Volume 7 (2016) - Issue 5, May
In last few decades, there has been a great progress in understanding the biochemical and cellular events of normal wound healing. Healing of wounds, either accidental or surgical interventions, involves complex activities of blood cells, tissues, soluble mediators, cytokines and several growth factors. This increased cellular activity of damaged tissue enhances metabolic demands and active drug t...
Although plenty of information relating to drug utilization among adults is available, the literature pertaining to children is scarce. The majority of drugs prescribed have not been tested in children and safety and efficacy of children’s medicines are frequently supported by low quality of evidence. This is explained by the lack of clinical research in this population, caused by ethical, sci...
The post approval changes are the changes made to biological products that have received an approval and to provide the data to support a change which would be considered sufficient to allow a determination of the impact of the change on the quality of the approved products as it relates to safety, efficacy and/or effective use of the products. After the approval of NDA or ANDA, the applicant may ...
Nanoparticles have attracted the interest of many research groups and had been utilized in an increasing number of fields during the last decades. Various methods can be used to produce nanoparticles such as ionic gelation, solvent evaporation, microemulsion, emulsion cross linking and precipitation. This review covers the general description, preparation and the detailed description of crucial pa...
The Genus Costus (Linn.) is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Costaceae. The Genus as a whole is often called Spiral Ginger. The genus is represented by about 175 species distributed throughout the world. The aerial parts of the plant and the rhizomes are edible, the rhizome being good source of carbohydrate, starch, amylase, protein and lipid. Moreover the rhizome is an alterna...
Recently the synthesis of fused heterocyclic compounds seeks great attention of researches in the field of medicinal chemistry. Majority of the drug compounds contains heterocyclic ring in their structures and these heterocyclic skeleton contributes significantly in the biological profile of drug. The heterocyclic compound play significant role in synthetic chemistry and many heterocyclic derivati...
Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a global health care problem has been a burden to the socioeconomic society. The increasing incidence highlights the need for innovative approaches for the prevention and management, despite availability of various therapies for managing disease and its complications. There are several factors that seem to play a role in development of DM including genetic, lifestyle, envir...
Genome engineering field is a new revolution in biological research and to this new field several restriction endonucleases are available. Out of all these, based on easier construction, sensitivity and specificity Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) preferred by scientists for research and industrial purposes. However, off-target DNA clea...
EVALUATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN EFFECT ON THE ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED MICE
This study evaluates the effect of ciprofloxacin (CIP) on the antimalarial activity of artesunate (AS), artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine using animal model. Some 120 albino mice infected with chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei NK65 strain were used. The study was carried out in three phases. Phase 1 consisted of eleven groups treated with different doses of either AS, ...
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) involving HPMC-PVA patches were prepared as matrix-dispersion system with Pioglitazone HCl (PH) or Gliclazide (GZ) and drug release pattern from these patches were evaluated in-vitro as well as in-vivo. It has been found that 82.41% of Pioglitazone HCl and 70.12% of Gliclazide were released in-vitro in the period of 12 hours and the release patterns was zero...
THE EFFECT OF NANOENCAPSULATED CENTELLA ASIATICA L AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC. VAR. RUBRUM COMBINATION TO PROMOTECOLLAGEN SYNTHESIS AND DECREASE THE DIAMETER OF ADIPOCYTE CELLS IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS
Cellulite is a normal condition judging from the medical aspect, but from aesthetics aspect, cellulite deserves more attention, especially for women. Centella asiatica is reported to promote both fibronectin and collagen synthesis. Meanwhile, Zingiber officinale is reported to have lipolysis activity. Combination of the two herbals is assumed to have complementary effect as anti cellulite agents. ...
SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND PETRA OSIRIS MOLINSPIRATION (POM) ANALYSES OF DICARBOXYLIC ACID AMIDES
Six new Phthalic acid amides of the general formula C8H5O3-NH-R were prepared by the reaction of Phthalic anhydride with various amines namely Glycine, N, N-diphenyl amine, 1-naphthyl amine, 4-amino toluene-3-sulphonic acid, Toluene-p-sulphonamide, m-nitro aniline. The synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, 1HNMR & 13CNMR spectroscopy. Petra Osiris Molinspiration (POM) a...
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT EXCIPIENTS ON THE RELEASE OF NORETHISTERON ACETATE FROM CHITOSAN-SODIUM ALGINATE POLYMERIC IMPLANTS
Biodegradable polymeric implant offers a novel approach for sustained drug delivery that provides an option to the patient of avoiding surgical retrieval of implant post-use. Chitosan, a biodegradable polymer extracted from the hard outer skeleton of shellfish, is used nowadays in many pharmaceutical applications (ophthalmic, nasal, sublingual, buccal, periodontal, gastrointestinal, colon-specific...
LIGAND BASED PHARMACOPHORE MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR ANTI ANDROGEN RECEPTOR DRUGS FOR TREATING PROSTATE CANCER
The computational modeling and high throughput screening techniques have been used to identify small molecules that specifically target functional surface sites of the androgen receptor in Prostate cancer. Pharmacophore modeling, Virtual screening, docking based analyses is used for development of new chemical entities. The purpose of the current work is to establish pharmacophore model for the FD...
Objective: The present investigation is focused on detecting anti-carcinogenic potential of virgin coconut oil. Methods: The virgin coconut oil (VCO) from coconut endosperm was prepared by cold compression method. It was examined then for cytotoxicity by cell exclusion studies using trypan blue dye. Chemical carcinogenesis method using benzopyrene was used to study the anticarcinogenecity of VCO. ...
MOLECULAR MODELING AND DOCKING BASED STUDIES OF NOVEL CHALCONE SKELETON BASED COMPOUNDS ON GLUCOSAMINE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE ENZYME
Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (G6PS) (EC 18.104.22.168), is an one of the drug target for the anti microbial species. Systemic anti bacterial and anti fungal infections are of the growing problems in contemporary medicines, however only limited anti bacterial agents are in clinical practice for selective action with low toxicity. Then there is an emergency need for more effective version of existing...
POLY (METH) ACRYLATES NANOSPHERES OF CENTRALLY ACTING ANALGESIC DRUG FOR POSTOPERATIVE PAIN: IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO CHARACTERIZATION STUDY
Postoperative pain management is prerequisite element for care of surgical patient. Objective of this study was to develop and evaluate nefopam hydrochloride loaded poly (meth) acrylates nanospheres (NFH-NS) for post-incisional pain treatment. Nefopam hydrochloride (NFH) is a centrally acting, non-opioid analgesic exclusive for treatment of post-incisional pain. NFH-NS were fabricated using eudrag...
ANTIDIABETIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-HYPERLIPIDAEMIC ACTIVITY OF CUCUMIS CALLOSUS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Cucumis callosus (Rottl.) Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae) is a highly branched very common prostate, perennial herb, distributed throughout India in the arid zones. Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of C. callosus fruit in experimental animal model. Materials and methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight). Three days afte...
The present work narrates UV-Visible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of selected drugs viz., Lamotragine (LMT), Venlafaxine hydrochloride(VFX), Valacyclovir hydrochloride(VCL) and Ractopamine hydrochloride(RAC) in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms by using Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) as reagent. These methods have been developed based on the formation of...
The persistent prevalence of poor-quality medicines in resource-limited settings has contributed significantly to the alarming global trends in antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics are among the most used, abused and counterfeited medicines and therefore require regular monitoring and surveillance to provide reliable data for proper healthcare delivery. This study evaluated the quality of a total of...
Ascorbic acid is one of the essential and most vital medicines needed to maintain healthy living. Due to its non-availability through endogenous biosynthesis in humans, it is arguably one of the most consumed Over-The-Counter drugs. Thus, a simple, precise, low-cost and accurate reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed and optimized to analyse for the percentage content o...
AN IMPROVED ASSAY METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF TICAGRELOR HYDROCHLORIDE BY REVERSE PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
The current investigation was carried out to develop and validate a fairly simple, accurate, precise, reproducible and robust RP-HPLC method for the estimation of Ticagrelor Hydrochloride. The separation was achieved using Agilent Infinity 1220, Infinity Fast-LC (Pressure limit up to 600 bars) with auto sampler and PDA detector. The Chromatographic analysis was performed on ZORBAX Eclipse Plus 300...
The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic effect of various extracts from Phyllanthus emblica L. According to Ayurveda this plant has potent anticancer activity and hence, this study is targeted at screening potential cytotoxic extracts using a yeast system. Yeast has been used as a model organism for many preclinical drug screens. In this study phytochemical extraction has been done b...
This experimental work aimed at formulating and systemically characterizing mucoadhesive amoxicillin microspheres for the eradication of H.pylori and its associated diseases. The microsphere batches were prepared by emulsion-solvent evaporation technique with the use of carbopol-934P as mucoadhesive polymer and ethyl cellulose as carrier polymer. Initially 27 formulations were prepared using 33 ...
STABILITY-INDICATING RP-UHPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TELMISARTAN IN DRUG SUBSTANCE AND MARKETED FORMULATION
A simple, rapid and precise stability-indicating ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) has been developed and validated for the estimation of telmisartan in drug substance and pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a Poroshell 120EC-C18 column (4.6 x 50mm, 2.7µm) by using mobile phase acetonitrile: 50mM ammonium acetate buffer in the ratio of (...
HIGH FREQUENCY DIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM THE JUVENILE SHOOT BUDS OF CHLOROPHYTUM BORIVILIANUM SANT. ET FERNAND AND PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL SEEDS
The study presents a protocol for mass propagation of Chlorophytum borivilianum through direct somatic embryogenesis. Direct somatic embryos occurred on the surface of juvenile shoot bud sprouts cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 BAP, yielding a high frequency of direct somatic embryos. On the other hand, a much lower concentration of BAP (0.5 mg L-1) led to th...
COST VARIATION ANALYSIS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS AVAILABLE IN INDIAN MARKET: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE
Aim: To analyze the percentage cost variations among different brands of the commonly prescribed anti–hypertensive drugs. Materials and Methods: The cost of different brands of commonly used antihypertensive drugs was sorted out by referring latest CIMS, MIMS, Drugs Monitor and IDR. The cost of 10 dosage forms (Tablets / capsules) in INR of each brand, Cost Ratio and Percentage Cost Variation we...
IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF FICUS ARNOTTIANA MIQ. LEAVES (MORACEACE): AN ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANT
This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Ficus arnottiana Miq. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Ficu...
COLLECTION AND DATA-MINING OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS WITH CANCER TREATMENT PROPERTIES IN THE PLANTS OF FABACEAE FAMILY
Medicinal plants therapeutic agents are a big source of information for a wide variety of chemical constituents which could be developed as new drugs. The present study focused on anticancer, antitumor anticarcinogenic and cancer preventive activities of bioactive compounds found in plants belonging to Fabaceae family. The bioactive compounds and their scientific details were mining from publicall...
IN SILICO DESIGN, DOCKING, SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF 2,5-DISUBSTITUTED 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Emergence of resistant bacterial and fungal strains towards existing antimicrobial agents is one of the major motives for research and development of new molecules to defend them. Oxadiazole is a major compound of heterocyclic nucleus for the development of new drugs. Oxadiazole ring system could be incorporated into many more ring systems which itself have their own activity and could lead to pot...
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ORAL DICLOFENAC AND DECREASED DOSE OF DICLOFENAC PLUS TOPICAL DICLOFENAC IN TREATMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS
Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of topical plus reduced dose of diclofenac to oral diclofenac in therapeutic dose. Method: The study was prospective, comparative and randomized, which included 50 patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomized to receive either - oral diclofenac alone (50 mg thrice daily) (therapy1) or decreased dose of oral diclofenac and topi...
Azima tetracantha Lam. (Salvadoraceae) is a traditional medicinal plant primarily used for mother care treatments after delivery. Based on literature survey, it was noticed that the evaluation of the biopotential of A. tetracantha, and its phytoconstituents are scarcely reported from plant materials growing in the state of Kerala, India. An attempt was made to reveal the phytochemical profile of...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF DONEPEZIL HYDROCHLORIDE ORAL DISINTEGRATING TABLETS USING QUALITY BY DESIGN APPROACH
This study posed a challenge for the risk management to research and development projects in a highly regulated and volatile pharmaceutical industry, in which projects are extremely long, complex, costly and prone to failure. Project management in new product development, must be efficient and effective. This emphasizes the importance of risk management. Quality by design (QbD) refers to an advanc...
TREATMENT WITH GLIPTINS AND STUDY OF THE VARIATIONS IN SERUM AMYLASE AND SERUM LIPASE LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Objective: To observe the variations in levels of serum amylase and serum lipase, in patients with type 2 DM after treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors. METHODS: Under this study, 174 Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were analysed for variations in levels of exocrine pancreatic enzymes after use of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 inhibitors. The effect was compared with those under treatment with other o...
IN VITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF GMELINA ASIATICA L. LEAF AGAINST HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE (MCF-7)
The present study was taken to prove the cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of Gmelina asiatica leaf on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated by performing MTT assay. Cell morphological characteristics were observed by using phase contrast microscope. The results demonstrated in MCF-7 cancer cell lines treated with ethanolic extract of G. asiatica leaf sho...
COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGICAL, HISTOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE RAW DRUG JIVANTI FROM DIFFERENT RAW DRUG MARKETS OF KERALA
Jivanti is considered a stimulant and tonic in Ayurvedic literature. Its medicinal use dates back to about 4500 to 1600 BC, as mentioned in classical texts. Holostemma ada- kodien and Leptadenia reticulata are the two plants used in Ayurveda as source plants of the drug Jivanti. Roots of these plants are used in several Ayurvedic preparations. Though Ayurvedic Formulary of India mentions Leptadeni...
The aim of this research is to precisely discuss and appraise the success of different approaches to the development to antiplatelet drugs. Platelets play a main function in haemostasis and the development of arterial thrombosis that is the final event complicating cardiovascular diseases and peripheral vascular diseases, and antiplatelet drugs improve survival of patients with these diseases. Ant...
Hyperlipidemia is a common finding in uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and patients with DM generally show alteration in lipid profile, notably in triglycerides value. Research done in the past has pointed out the usefulness of Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) as a useful parameter for the diagnosis of Type 2 DM. HbA1c is well established as gold standard to monitor long term diabetic control....
Introduction: The Maxillary labial frenum is a fold of the mucous membrane connecting the lip to alveolar process. The maxillary labial frenum is most commonly observed clinically with reference to the midline diastema. Objective: To analyse the most common type of abnormal Maxillary labial frenum in South Indian population and to determine the type of abnormal Maxillary labial frenum commonly ass...
The lectins are glycoproteins or sugar binding proteins of non-immune origin but are barred from sugar binding antibodies and enzymes. Lectins are isolated and purified from seeds of Glycine max by soxhlet extraction and dialysis. These collected crude lectins were centrifuged till pH is shifted downward to optimal pH for coprecipitation. Filtration of the same carried out on a Buchner funnel with...
DEVELOPMENT OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO SAMPLES OF KETOPROFEN IN BULK DRUG AND TRANSDERMAL DOSAGE FORM
A simple and accurate Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of ketoprofen in vitro samples and in vivo samples from bulk drug and from administered transdermal dosage form, using Spherosorb S5 ODS of 10cm X 4.6 mm column, (5μm particle size). Mobile phase for in vitro sample analysis and in vivo plasma samples consists of 0.01 ...
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PRETREATMENT ON IN VITRO SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT OF SENNA ALATA LINN
Senna alata is an important medicinal and ornamental flowering tree, in the subfamily of Caesalpinioideae, which was found in diverse habitat in the tropics. Leaves or sap are used to treat several infections such as skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and ringworm. The present study was design to investigate for conserve the important medicinal plant by establishing an efficient in vitro seed germi...
Objective: To analyze phytochemicals both qualitatively and quantitatively and to estimate in vitro antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and concentration of flavonoids of methanolic extract of leaf, stem and fruit of an important medicinal plant Murraya koenigii Linn. Methods: Phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out. Aluminium chloride colorimetric method was used to estimate ...
Protein glycation is a spontaneous post translational modification of proteins by excess sugars causing formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in diabetic individuals and responsible for diabetes complications. A wide variety of anti-glycating agents have been reported & recently there has been interest in natural products with anti-glycation properties. Momordica charantia L (M. ...
COST VARIATION ANALYSIS OF SINGLE NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS AVAILABLE IN INDIAN MARKET: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE
Introduction: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used drugs to manage a variety of acute and chronic conditions associated with pain and/or inflammation. In the Indian market, various NSAIDs group of drugs are available in different formulations. This creates a lot of problem with physician to decide the drug of choice for individual patients. Objective: To evaluate price v...
ASSESSMENT OF RATIONAL USE OF FIXED DOSE COMBINATION IN COMMUNITY PHARMACIES OF RESOURCE LIMITED SETTINGS OF ANDHRA PRADESH
Fixed dose combination (FDC’s) is the term, which generically used to mean a particular combination of active ingredient irrespective of the formulation or brand. Now a day’s irrational FDCs are more rapidly being marketed, which results in serious ADRs and reduction of patient quality of life. The study aims at assessing the rational usage of fixed dose combinations in community pharmacies by...
In the present study, Gastro retentive floating drug delivery systems (GFDDS) of sitagliptin, an anti diabetic drug, have been designed to increase the therapeutic efficacy & gastric residence time and to reduce frequency of administration. Therefore a sustained release medication was advantageous so as to achieve the prolonged therapeutic effect and to reduce peak and valley effect in plasma ...
HIGH PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF ACYCLOVIR IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATION
A simple, selective, rapid and economical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for estimation of Acyclovir in bulk and marketed formulation. Chromatographic separation and estimation was achieved in a run time of 6.482 minutes on Hemsil C18- 5U (250 × 4.6 mm, 5μm) using Acetonitrile and pH adjusted water (6.74) in the ratio of 10:90 v/v at flow rate of 0.5ml/min. ...
Lipase is an important of extracellular thermostable enzyme that has received considerable attention for potential use in the food industry. Hence to achieve large scale production of gram positive and negative organism is commercially important lipase enzyme under the fermentation. Lipases are produced by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. However, we have focused on bacterial microbial l...
HISTOARCHITECTURE AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF EPIDIDYMIS IN MALE RATS INDUCED BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF JUSSIAEA REPENS L
Different herbal Plants are used globally for safe and natural source of medicine from ancient ages. Jussiaea repens L, is a medicinal herb that has been reported to have non toxic antigonadal activity, which reduced the sperm count, motility, viability and morphological alteration of spermatozoa in rats. It also alters histoarchitechture vis-à-vis functions of testicular tissues by altering the ...
Thrombocytopenia is a common hematological finding with variable clinical expression. Low platelet count may be the initial manifestation of infections such as HIV, hepatitis, and also associated with some viral infection like dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, etc. In the present study, Methanol extract of Eclipta alba was evaluated at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days in alcohol induced...
We have carried out solid supported ,solvent free condition, microwave assisted rapid synthesis of 1- (2,5- substituted diphenyl)-1, 3, 4- oxadiazol -3(2H) - yl) ethanone (3a-3k) by cyclization of N'- (substituted phenyl methylidene) substituted benzohydrazide (2a-2k) in the presence of acetic anhydride and silica gel ( solid support) for 3-4 minutes by microwave irradiation giving excellent...
A wide range of compounds are found to be effective against cancer for example Vitamin D3, lysine, proline, gallate, quercetin, etc. Glucosinolates from cabbage are secondary metabolites hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase 1. Their breakdown products such as isothiocyanates, nitriles and thiocyanates, are chemically very reactive, and they are known for their bioactive characteristics, such as a...
The purpose of research work was to develop and optimize mucoadhesive microspheres of levocetirizine for nasal delivery with the aim to enhance the residence time and improve therapeutic efficacy and at the same time increase the Local absorption of drug and reducing systemic side effects and also to develop unique delivery system for patients suffering from allergy and rhinitis. Chitosan (mucoa...