Volume 3 (2012) - Issue 6, June
Microbubbles are bubbles smaller than one millimeter in diameter, but larger than one micrometer. Microbubbles designate air or gas filled microspheres suspended in a liquid carrier phase which generally results from the introduction of air or gas. The liquid phase contains surfactants to control the surface properties as well as stability of the bubble. Microbubbles have an average size less than...
A prebiotic is a living microorganism that, when administered in sufficient numbers is beneficial to the host and exerts health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Prebiotics include foods, medicines and dietary supplements. In general, the benefits of the regular consumption of prebiotics include enhanced immune function, improved colonic integrity, decreased incidence and duration of intes...
A number of prenylated benzoic acids derivatives with interesting biological activities have been previously isolated and characterized from different species of piperaceae family. Several Piper species contained structurally similar compounds with diverse biological activities such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, insecticidal as well as anti-parasitic all of which produces compounds that can be c...
Nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) result from the organized assembly of sufficiently insoluble surfactants in aqueous media. The low cost of ingredients and manufacture, possibility of large-scale production, stability and the resultant ease of storage of niosomes have led to the exploitation of these nano carriers as alternatives to other micro and nano-encapsulation technologies. Nioso...
Malaria caused mostly by P. falciparum and P. vivax, remains one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The numbers of antimalarial drugs in use are very small. Drug toxicity must be acceptable to patients and should cause less harm than the disease itself. Assessment of hazard and risk varies throughout drug development as more persons are exposed for longer periods of time and m...
Due to various advantages such as high-precision dosing, manufacturing efficiency and patient compliance helped making tablets the most popular dosage forms among all available dosages forms. Compaction, which is an essential manufacturing step in the manufacture of tablets, mainly includes compression (i.e. reduction of volume of the powder under consideration and particle rearrangement) and co...
Stomach specific drug delivery system has occupied importance due to requirement of drug for local action and for those drugs that remains unaffected due to action of gastric fluid. Oral rout is considered most natural, unpredicted, and safe due to its ease of administration, Patient acceptance and convenience. Oral controlled release delivery systems are programmed to deliver the drug in predicta...
The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has received considerable attention and has been a focus of research due to their high chemical and thermal stability, fascinating optical, electronic properties, and promising applications such as nanoelectronics, biomedicine, sensing, and catalysis. Different physical and chemical methods for gold nanoparticles synthesis are known but these methods are either ...
Polypodium vulgare Linn. also called as Bisfaij in Unani system of medicine is a perineal fern growing to a height of 30cm. Polypodium vulgare Linn. rhizome is used in European, American, Chinese, and Unani and Ayurveda traditions. It is claimed to be efficacious in jaundice, dropsy, scurvy and combined with mallows it removes hardness of the spleen. The distilled water of the roots and leaves is ...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF DIFFERENCE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF FEBUXOSTAT IN TABLETS
A simple, rapid, sensitive and cost effective difference spectrophotometric method have been developed for the determination of Febuxostat in its tablet dosage form. The method is based on the induced spectral changes upon changing the pH of the medium that differ in their UV spectra. Difference spectrum, obtained by keeping Febuxostat in 0.1N NaOH in reference cell and same in 0.1N HCl in sampl...
The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate controlled release formulation of lornoxicam based on osmotic technology. Lornoxicam, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with shorter half life, makes the development of sustained release (SR) dosage forms extremely advantageous. However, due to its weak acidic nature, its release from SR delivery system is limited to the...
The in vitro dissolution studies of encapsulated sodium salicylate granules coated with beeswax is presented. The factors investigated were the effects of concentration, presence of a hydrophilic fatty material, polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000), and technique (pan-coating, fusion and granulation) on the sustained release of drug when coated with beeswax. Comparison of release rates was based on...
ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MIKANIA LINDLEYANA IN RODENTS
Mikania lindleyana is a plant widely distributed in Brazilian Amazonia, popularly known as “sucuriju” and largely used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, chronic ulcers and pain. In the present study, we identified the secondary metabolites of the aqueous extract of M. lindleyana (AEML) and investigate its effects on several models of inflammation and nociception in rodents. Phytochemical...
ROLE OF A NOVEL TERPENOID AS EFFLUX INHIBITOR IN TARGETING THE EFFLUX PROTEIN (MexA) OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is one among the few drug resistant organisms causing Urinary Tract Infection. Most strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are significantly more resistant, even in the absence of R plasmids, to many antimicrobial agents, including β-lactams, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones, than most other gram-negative rods. This broad-range resistance has so far been ass...
The cytotoxic effect of crude extracts (n-hehane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions) of root of Acacia nilotica was observed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The LC50 values of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fraction found to be 1.956, 2.079 and 1.981 respectively indicating that the some of the compounds of the extract are biologically active. From this experiment,...
Most of the therapeutic agents are recommended through an oral route, but oral route has disadvantages like first pass metabolism, liver toxicity, etc, due to gastrointestinal pH. This leads poor bioavailability of drugs, which are not stable in G.I pH. To overcome this problem, increase the bioiavailibility, reduce the dose and dose dumping Transdermal delivery system is better option as novel dr...
Flavonoids have been reported to have many pharmacological activities, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, chemoprevention activities along with strong antiproliferative effects. The fruits of Garcinia lancaefolia Roxb., family Cluseaceae , a plant endemic to Assam has been used in locally to treat many diseases for which it was selected for investigationg its antimicrobial properties. No sci...
STUDY OF ANTITUSSIVE POTENTIAL OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA AND ADHATODA VASICA USING A COUGH MODEL INDUCED BY SULPHUR DIOXIDE GAS IN MICE
Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation. Therefore, there is a need to have effective antitussive agent which do not have respiratory depressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate antitussive activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica using a coug...
A new, simple, precise, sensitive, accurate and reproducible Reverse phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the analysis of amlodipine in bulk dosage forms. The separation was conducted by using c-18 RP-HPLC coloumn, which was maintained at ambient temperature. The mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer and Acetonitrile (90:10v/v) was delivered at a rate of 1.5 ml/min. The anal...
Among the different routes of administration, the oral route of administration continues to be the most preferred route due to various advantages including ease of ingestion, avoidance of pain, versatility and most importantly patient compliance. The different dosage forms include tablets and capsules. Recently immediate release tablets have started gaining popularity and acceptance as a drug deli...
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Stachytarpheta indica Vahl. was assessed. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoides, tannins and reducing sugars. The antibacterial properties of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts were studied against clinically important bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus c...
PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH HYPERTENSION ALONE AND WITH COEXISTING DIABETES MELLITUS – A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Objective: Analysis of prescribing pattern of antihypertensives in patients with hypertension alone and with coexisting diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in an outpatient and inpatient department of general medicine at JJM Medical College hospital for a period of 3 months (July 2011 to September 2011). Prescriptions of the patients were collected an...
AN INVESTIGATION ON ANTI DIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY VILLAGERS IN NALBARI DISTRICT, ASSAM, INDIA
Nalbari district is situated in between 26°N and 27oN latitude and 92oE and 97oE longitude. It lies between Kamrup and Barpeta district of lower Assam. Nalbari has a population of 1138184 (2001 census). An ethnobotanical Survey was conducted in 2010 in selected villages to explore the medicinal plant used by the villagers to cure Diabetes. This villages are inhabited by Boros, Koch, Muslim commun...
Bionanotechnology has emerged up as integration between biotechnology and nanotechnology for developing biosynthetic and environmental friendly technology for synthesis of nano materials. Silver has been known to have effective bactericidal properties for centuries. Nowadays, silver based topical dressings have been widely used as a treatment for infection in burns, open wounds, and chronic ulcer....
ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ACALYPHA HISPIDA
The ethanolic extract of leaves of Acalypha hispida was evaluated for phytochemical, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, reducing sugars and steroids. Cytotoxic activity was investigated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. The extract showed potent cytotoxic effect (LC50 19.95µg/ml) which is compara...
PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF PGS – PVP CO-PROCESSED EXCIPIENT AS DIRECTLY COMPRESSIBLE VEHICLE IN TABLET FORMULATION
Direct compression is the preferred method for the preparation of tablets. Co-processing is the one of the most widely explored and commercially utilized method for the preparation of directly compressible vehicles. The objective of the present study is to prepare and characterize pregelatinized starch-poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PGS-PVP) co-processed excipient and to evaluate its application as direc...
CHANGES IN WBC DIFFERENTIAL COUNT PATTERN IN MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT
The prophylactic efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) (Alliaceae) extract was studied on changes in WBC differential count pattern in male albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for ...
Parkinsonia acculeata is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of Pet ether and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Parkinsonia acculeata on glucose homeostasis in alloxan induced diabetis in rabbits. After 7 days of study it showed that Parkinsonia acculeata reduced glucose levels significantly...
A PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT DESMODIUM GYRANS (LINN.F) DC FOR ITS ANTIMICROBIAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND WOUND HEALING PROPERTIES
In the present study methanol and aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Desmodium gyrans were tested for the antimicrobial and wound healing properties. The antimicrobial activity of this plant was tested against the clinical pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Klebsiella pnemoniae. The methanol extract of this plant showed efficien...
STUDIES ON LINEARTY AND ASSAY USING RP-HPLC AND UV-VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DRUGS OXCARBAZEPINE AND PIOGLITAZONE BEFORE AND AFTER EXPIRY PERIOD
The standard for stability and quality of drugs for approval of marketing, are assured by testing and systematic evaluation using different analytical techniques. The drugs are tested in pharma analytical lab involving analysts associated spectra, chromatogram etc , and the results are analyzed leading to fixation of expiry dates. Once the drug crosses its expiry period, its potency is lost and it...
BINDING TO AND RETENTION BY MUCOSAL CELLS OF THE TAMARINDUS INDICA SEED POLYSACCHARIDE: VISUAL EVALUATION BY MEANS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC MARKERS
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using inorganic and organic markers to visualize the ability of the transparent polysaccharide (TSP) polymer isolated from the endosperm of the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica, a tree that mainly grows in India and South-East Asia, to bind to human mucosal cells. A layer of human buccal cells was prepared on slides and overlaid by 0.2 ml...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN THEIR COMBINED DOSAGE FORMULATION
A simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride in combined dosage form. Simultaneous equation method is employed for simultaneous determination of Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride from combined dosage forms. In this method, the absorbance was measured at 28...
EFFICIENT FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FLURBIPROFEN TRANSDERMAL GEL USING WATER SOLUBLE POLYACRYLAMIDE POLYMER
High molecular weights water soluble homopolymer type of acrylamide was reported to obtain very high viscosity in low concentration, transparency, film forming properties and useful in formation of transdermal gel. The flurbiprofen gels were prepared by using different concentration of polyacrylamide for topical drug delivery with an aim to gradually increase transparency and spreadability. Thes...
Background: Metamizole (Dipyrone) is widely used and has effective analgesic, antipyretic, and antispasmodic properties. After oral or intravenous administration, dipyrone is rapidly hydrolyzed to the active moiety 4-methylaminoantipyrine. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 oral formulations of Metamizole 500 mg. Methods: This double blind, randomized, single-do...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME TRIHYDRATE AND AZITHROMYCIN DIHYDRATE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
A novel, simple, accurate, sensitive, reproducible, economical spectroscopic method was developed and validated for the determination of Azithromycin dihydrate and Cefixime trihydrate in combined dosage form. Second order derivative spectroscopy method is adopted to eliminate spectral interference. The method obeys Beer’s Law in concentration ranges of 10-40 ppm for Cefixime trihydrate and 25-10...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED POROSITY OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE
Controlled porosity osmotic tablet of metoprolol succinate prepared and evaluated in this study. Metoprolol succinate is very high soluble drug, so complete drug release obtained very fast. It is difficult to formulate osmotic tablet of Metoprolol succinate which gives drug release up to 24 hr at zero order. To get desired dissolution profile various formulation parameters like osmogen concentrati...
The regulatory authorities are now focusing on the regulatory issues of traditional medicines under which Unani system of medicine falls. Today we are witnessing an increase in the use of traditional medicines throughout the world raising the questions as to how safe these preparations are. People are now bending towards the Unani system of medicine because of its safety, efficacy and lesser side ...
The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer activity of the Soft Halicona species on the HeLa cell line. The Soft Halicona species methanol and Dichloromethane extracts were tested for its inhibitory effect on HeLa cell line. The percentage viability of the cell line was carried out by using colorimetric method. The cytotoxicity of Soft Halicona specieson HeLa cell was evaluated by MTT assay. B...
Typhoid fever is serious public health problem in many parts of the world.Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, is an illness caused by the bacterium, Salmonella typhi. The immunology of typhoid fever in man has been the subject of a recent review. The diagnosis and subsequent treatment could reduce infection complication towards acute illness. It is difficult at present time, to diagnose ...
Candida albicans is one of the most important fungi associated with oral candidiasis and the treatment of this fungi is a serious problem today because of the resistance of these fungi against conventionally used drugs. So, there is an urgent need of alternative antifungal substances especially from the natural sources. The study was conducted to examine the MFC and time kill activity of two stilb...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME SPECIES OF PHELLINUS AND GANODERMA SAMPLE FROM WESTERN GHATS OF INDIA
Phellinus and Ganoderma are a folk medicinal, wood inhabiting fungus, recently been studied for its pharmacological activities. In the current study, Acetone, Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared from species of Phellinus and Ganoderma. The active compounds of acetone and methanol extracts have the same polarity but they show different activity. The antimicrobial assay showed zone of ...
Solubility is one of the important parameter to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for pharmacological response to be shown. Poorly water soluble drugs often require high doses in order to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations after oral administration. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of an aqueous solution at the site of absorption. Most of the dru...
A new, simple, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Flucloxacillin in pure form. Method involves the determination of Flucloxacillin by dissolving in water and followed by measuring the absorbance at 273 nm. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 100-300 µg /ml. The suitability of method for quantitative analysis of Fluclo...
SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NOVEL FLUROBENZOTHIAZOLE INCORPORATED 1, 3, 4 – THIADIAZOLE
A new series of flurobenzothiazole incorporated 1, 3, 4 - thiadiazole compounds have been synthesized. The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by UV, IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectral analysis and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris NCTC 4635, Micrococcus leutus NL98, Aspergillus flavus ATCC 46646by disc diffusion method. The compounds SH8 and SH11 were a...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PREDNISOLONE ACETATE AND OFLOXACIN IN EYE-DROP
The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of prednisolone acetate and ofloxacin in combined eye drop dosage form. The method is based on the simultaneous equations method for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Prednisolone acetate has absorbance maxima at 243 nm and ofl...
Daily oral administration of the total alcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction of the bark of Cassia fistula in alloxan induced diabetic rats exhibited significant reduction in blood glucose levels and also found effective in restoring the blood lipids to normal levels. The activity was found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. The ethyl acetate fraction showed more significant a...
Two triterpine acids like 2α, 19α- dihydroxy – 3-oxo-12- ursen- 28-oic acid (1), 2α, 16α, 19α- trihydroxy – 3-oxo-12- ursen- 28-oic acid (2) were isolated from the n-hexane soluble fractions of a methanol extract of the root of Albizzia lebbeck Benth. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated as by extensive spectroscopic studies, including high field NMR analyses. This i...
This present investigation was an attempt to an ethno botanical survey which was carried out by the local practitioners of Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. During the survey 48 medicinal plant leaves are identified which were used as medicine for several diseases either in single or in combination with some other ingredients. In the first phase the Botanical Name, Family, Local Name and uses of ...
EFFECTS OF ECLIPTA ALBA AND BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSSA ON NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE AND HYPERTENSION IN RATS AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH AMLODIPINE
Background: Hypertension is an immensely pervaded problem in today’s population and is a unanimous major risk factor for heart diseases. Various natural herbs have been found to control the hypertension exquisitely without causing any significant adverse effect. Eclipta alba (EA) and Boerhaavia diffusa (BD) are two herbaceous plants. EA is used to treat hepatic-dysfunction, hair diseases and ane...
INVESTIGATION OF EFFECT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII ON BIOPHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF WOUND IN DIABETIC HYPERLIPIDEMIC WISTAR RATS
Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. India is perhaps the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is rightly called the “Botanical garden of the World”. Murraya koenigii Linn. commonly known as Meethi neem, belongs to the family Rutaceae. The curry tree is native to India and it is found almost everywhere in the Indian subcontinent excluding the higher leve...
ISOLATION, SCREENING, CHARACTERIZATION AND DETERMINATION OF B-COMPLEX VITAMINS BY LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES OF MEAT
In this study, isolation, screening, characterization, antibiotic susceptibility tests, curing & Determination of B-complex vitamin production by potent probiotic Lactobacillus strains from different sources of meat was analysed. 250 grams of intestine parts of goat meat and beef each were transferred to MRS broth to screen the potent probiotic Lactobacillus strains. Initially 57 strains were ...
Analytical monitoring of Pharmaceutical products is necessary to ensure its safety and efficacy throughout all phases of the drug. A systematic approach should be adapted to the presentation and evaluation of stable information, which should include, as necessary, physical, chemical, biological and microbiological test characteristics. Indian System of Medicine (ISM) frequently uses metal/mineral ...
Telosma africanum (N.E.Br) Colville (Ascelpiadaceae) is a slender riverine and deciduous climber used traditionally in the treatment of venereal diseases. Using standard procedures, the pharmacognostic studies, fluorescence analysis and phytochemical screening were carried out. This study revealed the presence of combined Anthraquinone, Saponin, Cardiac glycoside, alkaloids in the leaf and ste...
Obesity is one of the main public health problems in developed countries. It is considered to be a risk factor associated with the genesis or development of major chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Many botanicals may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternatives to synthetic drugs. The results of this study show promise for the potential use of thes...
The aim of the study was to investigate the phytochemical compounds of Wattakaka volubilis ethanolic leaf extracts. The phytochemical compounds were screened by GC-MS method. The ethanolic leaf extracts presented 32 bioactive compounds. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, molecular weight and molecular formula. Diethyl phthalate C12H14O4 has peak area 37.31, 2-...