low yield of these vinca alkaloids from the plant in vivo and the challenges to meet th...
A series of some New 2, 3-dihydro-1, 5-benzodiazepines has been synthesized using condensation reaction of o-phenylenediamine and various substituted chalcones in presence of DMF as solvent and screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthesized compounds....
EVALUATION OF PRESERVATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF FERULIC ACID DERIVATIVES IN ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE GEL- USP
The selected amide and ester derivatives of ferulic acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in an official antacid preparation, (Aluminium Hydroxide Gel-USP) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger as representative challenging microorganisms as per USP 2004 guidelines. The selected derivatives were found to be effecti...
Synthetic analgesic drugs have major side effects like gastritis, gastric ulcer, kidney disorders and cardiac arrhythmias. So, use of natural or herbal analgesics is an important and growing part of the pain-control and new discoveries are made practically every year. Many of these drugs commit the side effects like Morphine is responsible do work against heavy sedation and may elevate mood in dis...
EVALUATION OF ANTIPSYCHOTIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI ON WISTAR ALBINO RAT
An increased inclination has been observed for the use of herbal drugs in chronic and incurable diseases. Treatment of psychiatric diseases like Schizophrenia is largely palliative and more importantly a prominent adverse effect prevails with the majority of antipsychotic drugs, which are the extrapyramidal motor disorders. This study was a trial to evaluate the neuroleptic activity of the ethan...
HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF COLCHICINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS
A simple and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for the assay of colchicine in bulk drug, pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. The method has a linear range of 4 - 35 μg/ml. The limits of detection and quantification were 1 and 4 μg/ml respectively. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared statistically by means...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
An accurate, sensitive and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Glimepiride (GLM) from bulk drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage form. The separation was achieved by Hypersil C18 column (250mm X 4.6mm, 5μm) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase comprises of Acetonitrile : Buffer in proportion of 60:40v/v, buffer was 0.02M Potassium Di-hydrogen Phosphate (pH 4.5 a...
A study was undertaken to fractionate and characterize the antidiabetic potential of Cyperus pangorei rhizomes. The column chromatography and HPTLC study was performed on ethyl acetate fraction and five sub-fractions were separated and subjected for the evaluation of antidiabetic potential in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The experimental data indicated that the ethyl acetate sub-fractio...
STUDIES ON STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF THE BINARY MIXTURES OF PHARMACEUTICAL INTERMEDIATES THROUGH DIELECTRIC INVESTIGATIONS
The homo and hetero interaction in the binary mixtures of Ethyl acetate + n-Butylamine, Ethyl acetate + Cyclohexylamine and Ethyl acetate + Diethylamine has been investigated through the orientation of dipoles using dielectric polarization method. The dielectric and thermodynamic parameters such as Kirkwood correlation factor, Excess permittivity, Bruggemann factor and Dipolar excess free energy f...
Gum Dammar is a natural resinous material of plant Shorea javanica, family–Dipterocarpaceae. In the present investigation Dammar gum (DG) and alcohol soluble fraction of Dammar gum (DA) are evaluated for their physicochemical, mechanical and film forming characteristics. Films were produced by casting/solvent evaporation method from plasticizer free and plasticizer containing solutions. Films pr...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ACTIVE SECONDARY METABOLITES PRESENT IN WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ROOT: ROLE IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Medicinal plants are a source of naturally active compounds used extensively by tribal people worldwide for many ailments. Withania somnifera (WS) is one such plant used to treat many ailments from the time of Ayurveda. Extraction of the bioactive plant constituents from the whole plant or from the different parts of the plant has always been a challenging task. As the dried roots of WSare w...
The ethanol extract of Solanum surratense(EESS)(Family: Solanaceae) root was investigated for its anti-diabetic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in Albino rats by administration of single dose of Alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg). The ethanol extract of Solanum surratense at the dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, p.o. was administered as single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for ...
DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION & STRESS DEGRADATION STUDIES OF PREGABALIN BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of Pregabalin in pharmaceutical Tablet dosage form. The mobile phase consisted of 50:50 % (v/v) of Methanol & 10mM Ammonium Acetate (pH adjusted to 3.0 with glacial acetic acid) operated on isocratic mode. The flow rate is 0.7 ml/min. Chromatographi...
PROTECTIVE ROLE OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM (CORIANDER) EXTRACT ON LEAD INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF FRESH WATER GASTROPOD SNAIL, BELLAMYA BENGALENSIS (LAMARCK)
The present study describes antioxident effect of coriandrum sativum extract against lead nirtate induced toxicity in an experimental model, the fresh water snailand Bellamya bengalensis. The effect of snail was studied under five groups. Group A was maintained as control, Group B snails were exposed to chronic LC 50/10 doses of lead nitrate (6.9ppm) for 21 days, while group C snails were exposed ...
AIDS is syndrome of a set of disease, which is caused by HIV I and II. These viruses mainly destroy the lymphocytes which play a major role in our body immune system. Till now, there is not taken exactly prevention on this virus. Although some antiviral drugs are produced which make a preventive barrier out of the lymphocytes cells of patient’s blood but there is no way to kill the virus properl...
The term dementia refers to a severe loss of thinking abilities; especially memory. The most common kind of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Bacopa monnieri and Withania somnifera are the most potent herbs for the treatment of loss of memory. Piper nigrum Linn. is essential ingredients of numerous prescriptions and formulations. It is reported that Black pepper increases the blood levels of...
Alstonia scholaris R. Br. (Fam: Apocynaceae) is widely used plant in Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Among the complex constituents of this plant, ursolic acid, a triterpene acid is reported in the leaves of A. scholaris. Ursolic acid was isolated from the methanolic extracts of the leaves of A. scholaris. The isolated marker ursolic acid was authenticated by UV, IR, Mass an...
IN SILICO DRUG DOCKING OF PHYTO INHIBITORS AGAINST TRIOSEPHOSPHATE ISOMERASE IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM
Malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum is a major public health concern. The parasite lacks a functional Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), making glycolysis its sole energy source. One such enzyme is triose phosphate isomerase. This catalyzes the isomerization of D-Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate to dihydroxy acetone phosphate. An attempt was made to identify the potential phyto inhibitor...
IDENTIFICATION OF INTER SPECIES GENETIC VARIABILITY BETWEEN TWO MORPHOLOGICALLY SIMILAR SPECIES OF WITHANIA THROUGH PROTEIN AND RAPD MARKERS
The two species of Withania i.e. Withania obtusifolia and Withania somnifera were usually misinterpreted because of their co-existence in mixed populations. The present investigation involves analyzed of interspecific relationship between these two species. A careful morphological, anatomic and phytochemical, identification of the two species has led to the findings that there was a slight variati...
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF “AMLAPITTANTAK RAS”, AN ANTIULCERANT AYURVEDIC MEDICINE
This study is an effort to assess Analgesic and anti-inflammatory property of widely used Ayurvedic preparation Amlapittantak Ras. In current study, the effects of APR were evaluated through validated animal models of pain including Hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and Xylene induced ear edema test. In hot plate method, APR treated mice at doses 200 and 400mg/K...