Volume 5 (2014) - Issue 1, January
Cancer is a complex disease occurring as a result of a progressive accumulation of genetic aberrations and epigenetic changes that enable escape from normal cellular and environmental control. Cancer is treated with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormones and immuno-therapy. But, due to side effects such as toxicity, death of normal cells near to cancer cells, second formation of cancers; these...
The objective of this review was to bring a chemicophysical approach towards dendrimers in different aspects including host-guest interaction and drug targeting. These nanosizedz polymeric molecules are unique in structural properties which have made dendrimers a potential candidate to lend itself as a carrier for drugs and bioactive molecules. Dendrimers offer the coupling of guest molecule...
The present work offers a review addressing the detailed chemistry and pharmacology of Peltophorum pterocarpum (belonging to Fabaceae family) regarded as one of the most significant plant species in traditional system of medicine. The plant is used in different parts of the world for the treatment of several ailments like stomatitis, insomnia, skin troubles, constipation, ringworm, insomnia, dysen...
The plethora of drug therapies and types of drugs demand different formulations, fabrications conditions and release kinetics. No single polymer can satisfy all the requirements. Therefore, there have been tremendous advances in area of biodegradable copolymers over the last 30 years. This article reviews current research on biodegradable polymers, focusing their potential as drug carries. The maj...
Indian literatures like Ayurveda and various ancient literatures have stated herbal remedies for a number of human ailments. Annona reticulata which is commonly known as bullock's-heart in English and Ramphal in Hindi and Marathi is having various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, analgesic and CNS depressant, antimalarial, anthelmintic, in syphilis and few more. Some c...
CONSUMPTION OF UNMODIFIED COW’S MILK AND THE RISK OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS AND ITS MANAGEMENT
Early introduction of complementary foods (weaning) before 4 to 6 months of age and unmodified cow’s milk before age 12 months are associated with several health risks in children. Too early introduction of unmodified cow’s milk and milk products to infants and toddlers has adverse effects on their iron stores. Children can develop iron-deficiency anemia from chronic enteric blood loss even wh...
INTERPRETATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE OUTCOMES AMONGST END STAGE RENAL DISEASE PATIENTS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS OF MALAYSIA
The concept of Health-related quality of life takes into account about patient well-being as expressed by both physical and psychological domains of health. The relevance of this concept in end stage renal disease patients has been well established and can be used for routine treatment of patients with renal failure. It is of deemed interest to compare health and wellness of end stage renal diseas...
FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE FLOATING MICROSPHERES OF FUROSEMIDE FROM ETHYLCELLULOSE AND HYDROXYPROPYL METHYLCELLULOSE POLYMER BLENDS
Furosemide is a potent and commonly used loop diuretic. It is absorbed largely in the stomach and upper small intestine. This narrow absorption window results in its low (average of 50%) and variable (10-100%) bioavailability from conventional dosage forms. The objective of the present study was to develop an optimized controlled release floating microspheres of furosemide capable of floating on t...
We report here the optimization of an oxidative Michael addition protocol for the synthesis of highly functionalized, biologically relevant benzofurans on gram scale. Rigorous screening of reaction conditions including solvent, atmosphere, base and incubation time, and development of a straight forward precipitation step afforded benzofurans in greater than 95% purity for direct use in biological ...
TOLERANCE STUDY OF “SPIRULINE PLUS” AND EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV-1 FOR TWELVE MONTHS
Spirulina is an algae used in our country for people living with HIV (PLHIV) and it is known especially for its therapeutic immunostimulatory effects. Spirulina capsules produced locally enriched in zinc and selenium called "spiruline plus" were formulated and given to PLHIV. The objectives of this randomized placebo controlled trial were to assess the tolerance by reporting side effects and t...
DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CEPHALEXIN USING SODIUM 1, 2-NAPHTHOQUINONE-4-SULFONATE AND CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN
A spectrophotometric method for determination of cephalexin is proposed. This method is based on the formation of a colored compound in the reaction of cephalexin with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS). The effects of various experimental parameters in this reaction were investigated and optimized using central composite design (CCD). Twelve experiments with two factors and five levels f...
One of the problematic aspects of palliative-hospice care is pharmaceutical providing of the patients at specialized institutions, hospices. The relevance of the work is due to the lack of research about the medicineconsumption by patients at the hospice in Ukraine. Therefore the aim of the research was to study the range, cost, prescription frequency and the cost of patient pharmacotherapy at the...
Croton membranaceus (Mull. Arg.) Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that grows wild in West Africa. It is used by Ghanaian Traditional Medical Practitioners in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Research findings have provided some scientific bases for the use of this plant in the treatment of BPH. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antihyperglycaemic and anti...
The aim of current research work was to develop sustain release formulation of Theophylline. Modified plant derived Fenugreek gum (FG) polymer was synthesized and used as matrix forming agent. Matrix tablet formulations were prepare by wet granulation technique using modified fenugreek gum in different concentration. The prepared formulations were evaluated for physical properties such as tablet h...
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE BILAYER FLOATING TABLET OF PROPRONOLOL HCl USING NATURAL POLYMER
The purpose of this study is to prepare a bilayer gastro retentive tablet of Propranolol HCl using direct compression technology and optimize the type and concentration of polymer to give maximum retentive effect with good drug release profile. Propranolol hydrochloride, a nonselective β-adrenergic blocker having short half-life (3-4 hr)and first pass metabolism favors for sustained release dosag...
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA GROWN ON CASSIA FISTULA AND FICUS BENGHALENSIS
Comparative antibacterial study of ethyl acetate extract of Cuscuta reflexa parasite grown on Cassia fistula and Ficus benghalensis was performed using disc diffusion method. Four different concentrations, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/ml of ethyl acetate extract of Cuscuta reflexa grown in two different host plants were prepared and tested against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumon...
In this study, the methanol extract of bark of Cordia dichotoma Forst., belonging to the family Boraginaceae was prepared by successive extraction procedure ( petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol) in soxhlet apparatus and subsequently, the extract was evaluated for its phytoconstituents and pharmacological activity. Comparatively, higher yield (7.11%) of methanol extract was obtained. Phytoche...
Olanzapine is a thienobenzodiazepine class of drugs, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for the treatment of schizophrenia, depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, acute manic episodes, and maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. Recently many formulations developed such as parenteral formulations to improve compliance in the treatment of schizophre...
ABSTRACT: Stress exerts detrimental effects on several cellular functions through impairment of antioxidant defences, leading to oxidative damage and onset of many cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The restraint stress or immobilization stress is widely accepted model to induce emotional stress and the deleterious effect of restraint stress on the biological system is well documented. The ...
THE EFFECT OF PHYTIC ACID ON RATE OF STARCH DIGESTIBILITY IN VICIA FABA AND WHITE WHEAT BREAD IN VITRO
ABSTRACT: The effect of the phytic acid on starch digestibility was studied in vitro. Starch digestibility was found to correlate negatively with the phytic acid content of the food tested.When sodium phytate was added (equivalent to 2% of phytic acid based on the starch portion), it was noticed that the rate of Viciafabastarch digestion by human saliva and at human body temperature (37°C) was de...
MEMBRANE STABILIZING ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF SIDA CORDATA (BURM F.) BIOSS AND RHODODENDRON ARBOREUM SM. LEAVES
Purpose: To investigate membrane stabilizing activity and antioxidant activity off different extracts of leaves of Sida cordata and Rhododendron arboreum. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of different extracts of leaves of Sida cordata and Rhododendron arboreum were performed for presence of phytoconstituents. In vitro membrane stabilizing activity was done by using RBC membrane stab...
Kushta literally means burning of drugs of metallic, mineral or animal origin into their ash. Qalai (tin) based Unani compound formulation Kushta qalai (KQ) is used since antiquity for the treatment of various ailments. Although it is used on consistent basis by Hakims but at present there are no scientific data available about its quality control parameters. So, in this research article an emphas...
THE EFFECT OF MUSA SAPIENTUM METHANOLIC FRUIT EXTRACT ON VOLUME OF GASTRIC JUICE AND PEPSIN ACTIVITY IN ASPIRIN INDUCED PEPTIC ULCERS IN ALBINO RATS
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Musa sapientum methanolic fruit extract on volume of gastric juice and pepsin activity in aspirin induced peptic ulcer in albino rats. The extract was prepared by percolation method. Volume of gastric juice was estimated by the method of Deshpande SS et al (2003). Pepsin activity was studied with the methods of Debnath PK et al (1974) and Lowry OH...
A food borne illness or disease is exactly what the term indicates a disease or illness caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages. It would seem rather obvious that a food borne microbial pathogens, or a microbial toxic product, or another poison such as a poisonous chemical that has somehow contaminated the food and beverages leads to one of the many different food borne illnes...
Microspheres are the carrier linked drug delivery system in which particle size ranges from 1-1000μm. Microspheres constitute an important part of drug delivery systems by virtue of their small size and reliable means to deliver the drug to the target site with specificity. However, the advantages of microspheres are limited due to their short residence time at site of absorption. This can be a...
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ARTEROLANE MALEATE AND PIPERAQUINE PHOSPHATE BY RP-HPLC
A novel, precise, accurate, rapid and cost effective isocratic reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed, optimized and validated for the estimation of Arterolane maleate and Piperaquine phosphate in pharmaceutical dosage forms (tablet). The drugs were estimated using hypersil C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d- 5 µm particle size) column. A mobile phase composed ...
Fluoride (F) is highly electronegative anion with cumulative toxic effects, from prolonged ingestion that can lead to the pathogenesis known as fluorosis, a condition especially persistent in third world countries, where populations have little choice as to the main source of F-contaminated drinking. In recent times many neurological problems among children are being addressed in endemic areas. Th...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND RAMIPRIL MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET USING DIFFERENT SUPERDISINTEGRANTS
The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of Hydrochlorothiazide and Ramipril, were prepared by direct compression technique. Ramipril is an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. It is an inactive prodrug that is converted to ramiprilat in the liver, the main site of activation, and kidneys. Thiazides such as hydrochlorothiazide promote water loss from the body (d...
EFFECT OF CONVOLVULUS PLURICAULIS CHOIS. ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN STREPTOZOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic extracts, of Convolvulus pluricaulis in normal and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of leaves of C. pluricaulis were orally tested at the dose of 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg & 800 mg/kg for hypoglycemic effect in normal and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weigh...
The present investigation was to prepare and evaluate bioadhesive vaginal gel containing clotrimazole loaded microspheres a novel delivery system for vaginal use. Bioadhesive gel was prepared by incorporating drug loaded microspheres using bioadhesive polymer carbopol 934. Microspheres were prepared by spray drying technique using Eudragit RS-100 and RL-100 polymers with different drug/polymer rat...
ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT SATISFACTION: A STUDY OF CORE AND SECONDARY ATTRIBUTES OF HOSPITAL HEALTHCARE SERVICES
This research evaluates patient satisfaction with the core and secondary attributes of hospital healthcare service, using two conventional methods, stated and derived importance explaining pros and cons related to each method. The study shows the significance of some of the core attributes and secondary attributes are recoverable equally well, regardless of the method. On the other hand, satisfact...
ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF HYDROGELS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SARACA INDICA BARK
The present study reports analgesic potential of hydrogels of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica bark extract makes a fast and convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of microwave. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform ...
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON FRUITS OF TERMINALIA SPECIES (COMBRETACEAE), USED BY THE LOCAL TRIBALS OF ANDHRA PRADESH
The present paper deals with preliminary phyto-chemical screening of Terminalia species (Combretaceae), used by the local tribal communities for different human and veterinary ailments. The personal interviews conducted with local herbal practitioners and review of literature yielded 5 species of Terminalia as an effective remedy for diabetes, dysentery, diarrhoea, asthma, rheumatic pains etc. The...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the oil composition extracted from Sesamum indicum seeds. The oil was extracted from seeds by soxhlet method and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 84 different components were identified and out of which 12 are fatty acid components. The principal compounds identified and present in all samples were silane, trimethy...
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVASTIGATION ON THE LEAVES OF TAMARINDUS INDICA LINN. FOR ANTILITHIATIC ACTIVITY
The main objective of the present investigation is to evaluate theantilithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. on mice. Antilithiatic activity of the ethanolic extract of the Tamarindus indica leaves at a dose of 250mg/kg, 400mg/kg & 500mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug Cystone was given orally 750mg/kg. Adult Wister Albino rats of either sex of divided in si...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF REVERSE-PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HAMYCIN AND KETOCONAZOLE IN PHARMACEUTICAL CREAM
A simple, accurate rapid and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for determination of Hamycin and Ketoconazole in Pharmaceutical Cream. The RP-HPLC separation was achieved on Thermosil C-18, (250 mm, 4.6 mm, 5μm) using mobile phase 0.4 % ( v/v) diisopropylamine in methanol (v/v): 0.5% (w/v) Ammonium acetate in distilled water (90:10 % v/v) pH 6.5 adjusted with Glacial acetic a...
Floating matrix tablets of ranitidine hydrochloride were developed and evaluated to increase bioavailability by increasing gastric residence time and sustained release of drug in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract thereby diminishing side effects and enhanced patient compliance. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method, using polymers such as Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, ca...
To investigate an Ayurvedic compound formulation Phalatrikadi Kvatha (PTK) having seven plant origin drugs for quality control and standardization. This compound formulation is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics for the treatment of Kamala ~ hepatic disorders. Macroscopy, qualitative phytochemical analysis, extractive values in ethanol and water and thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the formulatio...
The present study explores the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Sweet basil essential oil was extracted using a Clevenger type apparatus. The oil yield of sweet basil was found to be 0.171%. A total of 75 compounds representing 99.9% of Sweet basil oil were identified. Linalool (69.85%) was identified as the major component present i...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF UNCOMBINED AND COMBINED EXTRACTS OF DOLIOCARPUS DENTATUS AND MONTRICARDIA ARBORESCENS
The antimicrobial activity of the individual extracts of Doliocarpus dentatus and Montricardia arborescens and combined extracts of both plants were investigated against bacterial strains E. coli, S. aureus and K. pneumoniae using the Disc/ Agar Diffusion method under asceptic conditions. The magnitude of the diameter of the zone of inhibition was used as an indication for antimicrobial susceptibi...