Volume 3 (2012) - Issue 4, April
AN OVERVIEW ON SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR POORLY SOLUBLE DRUGS AND SOLID DISPERSION AS AN EMINENT STRATEGIC APPROACH
Solubility is an important parameter to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for pharmacological response to be shown. Among all newly discovered chemical entities most of the drugs are lipophillic and fail to reach market due to their poor water solubility. The solubility behavior remains one of the most challenging aspect informational development. Hence various techni...
Nature has always been stands as a golden mark to amplify the outstanding phenomenon of symbiosis. Ayurvedic remedies for diabetes are usually mixed formulations containing blood sugar lowering herbs in combinations with immunomodulator, detoxicants with the rationale behind such formulations being provided by modern research. Polyherbal formulations have plant-based pharmacological agents which m...
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDS) is not practically for delivery of materials whose final target is skin itself. Application topical agents generally offer many problems such as rashes, skin irritancy and burning sensation etc due to higher percutaneous absorption of drugs on the skin. Some conventional dosage e.g., gels and ointments which are often aesthetically unappealing, greasiness and...
Arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by pain, swelling and stiffness. Allopathic medications have been prescribed to alleviate symptoms of this disease which results into associated side effects like heart attack, stroke, stomach ulcers, bleeding from the digestive tract, and kidney damage etc. Hence the use of herbal medicine is becoming popular due to t...
Anemia is a complication commonly encountered in malignancy, especially of hematological origin, either at presentation or during the course of treatment. Anemia of chronic disease, a condition characterized by disordered iron metabolism, shortened RBC half-life and inefficient erythropoiesis, is the major contributor to cancer anemia. Anemia effects up to 90% of Cancer patients with more than 6...
The main objective of this review is to provide advance information for the drug discovery research from the divine herb Kalanchoe pinnata, which contains a wide range of active compounds, including alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids and organic acids. The pharmacological studies are reviewed and discussed, focussing on activities as immunomodulator, C...
Traditional use of herbal medicines implies substantial historical use and this is certainly true for many products that are available as ‘traditional herbal medicines”. In many developing countries, a large proportion of the population relies on traditional practitioners and their armamentarium of medicinal plants in order to meet health care needs. Today, the pharmacologically active ingredi...
BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted...
DESIGN AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF INDAPAMIDE SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET USING METHOCEL K15 MCR AND METHOCEL K100M LVCR
Indapamide, a low-dose thiazide-type diuretic, is used for the treatment of essential hypertension. In this study, we developed an indapamide sustained release formulation using Methocel K15M CR and Methocel K100M LVCR, starch 1500, talc and magnesium stearate considering technical feasibility and performed a comparative study with the release pattern. The tablets showed sustained release curves a...
DETERMINATION OF PRILOCAINE HCl IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION AND HUMAN PLASMA WITH SPECTROPHOTOMETERY
A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of prilocaine HCl in pharmaceutical preparation and human plasma. The quantitative analysis of prilocaine HCl was carried out using of wavelength at 230 nm. The method was linear in concentration range of 3-15 μg/mL for standard solution and 4-15 μg/mL for human plasma. Linearity was determined by calculating ...
Lipospheres of benzyl penicillin were formulated using the conventional thin film hydration technique. Five different combinations of shea butter, surfactant (Span 80) and goat fat were the key variables employed in the formulations. The resultant lipospheres were evaluated with respect to surface morphology, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vivo bioa...
A STUDY ON BIOPOLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES AS AN EFFECTIVE CARRIER FOR ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Drug delivery is the most essential feature in drug administration facility and the design of Nanosystems makes the action more consistent an appropriate. Polymer nano particles bind efficiently to the drug and disperse the drug proficiently into the system. The efficacy of many drugs is often limited by their potential to reach the site of therapeutic action. In most cases (conventional dosage fo...
BULK AND SURFACE PROPERTIES OF TIN BASED HERBAL DRUG DURING ITS PREPARATION: FINGERPRINTING OF THE ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL CONSTITUENT
The Tin based herbal drug (Vangaparpam - a Siddha system of Medicine) has been widely used for the treatment of urinogenital infection and Arthritis. It was prepared by ten sequential stages of calcinations of the medicinally purified tin along with Aloe vera extract. In this study we analysed samples from various stages of preparation using analytical techniques viz., Fourier Transformed Infrared...
Euphorbia prostrata Ait.(Euphorbiaceae) is a small, prostrate, annual green herb sometime purple tint in colour. It is widely distributed globally and used as antihemorrhoidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, antidirroheal, antiasthmatic and for various skin diseases. The microscopy of root shows the presence of obliterated cork cells, phelloderm, cortex, endodermis, phl...
Cinnamomum tamala is found in tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas and in some other places. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Antimicrobial activity of this plant extract was investigated by Kirby-Bayer methodology against four pathogenic organisms: K. Pneumonae, E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeroginosa. The plant Butanol extract showed inhib...
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF KETOPROFEN USING MIXED CO SOLVENCY APPROACH
The present study demonstrates the use of mixed co solvency in the enhancement of solubility and estimation of ketoprofen, practically water insoluble dug and thus precludes the use of organic solvents. The selected solubilizers were sodium citrate (15%), PEG 400 (8%) and polyvinyl pyrolidine (7%). Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2-20µg/ml at wavelength of 256nm. The solubil...
ISOLATION OF β-SITOSTEROL & STIGMASTEROL AS ACTIVE IMMUNOMODULATORY CONSTITUENTS FROM FRUITS OF SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM (SOLANACEAE)
General phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) revealed the presence of steroids, terpenes, phenolic compounds, saponins, fatty acids, alkaloids. Fractionation of aqueous extract and activity guided isolation resulted in isolation of two white crystalline powder which were subjected to physical, chemical and spectral identification usi...
The extracts of the prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam (Family: Pandanaceae) is claimed as an antidiuretic by some traditional practitioners. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis in rats following oral administration. E...
The objective of this study was to design and evaluate oral sustained drug delivery system for Metoprolol succinate using pH sensitive polymer HPMC and sodium alginate and to evaluate its efficacy in reducing the hypertension. The drug filler blend was mixed with various concentrations of hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC, sodium alginate and combination of both the matrixing agents. The tablets w...
PRELIMINARY PHYSICO-PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF STEM BARK OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R. BR. – A MEDICINAL PLANT
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. is a plant of family Apocynaceae and has a great medicinal importance. It is widely used by tribal people to treat various diseases and ailments. The present communication deals with the organoleptic and preliminary physico-phytochemical studies of the stem bark of the plant. The organoleptic study was done according to the W.H.O. guidelines for medicinal plants. The...
Clitoria ternatea L. (Family: Fabaceae) is being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of severe bronchitis and asthma. So the aim of study was to evaluate antioxidant and antiasthmatic activity of ethanol extract of Clitoria ternatea roots. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the histamine-induced bronchospasm of alcoholic extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. roots in ex...
SUBSTANCE USE AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HIV TRANSMISSION IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
Background: Evidences notify that most of higher learning students rush to range of maladaptive high-risk activities like, substance and sexual abuse which predispose to HIV. More often this is unrecognized and not well researched. Objective: To determine magnitude of substance use and risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission among students in Hosanna Health Science College from December 1, 2...
Trikatu churna is one of the traditional poly herbal preparation, formed by mixing equal quantities of three important spicy materials such as Piper longum L. (Piperaceae), Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). Trikatu is also known as “ Three Bitters”. The trikatu preparation was reported to contain alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, steroids, ligni...
The objective of the study is to evaluate Olibanum resin, a natural resin polymer as matrix polymer for controlled release tablets and to design matrix tablets of diclofenac for controlled release. Matrix tablets of diclofenac were formulated employing Olibanum resin in different proportions of drug and polymer and the tablets were evaluated for drug release kinetics and mechanism. Two diluents na...
CHARACTERISATION OF ISOELEUTHERINE IN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ELEUTHERINE PLICATA HERB, IRIDACEAE, ACTIVE AGAINST ENTAMOEBA HYSTOLITICA/ ENTAMOEBA DISPAR IN-VITRO
Eleutherine plicata Herb., Iridaceae, is an herbaceous Iridaceae, vernacular marupazinho, largely used as tea, in the Amazonian popular phytotherapy, to treat diarrhoea alleged to amoeba infestation. To investigate the form of use of this medicinal plant andits alleged activity, and to perform a phytochemical analysis and an anti-amoebaean assay. Bulbs of the plant were dried, grinded and extracte...
Adventitious bud regeneration from internode explants of Mentha viridis L. was achieved shoots from nodal segments grown in vitro, were cut in to pieces and uses as sources of explants. Organogenesis was induced from internodal explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different combinations of 6, Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Kn under 16 hr photoperiod and at a temperature o...
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from Juniperus indica Bertolwere evaluated. The extracts screened for their antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All the fractions presented antimicrobial activity with variable strengths to all of the tested m...
The present study is concerned to investigate and compare physico-chemical properties( thickness, hardness, weight variation, friability and disintegration), invitro dissolution of the drug along with drug content(assay) for different brands of tablets containing pantoprazole (40mg, 20mg) prepared by various pharmaceutical industries under different trade names. All the brands passed all the offic...
AN ASSOCIATIVE INVESTIGATION BETWEEN TSH AND SERUM LIPID CONCENTRATIONS IN THE POPULATION OF BHOPAL, INDIA
The association between TSH and serum lipids in people with no apparent thyroid dysfunction is less understood. We have investigated the association between normal thyroid function, defined as TSH within the reference range and serum lipids concentrations. Cross-sectional, population based study with 1785 individuals without known thyroid dysfunction. We calculated mean concentrations of total ser...
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTATANEOUS DETERMINATION OF IRBESARTAN, LOSARTAN, HYDRO-CHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CHLORTHALIDONE–APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS
A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-hypertensive drugs Irbesartan, Losartan, diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone. The separation was achieved on Hypersil BDS (Length 250 mm × Diameter 4.6 mm Particle size 5 μm) column with gradient flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 ...
The research work was conducted with the fruits of Emblica officinalis (Fam: Euphorbiaceae) to investigate antibacterial & antifungal activities. The fruits of the plant were successively extracted by cold extraction process by using two solvents namely ethanol and acetone. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts of both solvents were investigated by a simple agar diffusion method using...
IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT FROM THE STEM BARK OF ANNONA SENEGALENSIS PERS.
The antibacterial efficacy of the crude methanolic and aqueous extracts of Annona senegalensis, Pers on clinical isolates of E. coli, Salmonella enteriditis and Shigella dysenteriae were determined using Agar Well Diffusion technique on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) plates. At the concentration of between 100 and 200mg/ml, the methanolic extract inhibited the growth of all the organisms with an averag...
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF STEM OF KALANCHOE PINNATA PERS.
Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) commonly known as Jakh me hayat. Kalanchoe pinnata pers is present naturalized throughout the hot and moist parts of India, particularly common in Bengal. The plant is antibacterial, Anticancer, Antiparasitic, Anti-insecticidal, Anti-allergic. Phytochemical studies had revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, glycosides, steroids and lipids. Pre...
SCREENING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR EFFECTIVE BIOGENESIS OF SILVER NANO PARTICLES AND EFFICIENT ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY
Metal nanoparticles have been using as an ingredients in the preparation of complementary medicines to cure different diseases is an age old medicinal practices. The plant based Ayurvedic preparations are preferred by 80% of the world population and WHO is encouraging the green medicine due to its less side effects. Hence an attempt has been made to screen this important medicinal plant for second...
A simple, precise and stability-indicating ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for simultaneous determination of Paracetamol (PCM) and Lornoxicam (LOR) in tablet formulations has been developed and validated. The UPLC separation was achieved on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH shield RPC18 (2.1x50mm, 1.7µm) column using acetonitrile:30mM Ammonium acetate (40:50, v/v) as mobile phase at...
PHARMACOECONOMIC EVALUATION OF ACUTE EXACERBATIONS OF COPD TREATMENT IN A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HSOPITAL
Background: In India because of growing pressure on the healthcare budget, appropriate justification of current expenditures and future investments in public healthcare are becoming a priority. COPD is a major cause of healthcare burden worldwide and it is the one of leading cause of death with increasing the prevalence. Objective: To evaluate the pharmacoeconomic impact of acute COPD exacerbat...
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCES ON α- AMYLASE PRODUCTION FROM BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS
Amylases are among the most important enzymes in present-day biotechnology. The effects of various carbon and nitrogen sources on α-amylase production by submerged fermentation (smF) from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was investigated. The study revealed that the levels of the α- amylase production varied greatly with the type and concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources used. The highest α-am...
EVALUATION OF ACUTE AND SUB-ACUTE TOXICITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SEED KERNELS OF CAESALPINIA CRISTA (LINN.) IN ALBINO MICE
Acute and sub-acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia crista (Linn.) was evaluated in Albino mice. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines 420, here the limit test dose of 2000mg/kg used. Observations were made and recorded after treatment at 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 8 hrs and then for seven days regularly for respiration rate, heart rate, and behavioural signs like ap...
EFFECT OF VIMLIV ON LIPID PEROXIDES AND ANTIOXIDANTS IN ETHANOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTER RATS
This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of vimliv in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The liver toxicity was induced by the administration of ethanol to the animals at dose of 3 g/kg orally for 35 days. During the period of vimliv was co-administered to the rats at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 35 days. The levels of lipidperoxidative product...
SYNTHESIS OF SOME- 6- SUBSTITUTED- 6H- PYRROLO [3, 4-D] PYRIDAZINE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR EVALUATION FOR IN-VIVO ANTI-CONVULSANT ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS
Present studies on the synthesis and evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of some 6- Substituted- 6H- Pyrrolo [3, 4-d] Pyridazine derivatives. In the preliminary screening for anticonvulsant activity in albino rats, all the synthesized compounds were found to be active, even more than standard at dose 50mg/kg body weight....
An ethnomedicinal plant, Hugonia mystax L., was examined for preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous fruits extracts showed ...
The aim of this research was to formulate a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system containing drug ciprofloxacin with different ratios of hydrophobic (ethyl cellulose) polymer by solvent evaporation technique, using 15% w/w of dibutyl phthalate to the polymer weight, incorporated as plasticizer. Different concentrations of isopropyl myristate were used to enhance the transdermal permeation of ...
CRITICAL ROLES PLAY OF MAGNESIUM STEARATE IN FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGHLY SOLUBLE DRUG METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE
This article is giving emphasis on the decisive role of particle size of highly hydrophobic lubricant i.e. Magnesium Stearate, its concentration and lubrication time to establish the desired quality attributes of formulation containing highly soluble model drug Metformin Hydrochloride. Magnesium Stearate from two sources with different Particle size distribution (PSD) range was selected. It was ob...
A number of aldehydes were reacted with acetyl acetone or ethyl acetoacetate and urea under Biginelli reaction conditions to give the corresponding 5-acyl-4-(substituted-aryl)-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-one. The 5-acetyl-derivatives were converted into pyrimido-oxazoles, pyrimido-pyrazoles, and chalcones. Some Mannich bases were also synthesized. Some selected compounds were tested for their ...
This study aimed to discover the antibacterial effect of Acmella oleraceae against dental caries bacteria and aware the populace about the importance of using phytomedicines. According to this study, the antibacterial effects of Acmella oleraceae was checked against the dental caries bacteria using well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of Acmella oleracea checked with chloroform, ethanol,...
General phytochemical screening of Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae) revealed the presence of Saponin, tannins, glycoside and alkaloids etc. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principle from the plant. It has wide folk medicinal uses. The isolation and characterization of Phytoconstituents was done from the methanolic extract by the gradient fractionation method. ...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN AND AMLODIPINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
A simple, rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive and time consuming reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin and amlodipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms have been developed and validated. Drug was resolved on a C18 column (Phenomenex phenyl hexyl column, 250mm* 4.6mm i.d, 5um). Utilizing mobile phase of ...
ISOLATION OF PRELIMINARY PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN. LEAVES EXTRACTS
The present studies that Isolation of preliminary phytoconstituents and anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Calotropis gigantea Linn. Leaves Extracts. Therapeutic use of plants for the treatment of human illnesses dates back over man millennia. Evidence of their effectiveness in the diagnosis, cure and prevention of disease states exists in every culture throughout the world. Today “...