Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 12, December
Solubility of orally administered drug is major challenge of pharmaceutical industry as nearly 35-40% of newly launched drugs possess low aqueous solubility which leads to their poor dissolution and low bioavailability, resulting in high intra & inter subject variability & lack of dose proportionality. This can be increased by different methods like salt formation, solid dispersion and com...
The peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the legume family (Fabaceae). There are different varieties like Virgina group, Spanish group, Runner group, Valencia group, Tennessee red and Tennessee white. Peanut consists of 30 essential nutrients and phytonutrients. Peanuts are a good source of vitamins & metals. Peanut hulls consist of crude fiber, cellulose, water, crude protei...
The World Health Organization adopted a major policy change in accepting that most developing nations would have to make use of more traditional medical practices for primary health care. Piper betel L.belongs to family Piperaceae commonly known as Pan. It is extensively grown in Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Taiwan and other Southeast Asian countries. This oil may be used as an industrial raw mater...
Paederia foetida (Skunk vine) an indigenous plant belongs to family Rubiaceae. The plant is having a broad spectrum of use as in treatment of ailments like hepatic disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diabetes, coughs, asthma, itches, wounds, stomachache, diarrhoea, dysentery, pain, typhoid, pneumonia, toothache, cancer, flatulency, body ache, and bone fractures etc. Literature data reve...
DETERMINATION OF ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE (ISMN) AND ITS TWO RELATED SUBSTANCES IN ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE INJECTION
A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of isosorbide mononitrate and its related substances in isosorbide mononitrate and sodium chloride injection. An C18 column (5μm, 250 ×4.6 mm) was used for the determination, with methanol and water (25:75,v/v)as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1 mL min−1. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. T...
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL
The Piper betel is an evergreen and perennial creeper belonging to the Piperaceae family, with glossy heart-shaped leaves and white catkin. It is valued both as a mild stimulant and for its medicinal properties. The total phenolic content of methanolic leaves extract was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay method, and was found to be 0.110 mg/CE/g (Catechine Equivalent per gram). However, anti...
Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa, possesses a wide range of biological applications including anti-cancer. Nanocurcumin particles were prepared by top-down method as its can improve hydrophilic and increase bioavailability. As a result, curcumin concentration was yielded up to 10% (w/w), and the particle size was defined less than 1,0...
The study was designed to determine the acute and sub-chronic toxic effects of aqueous extract of Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) in healthy male Wistar rats. An aqueous bark extract of G. arborea was administered at graded doses (0.25-2.00 g/kg) to Wistar rats in the acute toxicity test. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily administration of the extract at 1.00 g/kg to Wistar rats for 30 days. All...
FUNCTIONALIZATION OF THE SELECTED REGENERATED CELLULOSIC FABRICS WITH HERBAL OIL AND EVALUATE THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES
In this study, an attempt has been made to approach of developing antibacterial finish using aromatic herbal oils. The five different herbal oils like Palmarosa, Petitgrain, Tea tree, Thyme, Lavender oil were screened with disc diffusion method against bacteria that normally exist like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. The result showed good efficiency in Thyme oil when compared to other oi...
PURIFICATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL FIBRINOLYTIC PROTEASE PRODUCED BY MESOPHILIC BACILLUS CIRCULANS GD25
A novel fibrinolytic protease from Bacillus circulansGD25 was isolated and characterized for the fibrinolytic activity. The fibrinolytic protease was purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation (70%) and subjected to chromatographic methods like Sephadex G-50, DEAE –Sephadex A-50 columns. The purified enzyme has an approximately 38 kDa in size by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Optimum activity was...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RITONAVIR IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
A simple, precise, accurate and repeatable method for bulk and tablet dosage form of Ritonavir have been developed using spectrophotometric method. Differential spectrophotometric method was used. The developed method was validated according to ICH (Q2R1) guidelines and was found to be accurate, precise and specific. Amplitude difference was taken at absorbance maxima at 246 nm and absorbance mini...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF CYTARABINE IN BULK AND PHARMACUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
A simple, rapid, accurate, specific and sensitive reverse phase liquid chromatography method (RP-HPLC) was developed and validated for the estimation of Cytarabine in Pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was standardized using a Nova pack C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm ID; Particle size 3 μm) and the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: buffer (Ammonium acetate) at 30:70% v/v. The eluents were ...
Herbal medicine refers to the use of any plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Kalanchoe pinnata is known as herbal medicine that having many special advantages. The objective of the study was to scientifically assess antimicrobial activity of 95% ethanolic, methanolic, 60% methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves from Kalanchoe pinnata on Staphylococcus a...
An attempt was made to formulate and evaluate the 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid (GA) transdermal drug delivery system. Preformulation studies on the drug 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid were done which included description, solubility and compatibility studies. Solvent casting technique was used to prepare the transdermal patches. Four formulations were made with 400mg of 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid and by using po...
HUMAN RED BLOOD CELL MEMBRANE STABILITY TESTING FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MILLETTIA PACHYCARPA BENTH LEAVES
The present study is carried out with the methanolic extract of leaves of Millettia pachycarpa benth. Traditional use of it inspired us to investigate the blood corpuscular protective power of this plant as it used as blood tonic in Chinese traditional medicine. By the phytochemical screening we have both flavonoids and steroids. There’s also alkaloids are found which have extensive physiologic ...
Phytochemical, HPTLC and Heavy metal analysis of Leaf of Leonotis nepetaefolia was done. Qualitative phytochemical screening of Leaf was done using different solvents which showed the presence of various vital secondary metabolites. Neutraceutical studies revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and aminoacids. HPTLC studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, diterpene, phenolic class o...
FOLK USE AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL DETERMINATION OF ZANTHOXYLUM RHETSA DC. SHOOT-A HIGHLY UTILIZED HOT SPICE FOLK VEGETABLE OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH, INDIA
Zanthoxylum rhetsa DC. shoot is highly priced and one of the most preferred folk vegetable among the Indigenous people of Arunachal Pradesh, India. It is also used as folk medicinal purpose among the Adi tribe of the state. The methanol extract of shoot were evaluated for total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu’s method), total flavonoid content (colorimetric method) and antioxidant potential ((...
SCREENING OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THEIR ACARICIDAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CATTLE TICKS UNDER IN VITRO CONDITION
The aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of Annona squamosa, Azadirachta indica and Calotropis procera were tested against the cattle ticks. The fresh and leaf powder extracts were tested individually and also in combinations under in vitro conditions. The extracts of A. indica showed maximum mortality rate of ticks followed by A. squamosa and C. procera when tested individually. In combination...
SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF OXADIAZOLES CONTAINING SUBSTITUTED DIHYDROPYRIMIDINONE AND CHLOROQUINOLINE MOITIES
In the present paper, synthesis of new series of 1,3,4- oxadiazole derivatives incorporating substituted dihydropyrimidinone and chloroquinoline moieties 4(a-j) has been reported. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds were screened for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by the carrageenan induced rat paw edema method and in vitr...
Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in clinical practice. A number of drugs including proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but these drugs has shown incidence of relapses, side effects, and drug interactions. Thus the development of new antiulcer drugs and the search for novel molecules has been extended to herbal...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMERATE AND EFAVIRENZ IN BULK AND FORMULATION
The objective of the present work was to develop a simple, rapid, accurate RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Tenofovir disoproxil fumerate (TDF), Efavirenz in bulk and formulation. The chromatographic separation was achieved by isocratic mode of elution by using Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 (150 x 4.6mm, particle size 5µm) analytical column. The mobile phase consisting of Aceton...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF WATTAKAKA VOLUBILIS (LINN.F.) STAF AND TABEBUIA ROSEA (BERTOL.) DC IN RATS
The aim of this study was to compare the antiulcer activity of methanolic extracts of Wattakaka volubilis (Linn.f.) Staf and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC in rats. The anti-ulcer effect was evaluated using Anti secretary model (chemical induced pylorus ligation). Ranitidine were used as standard drugs for ulcer studies. The extracts were administered orally at 500 mg/kg. The result of the present st...
Atovaquone is a hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols. Its inhibitory effect being comparable to ubiquinone, in sensitive parasites atovaquone can act by selectively affecting mitochondrial electron transport and parallel processes such as ATP and pyrimidine biosynthesis. It exhibits low bioavailability related to its poor water solubilit...
Two new potential allelochemicals were isolated from ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Indigofera trifoliata Linn. Along with three known compounds Tricin (3), Taraxerol (4) and 5-hydroxy-3, 4′, 7-trimethoxyflavone (5). The structures of new allelochemicals were characterized as 6, 3′, 4′-trihydroxy-5, 7, 8-trimethoxyflavanone-4′-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl...
The onion (Allium cepa L), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is used as a vegetable and is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. Allium cepa L belongs to the family Lilliaceae. The onion has a wide range of beneficial actions on the body and when eaten (especially raw) on a regular basis will promote the general health of the body. The parameters selected were prelimi...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ENGINEERED PHARMACEUTICAL FINE PARTICLES OF BUDESONIDE FOR DRY POWDER INHALATION (DPI) PRODUCED BY AMPHIPHILIC CRYSTALLIZATION TECHNIQUE: OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS
The purpose of this study was to produce of microparticles for Dry Powder Inhalation, produced by environmentally driven Amphiphilic crystallization technique process by using different nonionic surfactants at different concentration and at different processing parameters, for inhalation therapy. Budesonide, as one of the inhaled glucocorticosteroids, is widely used in the treatment of asthma by p...
DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF SOME NEW ISOXAZOLES, CYANO-PYRIDINES AND 1, 5 BENZOTHIAZEPINES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
The title compounds (7a-f), (8a-f) and (9a-f) have been prepared from chalcones (6a-f) having s-triazine nucleus. These chalcones on cyclisation with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride in the presence of alkali and malononitrile in the presence of ammonium acetate give isoxazoles (7a-f) and cyanopyridines (8a-f) respectively. Chalcones (6a-f) on condensation with 2-amino thiophenol in the presence of gl...
An analytical method has been developed for quantitative determination of diltiazem, chemically (+)-cis-1,5-benzothiazepin-4-(5H)one, 3-(acetyloxy)-5-[2-(dimethyl amino)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-monohydro chloride, by complexation with Pd(II) spectrophotometrically. Diltiazem is a calcium channel blocker type antihypertensive drug. Diltiazem forms an stable orange colored 1:2 comple...
Celastrus paniculatus is an important medicinal plant used in India. Traditionally seed oil of this herb is used widely in several medicinal preparations and its bark is used in malaria in folk medicines. It is endangered and vulnerable plant. The investigation used Reducing power assay and Total phenolic content to determine antioxidant potential in the ethanolic extract of the drug. The result s...
IDENTIFICATION OF SMALL MOLECULE INHIBITORS AGAINST AMYLOID β (Aβ) OLIGOMERIZATION AND TOXICITY FROM NOOTROPIC AYURVEDIC HERBAL EXTRACTS
Central pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) protein to form toxic oligomers. Identifying novel small molecules that inhibit the aggregation of monomeric Aβ to toxic oligomeric species can be an effective disease modifying strategy for AD. In the present study, plants being used in Ayurveda for treating dementia as well as to improve memory a...
Herbal and natural products of folk medicine have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. Scientists and medical professionals have shown increased interest in this field as they recognize the true health benefits of these remedies. Spinach is a leafy green vegetable that came originally from south-western Asia and is now grown in most parts of the world. Scientifically it i...
Premna integrifolia Linn. roots are used in the Indian system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders etc. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Premna integrifolia L. (Family: Verbenaceae) in CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) induced oxidative stress in Sprague- Dawley rats. CCl4 injection induced oxidative stress by a significant rise i...
CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER INTENTION USING HIERARCHICAL CLUSTER ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY FROM INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES
The aim of this paper is to study the employee turnover ratio in an Indian pharmaceutical company in India. Primary data were collected from 50 employees of two pharmaceutical companies using questionnaire methods. The questionnaire data was grouped to produce a concise representation of the human resource turnover retention using hierarchical clustering (HC) technique. The results of HC have grou...
The aim of this study was to prepare buffered tablets of acid labile drug, Pantoprazole sodium for oral administration using buffering agents to protect a drug from gastric fluid. Its mechanism of action was inhibition of H+/K+-adenosine triphosphate, an enzyme present in the gastric parietal cells. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The formulations contain sodium carbonate, sod...
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE BILAYER FLOATING TABLET OF PROPRONOLOL HCl USING NATURAL POLYMER
The purpose of this study is to prepare a bilayer gastro retentive tablet of Propranolol HCl using direct compression technology and optimize the type and concentration of polymer to give maximum retentive effect with good drug release profile. Propranolol hydrochloride, a nonselective β-adrenergic blocker having short half-life (3-4 hr)and first pass metabolism favors for sustained release dosag...
Aim: To evaluate safety and efficacy of diclofenac 75 mg/1ml (Dynapar AQ) administered as IV bolus versus diclofenac 75mg/3ml administered as IV infusion in patients with postoperative pain. Methods: 350 postoperative adult patientswere randomized to receive either treatment. Primary efficacy endpoints were time to onset of analgesia and postoperative pain intensity while secondary efficacy end...
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METRONIDAZOLE AND CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A reversed-phase-liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of Metronidazole (MTZ) and Ciprofloxacin HCl (CPX) in their bulk drug and marketed formulations. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase of 25mM Potassium dihydrgen phosphate buffer of pH 3.0 consisting of 0.15%v/v Triethylamine, 0.1% Phosphoric acid and Methanol in the ratio of( 60:40v/v). T...
ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FILICIUM DECIPIENS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
This study evaluated methanolic extract of Filicium decipiens (MFD) on reducing hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MFD was orally administered once a day after 3 days of streptozotocin -induction at 100,200 and 400 mg/kg for 45 day and the results showed that serum fasting blood glucose, Glucose – 6 – phosphotase , Fructose 1, 6 –phosphotase in hepatic ...
EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM, LAURUS NOBILIS AND CUMINUM CYMINUM EXTRACTS AND THEIR COMBINATION
Antibacterial agents are essential drugs for human health and welfare. Many pharmaceutical industries have produced a number of antibiotics and resistance to these drugs by microorganisms increased. This development of resistance has necessitated the search for new anti-bacterial agents. Medicinal plants like spices are considered as a good source of natural products for maintaining human health s...
The aim of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic DNA profiles of the assessment of semen analysis data with respect to male fertility potential. Seman analysis taken form 50 patients of known fertility and 50 suspended infertility were studied by conventional semen analysis by suitable methods. The acridine orange test was used to assess the integrity of sperm DNA. The data throw doubt upon the ...
Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify the plant origin with free radical scavenging properties and have great importance as therapeutic agents in several diseases due to oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes has also been implicated in various disease processes, including cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. In recent years, the use of natural ant...
IN SILICO VACCINE DESIGN AGAINST THE TARGET L1 BINDING PROTEIN OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS, AN ETIOLOGICAL AGENT OF CERVICAL CANCER, USING BIOINFORMATICS TOOLS
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the smallest virus in the world. HPV is a non-enveloped double-stranded circular DNA virus, which can widely infect human skin and reproductive tract and respiratory epithelium. HPV also has a close relationship with benign and malignant tumors. There is no universal HPV treatment. Although there is a vaccine called Gardasil that can prevent some diseases caused by H...
Swertia chirata Buch Ham (Gentianaceae) commonly known as chiratais a perennial herb. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of methanolic extract of S. chirata aerial part on Swiss albino mice. Haemagglutination Test (Humoral antibody response) and Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response test and were done to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of S...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING STUDY AND CONSTIPATION ACTIVITY OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA L. (RUBIACEAE) BY USING ALBINO RATS
The whole plant of Spermacoce hispida L is reported to have great medicinal value.It is found effective systemically in treating, headache, constipation, anti-hypertensive, anti-fertility, Appetite, Scabies, Irritant bowel syndrome and skin disease etc. Intake of 2 to 4 g of the seeds along with a mixture of dry ginger, coriander seed andfinger millet reduces the unwanted cholesterol namely LDL an...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICRO-SPHERES OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE BY USING A NATURAL POLYMER
Salbutamol sulphate (SS) loaded microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method with combination of Sterculia foetida gum in various proportions. A total of eighteen formulations were prepared in different oil phases i.e., liquid paraffin and sunflower oil. Those prepared from liquid paraffin L1-L9 and those...
Depression is a well-defined mood disorder which is characterized by state of disposition of mind and dislike or antipathy to activity that can affect an individual’s thoughts, demeanor, sense of emotional touch and physical well- being. Depressed people may feel mournful, troubled, uneasy in mind, meaningless, helpless and unworthy, experiencing as if having committed an offence. They are easil...
ETHNO-MEDICINAL STUDY OF HERBS USED BY RURAL AND TRIBAL COMMUNITY IN BETUL DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA
The investigation on the local knowledge about traditional herbal medicine is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation of medicinal plants. This study therefore considered worthwhile to collect information from local rural and tribal population living in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh (India) concerning the use of medicinal plants; identify the most imp...
A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF TUMOR TAKE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN. IN MICE
The present study was undertaken to explore the tumor take inhibitory effects of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii in rodents. Tumor take inhibitory activity was investigated in hybrid mice (of C57BL strain + Swiss albino strain). Preventive group animals were injected daily with the extract at dose of 50mg/kg body weight i.p. for 10 consecutive days. The animals were observed for the growth o...