Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 2, February
Some plants are toxic to living beings including humans, and are widely used all over the world in the treatment of various types of body ailments in traditional medicine, especially in the developing countries, due to theirs economic, social and cultural conditions. These plants are routinely taken for the nourishment of the pregnant women. This may cause the toxicity to the developing foetus, kn...
Natural steroids, the simple mention of the word brings up topics like cheating, unfair advantages. The first misconception is that all steroids are used for muscle building. This is not at all the case, steroids are natural substances with many different effects in the human body, which begin over several days, as even birth control pills are a form of steroids. “Natural Steroids”, are the or...
Hypertension is a chronic increase in blood pressure, characterized as primary and secondary hypertension. The disorder is associated with various risk factors like obesity, diabetes, age, lack of exercise etc. Hypertension is being treated since ancient times by Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicine. Now various allopathic drugs are available which include diuretics, calcium channel blockers, α-...
Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles inclosing an aqueous phase and a wide range of molecules could be encapsulated within aqueous spaces of lipid membrane vesicles. They are microscopic lamellar structures formed on the admixture of a non-ionic surfactant, cholesterol and phosphate with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. Niosomes belongs to novel drug delivery system which offers a larg...
GENE THERAPY, RECENT DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN GASTROINTESTINAL ONCOLOGY: A REVIEW ARTICLE
The introduction of nucleic acids into cells has as a purpose of medical condition or disease. Currently, gene therapy studies a broad range of potential therapeutic interventions, including the body's immune reaction to tumours, new blood vessels in the heart to alleviate heart attacks and to stop HIV-replication in patients with AIDS1 .There is also renewed emphasis on the gene therapy of geneti...
The people in India have an outstanding knowledge of medicinal plants acquired over centuries.A passion for studying medicinal plants is evident both in folk and scholarly traditions. The indigenous mode of understanding and using plants is different from the modern scientific way. It includes botanical, medical and astrological elements. This is the basis of green pharmacy. Indians obviously care...
CRATAEVA TAPIA LINN. – AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT: A REVIEW OF ITS TRADITIONAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
Medicinal plants, since times immemorial, have been used in virtually all cultures as a source of medicine. Interest in herbal drugs is growing due to their efficiency, low toxicity and absence/minimal side effects. Crataeva tapia L. (Family-Capparaceae) is a branched tree, commonly called as ‘Varuna’. The plant has been reported to possess several medicinal uses which include anti-inflammator...
Foods and nutrients play a vital role in normal functioning of the body. They are helpful in maintaining the health of the individual and in reducing the risk of various diseases. Worldwide acceptance of this fact formed a recognition link between "nutrition" and "health" and the concept of "nutraceuticals" has evolved. More than any other disease, the etiology of cardiovascular disease reveals ma...
Recently, controlled and sustained drug delivery has become the standard in modern pharmaceutical design and an intensive research have been undertaken in achieving much better drug product effectiveness, reliability and safety. This interest has been sparked by the advantages shown by in situ gelforming drug delivery systems such as ease of administration and reduced frequency of administration, ...
Anxiety and depression is basically a disorder of the present modern world and its prevalence is seen increasing day by day. According to WHO, anxiety and depression will be the second largest cause of disability worldwide by year 2020. The major problem associated with this disorder is that common masses are unaware about this disorder and hence less than 25% of those affected have access to appr...
The aim of the study was to formulate and evaluate natural palm oil based Diclofenac sodium suppositories. The formulated natural palm oil based suppositories were compared with suppositories of water soluble bases (PEG 4000 and 6000) and lipid soluble base (cocoa butter). The in-vitro drug release rate studies were carried out by using dissolution apparatus. The in-vitro release pattern of diclof...
A High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method was developed for determination of Diclofenac Potassium in in-vivo study during bioavailability study. The chromatographic separation was conducted on Shimadzu Prominence LC 20 connected with PDA detector; using mixed column ODS/Cyano; ACE, (100 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase was isocratic consisted of Methanol: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen phosph...
A BROAD SURVEY AND COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON UTILIZATION PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTICS IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN NORTH KARNATAKA
An ongoing, systematic process designed to maintain the appropriate and effective use of drugs is Drug Use Evaluation (DUE). It involves a comprehensive review of patient’s prescription and medication data before, during, and after dispensing in order to assure appropriate therapeutic decision making and positive patient outcomes. The aim of the present study is to conduct a prospective study o...
The use of medicinal plants as raw material in the production of drugs is again gaining popularity. Monechma ciliatum has many traditional uses and applications in African folk’s medicines, e.g. the seed's powder macerated in water and drunk or burnt as an inhalation for treatment cold and allergic conditions. The aim of this study is to formulate a suitable dosage form (tablets) from Monechma c...
MICROWAVES ASSISTANT TECHNIQUE IN SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY OF ISONIAZID USING IT’S SCHIFF’S BASE DERIVATIVES
Tuberculosis is an infection bacterial disease caused by Mycobactrium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lung, it can be treated with Anti-TB drug which are classified into first and second line drug classes where the treatment regimen consists of two phases: the initial phase and the continuation phase. Isoniazid is one of the most important first line drugs for the treatment of tuberc...
DETERMINANTS OF BREAST FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES, MEKELLE, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA; A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Background- Breastfeeding and good nutrition for children are essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, particularly the goals relating to child survival. Even though, most mothers in Ethiopia breastfeed their babies, they do not always follow the recommendations of the "National Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding". Objective- The aim of this study was to assess determi...
THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL.) LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE’S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD
Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW) and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment wa...
Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper, is used topically to treat different types of neuropathic pain, in rat model of vincristine induced neuropathic pain we tried to investigate the effect of capsaicin on sciatic nerve through electrophysiological and histopathological studies. We found that treatment of animals with vincristine results in significant decrease in sciatic nerve conducti...
ICH GUIDANCE IN PRACTICE: DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED STABILITY-INDICATING HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC ASSAY METHOD FOR FEBUXOSTAT AND DEGRADATION KINETIC STUDY IN ACID HYDROLYTIC CONDITION
The degradation behavior of Febuxostat was investigated under different stress degradation (hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal) conditions recommended by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) using HPLC and LCMS. Febuxostat was found to degrade signiﬁcantly in acidic and alkaline conditions as well as in neutral hydrolysis. The drug was stable to dry heat, photolytic degrada...
ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF DILLENIA INDICA BARK EXTRACT M. Monirul Islam*1, Rashna Sharmin Pia 1, Kazi Sifath-E-Jahan 1, Jesmin Chowdhury 2, Fahima Akter 3, Nahida Parvin 1 and Sharmin Akter 1 Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science & Technology 1, Dhaka, Bangladesh Department of Pharmacy, North South University 2, Dhaka, Bangladesh Department of Medical Science, National Institute of information Technology 3, Dhaka, Bangladesh
The present study was designed to investigate the antidiarrheal potential of the methanolic extract of Dillenia indica bark (MDIB). The extract studied for antidiarrheal property using castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrheal model and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility as well as PGE2-induced enterolooping test in mice. In addition, activities against some causative diarrheal p...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SOL TO GEL OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF BRIMONIDINE FOR CONJUNCTIVITIS
The purpose of the present research work was to develop ophthalmic sol to gel controlled delivery system of brimonidine, for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis having improved patient compliance and better therapeutic efficacy. For that purpose various formulations were prepared and evaluated for their quality parameters i.e. rheological, trans-corneal permeation, ocular irritation studies,...
Fatty acid composition of six different leafy vegetables of Bangladesh was investigated. The amount of bound fatty acids was found to be higher than the free fatty acids in all the leafy vegetables. Different fatty acids were identified and their relative proportions were determined by GLC from the leafy vegetables. ...
The present study evaluates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and in vitro antioxidant activities of two species of Cleome, C. viscosa and C. burmanni. The antioxidant potential of the methanol extracts of species of Cleome was tested using different assays such as FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The extracts gave positive results for all the...
Granisetron hydrochloride is most commonly used as an antiemetic agent in treatment associated with cancer chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. If the dosage form is designed in sustain release it provide more advantage for the antiemetic therapy. The purpose of this research was to study mucoadhesive ...
A study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant potential of rhizomes of Curcuma amada (Zingiberaceae). Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were subjected to in vitro antioxidant activity screening models such as DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. In all the models studied, both the extracts showed nearly equal activities...
The present work aims at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of Samadera indica by HRBC membrane stabilization. The prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken as a measure of the anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude ethanol extract, aqueous extract of leaves part of Samadera indica were compared to that of the standard drug diclofenac....
Gastro retentive controlled release drug delivery system of Verapamil HCl was formulated to increase the gastric retention time of the dosage form with controlling the drug release pattern. Different grades of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose derivatives; Methocel K4M and Methocel K15MCR were incorporated for their gel forming properties. Tablet buoyancy was achieved by incorporating a mixture of g...
COMPARISON OF EFFICACY OF FIVE VARIOUS COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF CIPROFLOXACIN AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
A study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of five various commercial products of ciprofloxacin (a broad spectrum antibiotic), manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies. The drug was evaluated for their performance based on equivalent MIC breakpoint, which is a measure of efficacy of drugs against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and Pseuomanas aeruginosa ATCC25668 when tested in vitro...
The present study was aimed at investigating the chemical composition and antifungal activity of Ethanol Extracted Haramaya propolis (EEHP). The GC-MS analysis of EEHP showed the presence of sixteen compounds and twelve compounds were identified by means of their retention times, by comparison of their mass spectra with the NIST 2005 library data and literature. The major constituents of EEHP were...
The objective of the current study was to develop and validate simple and precise UV Spectrophotometric method for estimation of Diclofenac Sodium in the swab samples to validate cleaning procedure. The swabbing procedure was optimized in order to obtain a suitable recovery from stainless steel surface using Tex wipe polyurethane swab stick. Detection wavelength selected was 267 nm. The proposed m...
Plant is one of the important source of drugs that’s why we have done this project work to find out some biological activities of the plant exudates of Calotropis gigantea where antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity were analyzed. To test of antimicrobial activity, disc diffusion method has been followed. The exudate of the plant has shown antimicrobial activity against four microorg...
Objective: Dental caries is a common oral infection prevalent in developing countries. Streptococcus mutans, a commensal bacterium of the oral cavity, plays a major role in the etiology of caries and root canal infection. Sodium hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine are used in the prevention of caries and as root canal medicament though they cannot be used in combination. Study Design: Different conc...
The aim of this study was to develop a pH responsive enteric coated extended release pellets containing a model drug flurbiprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loaded pellets were prepared by using extrusion/ spheronization method. Core pellets were coated with polymer Eudragit RS30D in a coating pan to achieve a sustainable release for 12 hours. A...
PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN TIGRAY, NORTH ETHIOPIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL HOSPITAL BASED STUDY
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and associated factors among people attending ART clinics in Tigray, Ethiopia. Method: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on patients attending ART clinics for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at Adigrat, Mekelle and Maichew Hospitals in Tigray region. Sample size was calculated using Epi info ...
SURVIVAL AND PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY AMONG PATIENTS UNDER MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT IN ETHIOPIA: ST. PETER’S SPECIALIZED TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA
Background: Multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an increasing global problem. The extent and burden of MDR-TB varies significantly from country to country. Survival of MDR-TB treatment is not described in Ethiopia. Therefore, examining a cohort who received second-line therapy for MDR-TB to determine overall survival has a great importance. Objectives: To assess survival and predicto...
The importance of medicinal plant has been emphasized from time to time. It is believed that the drug of natural origin shall play an important role in health care particularly in rural areas of India. Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber .The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual .The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 c...
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN.
The study is aimed at development of physicochemical parameters and to investigate the active principle present in Tridax procumbens Linn. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Asteraceae) commonly known as Coat Buttons is an important plant used against various disorders in indigenous system of medicine such as Wound-Healing, Hepatoprotective, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-diabetic and Immunomodulatory activities. ...
Ayurveda– The science of life is known to the mankind since time immemorial. It prolongs life span, maintains positive health and cures diseases. Due to its high effectiveness, popularity and the socio-economic status it was recognized as an independent branch of learning and has been known as “Rasa Shastra” and “Rasa chikitsa” in the field of Ayurveda. After the development of rasa Sh...
Problem Statement: Do the soil Actinomycetes do have Antimicrobial and Petrol degradation potential? An intriguing question. Actinomycetes are continues to be a subject of study with reference to their Antimicrobial and degradative potential. However studies have been done is limited. Our object was to study its Antimicrobial activity in wide spectrum and to study its degradation potential on Petr...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPTLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PHENOBARBITONE AS BULK DRUG AND IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
A sensitive, selective, precise and stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method of analysis of Phenobarbitone both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of dichloromethane: ethyl acetate:...
Background: Among the traditionally used sex enhancement natural remedies in south eastern Nigeria, L. dulcis root is very popular because of its quick onset of action. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. This study therefore investigated the effects of its ethanol extract and fractions on sexual behavior in male albino rats. Methods: Forty-five male albino rats were randoml...
Phyla nodiflora is an evergreen perennial herb found near the water bodies. It belongs to family Verbenaceae. It is commonly known as frog fruit or turkey tangle. The present investigation is the estimation of primary metabolite content in various plant parts. The investigation revealed that maximum amount of soluble sugar was found in stem, maximum amount of starch found in stems, leaves showed t...
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MANGIFERA INDICA (KOTTUKONAM VARIKA)
About 6 extract (methanol, acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate, aqueous extraction) from the leaves of Mangifera indica was extracted. Hexane-ethyl acetate was characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. Ten constituents from 10 peaks were identified. Terpinyl acetate (5.80%) and phytol isomer (5.12%) are as the major constituents and the minor constituents like oxira...
A novel N-(2-Chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-[[6-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-pipear azinyl]-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl] amino]-5-thiazolecarboxamide derivatives (6a-6d) and (8a-8b) were synthesized by coupling 2-[(6-chloro-2-methylpyrimidin-4ylamino]-N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl) thiazole-5-Carboxamide(3) with Piperazine derivatives(4,7) in butanol and DIPEA (Diisopropylethylamine) at 120ºC for 4-5hrs. All th...
Objectives: Psoralea corylifolia L.(seeds) and Plumbago zeylanica L. (bark) were combined in the ratio of 8: 2 and named as “Swithranasini” and used for the treatment of skin diseases in ayurvedic medicine. Scientific studies validating the therapeutic properties for this indigenous medicine are lacking. This study focused on determining antimicrobial efficacy of methanol and butter milk ext...
A STUDY ON IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGALENSIS LINN. ON DENTAL CARIES PATHOGENS STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND ACTINOMYCES VISCOSUS
The aerial roots of Ficus bengalensis Linn. were collected in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India They were washed, shade dried and were ground into powder. The powder was extracted with chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol and hexane. The antibacterial screening of the extracts was carried out by determining the zone of inhibition using disc diffusion method. The strains were grown to logar...
A REVISED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF VILDAGLIPTIN AND PIOGLITAZONE HCl – APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS
A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-diabetic drugs. The separation was achieved on ACE 3 150mm*4.6mm, 3.5µm column with gradient flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1 consisted of 10mM sodium hexane sulphonate monohydrate and 10mM Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with acetonitrile an...
In Siddha system of medicine, the two formulations Vedikara silasathu parpam and Nerunjil kudineer in combination is given for urinary tract infection. Inhibition in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators and prostaglandins owe to the anti- inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the drugs. In this study, the two Siddha formulations VSP and NK in combination was evaluated for anti- inflamm...
SCREENING OF MURRAYA KOENIGII (CURRY) AND CAMELLIA SINENSIS (TEA) LEAVES FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
Antimicrobial activity of extracts leaves of Murraya koenigii (Curry) and Camellia sinensis (Tea) plants prepared in water, methanol and ethanol by cold maceration method were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (3) strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3) and Candida species: Candida albicans (2 and one strain each of Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis. T...
COMPARATIVE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE PLANT- ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS
The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of different parts (leaf and bark) of the plant Acacia auriculiformis. DPPH radical scavenging and NO scavenging capacity were measured for the determination of antioxidant activity. Ethyl acetate fraction of bark was found to possess highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with I...