Volume 3 (2012) - Issue 5, May
Amlodipine is the third generation calcium antagonist, 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative with the prolonged duration of the antihypertensive action, especially blocking L-type Ca2+ ion channels. It promotes beneficial therapeutic effect by coronary and other blood vessel diseases and thus delays development of the atherosclerosis. It has several known trade names, the most mentioned is Norvasc. Amlod...
Coriandrum Sativum family Umbelliferae is highly reputed ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as the Dhanya. It is a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, small sized tree growing throughout India, Italy, Netherlands, Central and Eastern Europe, China and Bangladesh. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The different p...
A wide range of medicinal plant parts is used as raw drugs and they possess varied medicinal properties. The different parts used as raw drugs include root, stem, flower, fruit, twigs exudates and modified plant organs. The Punica granatum is a native shrub of occidental Asia and Mediterranean Europe that has a rich history of traditional use in medicine. For centuries, the barks, leaves, flowers,...
Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources...
Periodontitis is a common and widespread disease, which occurs due to the pathogenic bacterial infections (like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. mutans etc.) established within the gingival sulcus. This condition, when not arrested, will cause formation of periodontal pocket. In order to eliminate or control the disease and arrest further periodontal t...
Oxygen free radicals induce damage due to peroxidation to bio-membranes and also to DNA, which leads to tissue damage, thus cause occurrence of a number of diseases and biochemical disorders. Antioxidants neutralize the effect of free radicals through different ways and may prevent the body from various diseases. Antioxidants may play vital role in the metabolic disorders. India stands with highes...
In general, we know that small intestine is mostly the site for drug absorption but in some cases the drug needs to be targeted to some other sites for absorption due to various factors like any disease condition, degradation related situations, for sustained release of drugs etc. Colon targeted drug delivery is a relatively new concept for the absorption of drugs as it offers near neutral pH. Als...
Medicines obtained from plant source are known as an herbal medicine, and the herbal medicine are one which make human healthy without causing any of harmful effect. Madhuca Indica is a plant of Indian origin having tremendous therapeutic potential but is not fully utilized. It is hidden from the eyes of the researchers and other botanist. Madhuca Indica has several pharmacological activity, and p...
EFFECT OF CHANDANASAV, AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION, ON MICE WHOLE SPLENOCYTES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL IgM AND PROLIFERATION OF CELLS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
In recent days, it has been given great emphasis on the scientific evaluation of traditional or complementary and alternative medicines in order to justify the traditional use, safety, efficacy, quality, and to know its therapeutic values that have not yet explored. Chandanasav, an ancient Ayurved formulation, is commonly used for the treatment of malnutrition, presence of semen in the urine, and ...
Background: Gouania longipetala Hemsl. (Rhamnaceae), has ethnomedicinal use in the treatment of wounds, gonorrhoea, abdominal pain, lumbago, ophthalmia, conjunctivitis, and rickets. However, no scientific investigation of these effects has been established. Our aim was to verify the antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the stem of Gouania longipetala. Methods: The antibact...
ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY, NITRIC OXIDE SCAVENGING AND TOTAL TANNIN CONTENT FROM THE BARK OF CERIOPS DECANDRA (GRIFF.) DING HOU
The present study was designed to investigate the antidiarrhoeal, nitric oxide scavenging and total tannin content from the ethanolic extract of the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou (Family: Rhizophoraceae). The ethanol extract at graded doses (200 & 400 mg/kg body weight) was investigated for antidiarrhoeal activity in term of reduction in the rate of defecation and consistency of f...
ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MICROCHEMISTRY OF VISMIA GUIANENSIS (AUBL.) CHOISY (CLUSIACEAE) BLADE LEAF
Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Choisy is a tree that belongs to the secondary vegetation in rainforests. This study aimed to perform anatomy analysis by light microscopy; scanning and microchemistry of the leaves of V. guianensis. Tri stratified upper epidermis with intense cutinization and unistratified inferior epidermis was observed. The stomata found are paracytic and the trichomes arranged in rose...
The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after o...
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTI-BACTERIAL, ANALGESIC, ANTI-DIARRHOEAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF POLYALTHIA SUBEROSA LEAVES
The MeOH extract of leaves of Polyalthia suberosa Roxb. (Annonaceae) was screened for its antibacterial, analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities. The extract showed moderate anti-bacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Sheigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus saprophyticus. It also produced significant (P<0.01) writhing inhibition in a...
PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF MACROCYCLIC LIGAND AND ITS COMPLEXES DERIVED FROM TRIMETHOPRIM AND DIETHYL PHTHALATE
Macrocyclic complexes of MnII, CoII, NiII and CuII using a macrocyclic ligand derived by the condensation of Trimethoprim and diethyl phthalate have been prepared and characterized by electronic, IR and NMR spectral studies as well as magnetic moment and conductivity. On the basis of spectral studies, an octahedral geometry has been proposed for all the complexes....
QUANTITATIVE AAS STIMATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN MARKETED AYURVEDIC CHURNA PREPARATIONS IN INDIA
Churna preparations are an important and widely used form of Ayurvedic herbal formulations in India. These are prepared by mixing powdered form of single or mixture of several crude drugs meant to be dispensed as such. Since the quality of raw material plays an important role in the overall quality of a herbal formulation due to common practice of collecting and processing medicinal plants from di...
LUPEOL PROTECTS ABNORMALITIES IN CELL SURFACE MOITIES DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS
Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, possesses diverse pharmacological and biochemical activities including anticancer and antioxidant effects. Abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in the cell results in malignant transformation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of lupeol on cell surface glycoconjugates and lipids abnormalities during 7,12-dim...
Background/Aim: Endosulfan is a pesticide of organochlorine group uses by 55 % of farmers in Bihar. Present study aims to illustrate effect of Endosulfan on biochemical, hormonal and sub cellular anomalies of spermatozoa of mice and their restoration through root extract of Withania somnifera. Materials and Methods: Experimental mice were administered with endosulfan for eight weeks followed by...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE AND TELMISARTAN IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
Four simple, rapid, precise, economical and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous analysis of Metoprolol succinate and Telmisartan in their combined dosage form. Method 1, First derivative simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method). It employs formation and solving of simultaneous equation using two wavelengths 230.2 nm (λmax of Metoprolol succinate) and ...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MENTHA ARVENSIS AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF HUMAN CARIOGENIC PATHOGENS- AN IN-VITRO STUDY
Patients with chronic dental infection are usually treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics was decreasing because increased resistance in bacteria. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of herbal crude extract of Mentha arvensis in human Cariogenic pathogens. In this study we obtained crud extract of Mentha arvensis in different solvent 50% and 10% methanol,...
Bergenin is reported to occur in Viburnum nervosum (Capprifoliaceae). This is the first report of its occurrence in genus Viburnum. Derivative of Bergenin viz Bergenin diethyl ether, its penta acetate and diethyl ether triacetate have been prepared. Their method of preparation and characterization by spectroscopy is reported for the first time....
Garlic a perennial erect plant is known to have sulphur-containing compounds that act on the hypothalamus increasing the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to leptin which alters the set point at which satiety is reached causing an organism to eat less. Nine mice (six of which were obese) were used in this study and grouped into three. Groups A and B were made of 3 obese mice each whereas group C con...
Ground water is the most preferred water source in recent day. Once believed to be safe from pollution as it is available many strata below the surface, is now provided to be prone to pollution by many researchers across the world. The contamination of ground water may be due to improper disposal of domestic and industrial west water. A study was carried out to assess the ground water quality of P...
DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN AND POTENTIAL TERATOGENESITY RISK AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN; THE CASE OF AYDER REFERRAL HOSPITAL, TIGRAY – ETHIOPIA
It is important to treat the mother whenever needed while protecting the unborn from any side effects to the greatest possible extent. Objective of this study is to assess the utilization pattern and the teratogenesity risk of the drugs prescribed among pregnant women in Ayder referral hospital, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Retrospective study was employed to assess drug utilization pattern and teratogenesi...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CANDESARTAN BY DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPY (FIRST ORDER AND SECOND ORDER)
Candesartan cilexetil, a prodrug is a racemic mixture containing one chiral center at the cyclohexyloxy-carbonyloxy- ethyl ester group. It is soluble in dimethyl formamide, acetone, methanol, 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution and insoluble in water. Objective of the present study is to develop a simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and rapid derivative spectrophotometric method for the estimation of...
Cancer is a public health problem all over the world. Large number of plants and their isolated constituents has been shown to potential anticancer activity. Ethanolic whole plant extract of Madhuca indica showed in vitro cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines such as lung, neuroblastima, and colon. There was no growth of inhibition recorded against liver cancer cell line. Sulforho...
In the present study, we investigated neurobehavioral activity of ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Derris trifoliata (Lour.) in mice as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The effects of the plant extract on CNS were studied by using potentiation of phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time and exploratory behavior in mice. The crude extract (500 mg/kg body weight) signific...
The conventional chemotherapeutic agents in oncology drug discovery still exhibit poor specificity in reaching tumor site and often restricted by dose-limiting toxicity. The combination of developing drug formulation by utilizing both controlled release technology and drug targeting technology may provide a more efficient and less harmful solution to conquer the limitations found in conventional c...
Gynura procumbens has been known to be used as traditional medicine for treatment of kidney disease, rashes, fever and for hypertension. We report here the cardiovascular effects of the different ethanol (95%, 75%, 50%, 25% v/v) and water extracts using in vitro studies. Gynura procumbens leaves extract was prepared by maceration process. The cardiac effects (chronotropic and ionotropic) of each e...
AN IN-VIVO EVALUATION OF ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED BALB/c MICE
Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infections in the tropical regions of the world. The increased resistance of the parasite to many available antimalarials backs the need to develop novel antimalarial drugs with effective mode of action. Several plants with antiplasmodial properties have been proved as sources for novel antiplasmodial compounds. Azadirachta indica has widely been reported ...
AN IN-VITRO STUDY FOR MUCOADHESION AND CONTROL RELEASE PROPERTIES OF GUAR GUM AND CHITOSAN IN ITRACONAZOLE MUCOADHESIVE TABLETS
This study describes the effect of Guar gum and chitosan on formulation of mucoadhesive drug delivery system of itraconazole. Mucoadhesive strength, Drug content, Hardness, Friability, Weight variation, Moisture content and accelerated stability studies were performed to study the effect of polymers on prepared mucoadhesive tablets. Results of the present study clarified the potential of guar gum ...
CHEMICALLY FABRICATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES ENHANCES THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST SELECTED HUMAN BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
Due to the outbreak of infectious diseases caused by different pathogenic bacteria and the development of antibiotic resistance, the pharmaceutical companies and the researchers are now searching for new unconventional antibacterial agents. Nanotechnology represents a modern and innovative approach to develop new formulations based on metallic nanoparticles with antimicrobial properties. The pot...
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia in streptozotocin induced diabetic and diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg b.w.). Hyperlipidemia was induced in diabetic rats by feeding 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% chol...
EXTRACTION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF MIKANIA SCANDENS LINN. AND EVALUATION OF ITS METHANOLIC EXTRACT FOR ANALGESIC ACTIVITY
Mikania scandens is a rapidly growing herbaceous to semi-woody, perennial vine. It grows quickly over other plants such as young trees, smothering them; it can climb trees up to 25 m tall. Although not as serious a weed as M. chordate, in Southeast Asia it has become a hard to eradicate weed of tea, rubber, and other plantation crops. It also reduces the carrying capacity of pasture. The achenes a...
In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to prepare sustained release microspheres of Glibenclamide by using Eudragit RS 100 as rate retardant polymer. Microspheres were successfully prepared by non-aqueous emulsion solvent evaporation method. Magnesium stearate was used as hydrophobic dispersant and droplets stabilizer. The yields were varies from 90-97% and encapsulation efficacy i...
The present investigation was carried out to study the antidiabetic effect of the methanolic extract of bark of Bauhinia purpurea in Streptozotocin induced diabetic model. The antidiabetic activitywas evaluated in normal & Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Decreased blood glucose level of the test animals showed that the extract exhibited significant antidiabetic activity when compared to ...
ISOLATION AND SCREENING OF HEAVY METAL ABSORBING BACTERIA FROM THE INDUSTRY EFFLUENT SITES OF THE RIVER NAGAVALI
The present study was designed to evaluate the heavy metal absorbing potential of bacteria isolated from industry effluent sites of river Nagavali, Srikakulam Andhra Pradesh. From the effluent waste water three bacteria were isolated and confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus after performing various biochemical tests. The heavy metal tol...
Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) is considered a medicinal plant and is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea. Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of the aerial bark revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. The extract reduced contractions in isolated ileum induced by spasmogens like ACh, His...
Three different solvent extracts of seeds of Annona squamosa L. were studied for its antibacterial activity. Agar cup method was selected to test antibacterial activity using two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. The screeningresults showed that highest inhibition was obser...
Costus speciosus belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and contains lots of medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to screen, characterise and quantify the selected biomolecules viz. phenolics, proteins in C. speciosus. Ethanol extract possessed high amount of phenolics than the acetone and aqueous extract. Aqueous extract has least amount of phenolics compared to ethanol and acetone extrac...
Polymethyl mehtacrylates polymers such as Eudragit RL100 have been used in preparation of matrix type oral sustained release, coating and in microencapsulation of drug. Embedding of drug within an insoluble matrix is convenient way of controlling the drug release.The prepared microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique was simple and reproducible, possessed good sphericity, smooth surfa...
The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves against isoprenaline- induced myocardial infarction and was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6). Group I rats served as normal control. Group II rats served as isoprenaline induced toxic control (110 mg/kg body weight) which...
The in vitro dissolution property of slightly water soluble Fenofibrate (FN) was improved by exploring the potential of Liquisolid system (LS). The in vitro release pattern of LS compacts and directly compressed tablets were studied using USP-II apparatus. Different LS compacts were prepared using a mathematical model to calculate the required quantities of powder and liquid ingredients to produce...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain marked by gradual and irreversible declines in cognitive functions. Acetylcholinesterase plays a biological role in the termination of nerve impulse transmissions at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The deficit levels of acetylcholine lead to poor nerve impulse transmission. Thus the cholinesteras...
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF RACECADOTRIL AS AN ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIEN BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETER
A simple and sensitive spectroscopic method was developed for the estimation of Racecadotril in pharmaceutical dosage forms. This method is based on Racecadotril, showing absorbance at 231 nm in methanol. This method obeys Beers law in the concentration range of 8 to100 μg mL-1 respectively. The proposed method is precise, accurate and reproducible and can be extended to the analysis of Racecadot...
The objective of present study is to evaluate the anti ulcer activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos. The cause of ulceration in patients is mainly due to hypersecretion of gastric juice and pepsin. In traditional system of medicine a number of herbal preparations have been used for the treatment of peptic ulcers. The anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of Aegle marmelos ...
Mycotic infections of skin are caused by dermatophytes. Screening of plants for anti dermatophyte activity was carried out based on the literature search done. Native plants of Maharashtra (India) were screened for anti dermatophyte activity. Various plant parts from different regions were collected and then extracted with three different solvents viz. alcohol, hydro-alcohol and aqueous. The obtai...
Two chemical compounds have been isolated and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic studies including VLC, TLC and NMR. The isolated compounds are Ortho-hydroxy-N- benzyl- 16- Methyl- 11, 14- diene-octadecamide (1) and 9, 12-diene-octadecanoic acid (2)....
KNOWLEDGE OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AND PHARMACOVIGILANCE ACTIVITY AMONG THE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF GUJARAT
Aims & Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the baseline knowledge of awareness regarding the ADRs and Pharmacovigilance activity in the undergraduate medical students of different Medical Colleges in Gujarat, India. Material and Methods: Questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of the ADRs and Pharmacovigilance activity. A total 18 questions were divided in two...
The curative parts of medicinal plants are not simply its woody stem or its leaves but the number of chemical compounds (phytoconstituents) it produces and uses for its own growth like flavonoids, alkaloids, gum, mucilage, protein, carbohydrate etc. The genus Phyllanthus is widely used in medicine but still lot of work left to explore this genus. So the species, Phyllanthus emblica which is widely...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF CINERARIA ABYSSINICA SCH. BIP. EXA. RICH
In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Cineraria abyssinica Sch. Bip. exA. Rich (Asteraceae) is used for treatments of various ailments including diarrhea, however, to date, there appear to have been no reports on the phytochemistry and the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The main aim of this study was, therefore, to carry out preliminary phytochemical scree...
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY STUDIES OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA
The antioxidant activity of methanol extract of whole plant of Synedrella nodiflora as well as its petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, dichloro-methane and aqueous soluble partitionates were evaluated by DPPH of (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant assay and compared with standard antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (ASA). The to...