Volume 2 (2011) - Issue 8, August
NEW INSIGHTS INTO LATENT TUBERCULOSIS: A PERSISTING GLOBAL HEALTH CHALLENGE
After more than a century, tuberculosis (TB) is still a formidable public health challenge as it contributes considerably to illness and death worldwide, irrespective of continuous advancement in technology and in depth understanding of molecular biology concepts. Mycobacterium tuberculosis persist for longer period in human and animal host in latent state without causing active disease and may re...
A REVIEW ON MICROEMULSION BASED SYSTEM
Microemulsions are clear, stable, isotropic mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. Microemulsions act as potential drug carrier systems for oral, topical, and parenteral administration. They offer the advantage of spontaneous formation, ease of manufacturing and scale-up, thermodynamic stability, and improved drug solubilization and bioavailability. P...
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ACALYPHUS INDICA LINN: A REVIEW
Plants and there preparations have been used as medicine since ancient time. The Ayurveda and various ancient Indian literatures have evidence the use of plants for various disorders. Acalypha indica L is an erect annual herb with numerous long branches covered with soft hairs. According to the Siddha text, ‘Pathartha Guna Chinthamani' (Page no: 179), Acalypha cures diseases of t...
SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI (AREETHA): AN OVERVIEW
The objective of this review is to form a short compilation of phytochemical screening, pharmacological activity and some analytical methods available for Sapindus mukorossi plant. Although the plant is of importance in Ayurvedic system of medicine mainly as cleansing agent, a review article based on the phytochemical and pharmacological screening of Sapindus mukorossi is not so far reported. The ...
COMBINATION THERAPY AND ITS IMPLICATION ON CLINICAL EFFICACY OF ARTEMISININS- REVIEW
Artemisinin and its derivatives have successfully been used in treatment of falciparum malaria infections in various parts of the world. More importantly, they have proved effective against strains resistant to conventional antimalarials such as chloroquine and mefloquine in those parts of the world where malaria is endemic. Only one clinically relevant artemisinin-resistant human malaria has been...
THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES AND CURRENT MEDICAL USAGE OF MEDICINAL MUSHROOM: GANODERMA LUCIDUM
Mushrooms are an important natural source of food and medicines. Traditionally medicinal properties of mushroom have been well demonstrated particularly in Eastern Asian countries. In modern clinical practices, the bioactive compounds derived from the extract of mushroom sporocarps or mycelium has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various human diseases such as cancer, diabetes,...
BRIEF REVIEW ON: FLASH CHROMATOGRAPHY
In previous days, Column chromatography was used in many laboratories for preparative purposes as well as for reaction control in organic synthesis. Column chromatography is an extremely time consuming stage in any lab and can quickly become the bottleneck for any process lab. This leads to the development of novel preparative liquid chromatography in which mobile phase flows down by positive air ...
NANOEMULSION AS A NOVEL TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
The nanoemulsion is one of the most efficient dispersed nanosystems of droplet size ranging to submicron size. Nanoemulsion are generally transparent or semi transparent system characterized by high stability. They are characterized by high stability. Submicron droplet size and high surfactant concentration makes it an efficient transdermal delivery vehicle. Research works proves that nanoemulsion...
DENDRIMER MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-DEVICE: A REVIEW
A dendrimer is described as a macromolecule, which is characterized by its highly branched 3D structure that provides a high degree of surface functionality and versatility. The unique properties of dendrimers such as uniform size, high degree of branching, water solubility, multiagency, well-defined molecular weight and available internal cavities make them attractive for biological and drug-deli...
MEDICATED CHEWING GUM – A 21st CENTURY DRUG DELIVERY SYSYTEM
In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of oral drug delivery system. The reasons that the oral route achieved such popularity may be in part attributed to its ease of administration. Over the years, patient convenience and patient compliance-oriented research in the field of drug delivery has resulted in bringing out potential innov...
MELATONIN – A REVIEW ON THE LESSER KNOWN POTENTIAL NUTRACEUTICAL
Melatonin, a pineal hormone is known to regulate rhythmic behavior of mammals. Its ubiquitous presence, established recently has brought into focus several health-promoting benefits of this molecule. However, till date, melatonin has been less utilized from its nutraceutical and functional point of view. This paper reviews the chemistry, chemical synthesis, metabolism of melatonin; its sources inc...
PRONIOSOMES AND ETHOSOMES: NEW PROSPECT IN TRANSDERMAL AND DERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
The present article is a descriptive study of the performances of ethosomes and proniosomes as specialized delivery systems for transdermal drug delivery system. Vesicular systems, such as ethosomes and proniosomes are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance....
PHARMACY AND PREGNANCY: A REVIEW
Pregnancy is a state of double danger i.e. any drug that a pregnant woman takes can easily cross placenta and can produce a teratogenic effects on fetus. It can interfere with normal embryonic or fetal development and induce abnormal post natal structure or function. Teratogens alter the genetic function of fetus. This review provides practitioners with summary of information regarding teratology ...
PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF CEDRUS DEODERA: AN OVERVIEW
Many plants are essential in human health care, both in self-medication and in national services. India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have great potential pharmacological activities. A number of medicinal plants are used as rejuvenators as well as for treating various disease conditions. Cedrus deodara, the common cedar is an important plant belonging to the f...
SOLID DISPERSION – A PROMISING NOVEL APPROACH FOR IMPROVING THE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUGS
Solid dispersions is an efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and hence the bioavailability of a range of poorly soluble drugs. This article reviews the various types of solid dispersion, preparation techniques for solid dispersion and compiles some of the recent technologies. Some of the practical aspects to be considered for the preparation of solid dispersions, such as selection of ...
PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF AEGLE MARMELOS CORR. FRUITS
Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as Bael, Bengal Quince is a tree of Indian origin, well known from pre- historic time. Utilization of bael fruit in day-to-day life has a great nutritional, environmental as well as commercial importance. All the parts of this tree including stem, bark, root, leaves, fruit and seeds at all stages of maturity has medicinal virtues and has been used in...
ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF VITEX TRIFOLIA LINN. (VERBANEACEAE) LEAVES EXTRACTS
Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts of leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn. (Verbaneaceae). Methods: The anti inflammatory activity of plant extracts at different dose intervals was evaluated by using two models Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and Xylene induced ear edema in Mice. Acute inflammation in rats was induced by injecting Carr...
DETERMINATION OF RIZATRIPTAN IN BULK AND ITS TABLET DOSAGE FORMS BY UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD.
Rizatriptan is a selective 5-HT1B/1D agonist which is used in the treatment of migraine headaches. Zero order spectroscopic method has been developed for the determination of rizatriptan. Rizatriptan in its 0.1 N HCl solutions was determined at the wavelength ranges of 220–400 nm by the spectroscopic method. Rizatriptan showed an absorption peak at 226 nm. Linearity ranges were found as 1-5 µg/...
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES, BARK, SEED AND FLESH OF MORINGA OLEIFERA
Moringa oleifera belongs to an onogeneric family of shrubs and tree, Moringaceae. In the Dravidian language there are many local names for Moringa oleifera but all are derived from the generic root “Morunga”. It has anticancer, anti-inflammatory activity and thyroid status regulator efficacies. An experiment was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of different solvent e...
INVESTIGATION OF ANALGESIC AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC BARK EXTRACT OF MIMUSOPS ELENGI
The methanolic bark extract of Mimusops elengi was investigated for its possible analgesic and neuropharmacological activities on mice at the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight. For the evaluation of analgesic activity, tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing tests were used. The neuropharmacological activity of the extract was screened using hole cross and open field tes...
SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOME H1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST DRUGS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS
A validated simple, economic, selective, and stability indicating spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of some antihistaminic H1 receptor antagonist drugs namely ebastine (EBS), cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ), and fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD). The method is based on the reaction of the cited drugs with 2-cyanoacetamide in alkaline medium to give highly fluoresce...
A STUDY ON PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF PONGAMIA PINNATA LINN. LEAVES
The present work deals with development and standardization of phytochemical screening for quantification of ethanolic extract of medicinal plant leaves of Pongamia pinnata Linn. The scientific parameter is necessary to identify the exact plant material and to find its quality and purity. The present study deals with various, physical evaluation and preliminary phytochemical screening of various s...
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY (ε-CAPROLACTONE) MICROSPHERES CONTAINING ACETAZOLAMIDE
The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microspheres containing acetazolamide. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The influence of formulation factors (polymer: drug ratio, aqueous: oil phase ratio, concentration of aqueous phase, stirring speed and stirring time) on morphology, particle size, encapsulation and recovery efficiency were i...
ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES. LEAVES
Andrographis paniculata Nees. is an important medicinal plant in India which is used in traditional medicine. Although, its antibacterial property has been shown by some researchers, there are very few studies showing its antioxidant activity and there are no reports of its antifungal activity against dermatophytes. So, in this study we evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activi...
GC-MS STUDY OF IXORA PAVETTA VAHL.
Ixora pavetta Vahl. is a small tree, traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, urinary disorders, leucorrhoea, veneral diseases and sedative. The flowers of the plant were extracted with ethanol by cold percolation method. The presence of the compounds in the extract was analyzed by GC-MS technique. The parameters of mass spectral analysis viz. retention time and characteristic...
ANTIBACTERIAL, INSECTICIDAL AND IN VIVO CYTOTOXICITY ACTIVITIES OF SALIX TETRASPERMA
The present study was designed to investigate antibacterial, insecticidal and in vivo cytotoxic activities of the methanol: ethylacetate (1:9) extract of leaves, barks and roots of Salix tetrasperma. Antibacterial test were done against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria. Bark extract was active against all tested microbial species and the highest activity was shown against Escheri...
NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANACYCLUS PYRETHRUM IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS
The present study was carried out to evaluate CNS activity of ethanolic extract of roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum that includes general behavior studies, sedative, muscle relaxant, anxiolytic, nootropic activity and antidepressant studies in rats. The results reveal potential neuropharmacological activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum as nootropic and also having antidepressant property. Further neurochemi...
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF HONEY SAMPLES FROM THE SOUTHERN RAINFOREST AND NORTHERN SAVANNAH ECOSYSTEMS IN NIGERIA
Selected physicochemical parameters, total phenolics, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity of honey samples from the northern savannah region and southern rainforest ecosystems of Nigeria were investigated. Moisture and ash content of most samples were within acceptable limits. Total phenolic content ranged from 23.92 to 82.34mgGAE/100g for both ecosystems. Flavonoids varied between 2.5...
ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM (LINN) IN LABORATORY ANIMALS
Ocimum sanctum (L.) is popularly used as herbal remedy for various ailments. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use especially in pain and inflammation remains unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum in laboratory animals. The ethanol extract of the leaves of O. sanctum was used to investigat...
DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN SELECTED HERBAL DRUGS
The present work attempted to identify and standardize the different phytochemical by modern analytical techniques and to summarize the UV, TLC, FTIR characters of the plants; Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), Acorus Calamus (vekhand), Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) and Citrus aurantium(Orange peel) which ultimately results in compilation of analytical data for these crude drugs which are very much used ...
IN- VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA (R. BR.) ROOT
This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of methanolic extract of the root of Calotropis procera (R. BR.). The Antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated by the In-vitro Anti-Oxidant activity (DDPH Scavenging activity) assays. The IC50 of the Calotropis procera studied by the above mention method was found below 100 μg/ml which indicates the potent antioxida...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT USING MAIZE STARCH & AVICEL PH101 AS DISINTEGRATING AGENTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS & IN VITRO RELEASE PROFILE
The present study was undertaken to formulate directly compressible tablets to investigate the effect of different disintegrating agents such as maize starch and avicel PH101 on disintegration time, in vitro drug dissolution and their release properties. Tablets of paracetamol and the combination of paracetamol and diclofenac using maize starch and avicel PH 101 were prepared separately by direct ...
HPTLC QUANTIFICATION OF N-OCTACOSANOL IN TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA MIERS. STEM OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES
n-octacosanol is a normolipidemic aliphatic primary alcohol obtained from the plant Tinospora cordifolia Miers. In the present study, the plant stems were collected from five accessions namely Anniyalam, Chennai, Hassan, Vishakhapatnam and Bangalore between June and August. Later a simple HPTLC method has been established for determination of n-octacosanol in methanolic extracts of all these geogr...
CRUCIAL ROLE OF NITROGEN IN IN- VITRO REGENERATION OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS SCHUM. AND THONN.
Nitrogen plays a pivotal role in growth and differentiation of cells of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn. Both form and amount of nitrogen in nutrient medium have significant effects on the rate of cell growth and differentiation. In this study, effects of different inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and NH4NO3) and organic nutrients (glycine) on regeneration of P. amarus were evaluated. Murashige...
A SIMPLE UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF FLUPENTHIXOL DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
A simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of flupenthixol dihydrochloride in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The drug was highly soluble in methanol so it was selected as the solvent system for the drug. This ensured adequate drug solubility and maximum assay sensitivity. The linearity range for flupenthixol dihydrochloride at its wavele...
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATENOLOL AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
A new, simple, precise, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase – High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Atenolol (AT) and Amlodipine Besylate (AB) in bulk and in tablet formulations. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent technologies 1200 series HPLC using Inertsil C18, 5 mm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm column maintained at am...
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET OF METOPROLOL TARTRATE
Many patients are express difficulty in swallowing tablets and hard gelatin capsules tending to non compliance and ineffective therapy. In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of metoprolol tartrate are formulated with a view to enhance the patient compliance. It is suited for tablets undergoing high first pass metabolism and is used for improving bioavailability with reducing dosing frequenc...
UROPATHOGEN RESISTANT ESSENTIAL OILS OF COLEUS AROMATICUS AND OCIMUM SANCTUM
Urinary tract infections are common type of pathogenic infections in body. Essential oils of Coleus aromaticus and two varieties of Ocimum sanctum (Rama Tulasi and Shyama Tulasi) were compared for antibacterial activity against urinary tract infection (UTI) causing bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A READY TO USE CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL SUSPENSION
Antibiotics are not chemically stable in water based oral pharmaceutical suspensions. Anhydrous liquid antibiotic suspension for oral administration provides a product having good shelf life and taste characteristics relative to conventional liquid formulations. A ready to use oil based cefpodoxime proxetil preparation which can be stored at room temperature was prepared and evaluated for its orga...
SYNTHESIS OF CEFOTAXIME FROM DAMA (DIETHYL THIOPHOSPHORYL [(Z)-(2-AMINOTHIAZOL-4-YL)-2-(METHOXYIMINO) AND 7-ACA (7-AMINO CEPHALOSPORINIC ACID)
A simple procedure is reported for the synthesis of Cefotaxime Sodium from an isolable activated ester, diethyl thiophosphoryl [(Z)-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino) acetate (DAMA) and 7-ACA (7-Aminocephalosporinic acid). DAMA was synthesized from ATMA [(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-methoxyimino acetic acid] and DHP [O, O-diethyl O-hydrogen phosphorothioate], which was treated with 7-ACA and ...
ISOLATION OF CONTINENTALIC ACID FROM ARALIA CACHEMIRICA AND ITS IMMUNO-BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION
In continuing search for compounds with immunomodulatory activity, plant Aralia cachemirica has been found to contain continentalic acid (CA). Isolation of this pharmacologically significant diterpinic acid from Aralia cachemirica is novel. Chemical structure of this compound was identified by spectral analysis as (-)-pimara-8(14), 15-dien-19-oic acid, which has been isolated from A. cordata and A...
HISTOPATHOLOGIC EFFECTS OF C. METULIFERUS E MEY (CUCURBITACEAE) FRUITS IN ALBINO RATS
The fruit extract of C. metuliferus was evaluated for its phytochemical and histopathologic properties. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The histopathological effects of C. metuliferus fruit extract on the liver, kidney, spleen and pancreas of male adult albinos rats were investigated after daily oral administr...
CHARACTERISTICS, TREATMENT PATTERNS AND OUTCOMES OF PATIENTS WITH SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER – A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS
PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study is to present data of patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and treatment results in an unselected patient population with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in limited disease (LD) and extensive disease stage (ED). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients of carcinoma lung from April 2007 to December 2009 were analyzed for present study, conducted i...
PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CONTROL OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LINN., BORAGINACEAE, POWDER AND TINCTURE
The quality control of herbal drugs and their extracts is essential when they are used as raw material for the development of herbal medicines. In this work, several techniques (pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial) were performed, aiming at establishing quality control parameters of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum L. (Boraginaceae), a shrub popularly known as stinker (fedegoso) in Brazilian n...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BI-LAYER DOMPERIDONE FLOATING TABLETS
The present work was carried out to design the floating drug delivery system to minimize the side effect, improve the prolongation of action, to reduce the frequency of administration. The objective of the present investigation was to develop a bilayer-floating tablet (BFT) and evaluate for domperidone maleate using wet granulation technology. HPMC, K-grade and effervescent sodium bicarbonate form...
SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF OFLOXACIN AND ORNIDAZOLE IN COMBINED DRUG FORMULATION BY A SIMPLE ELECTRO-ANLYTICAL TECHNIQUE
In present study, a successful attempt has been made to develop a simple method for the simultaneous determination of ofloxacin and ornidazole using linear sweep Voltammetry (LSV) technique. Quantification of ofloxacin and ornidazole was done in Britton-Robinson Buffer of pH 5.5 using 0.1M KCl as a supporting electrolyte. Both ofloxacin and ornidazole exhibit reduction cathodic peak in given pH wi...
IN- VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF SEEDS OF CLEOME VISCOSA LINN.
Since ancient times, plants have got medicinal importance. Ethno medicinal use of plants is very common in rural parts of India. Various constituents of these plants have shown profound therapeutic and prophylactic activities. The present research work is conducted to investigate invitro antimicrobial activity of various extracts of seeds of plant Cleome viscosa Linn. The petroleum ether, chlorofo...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AN ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANT BIDENS PILOSA L.
Bindens pilosa L. is a cosmopolitan weed, originally from South America and common in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is a small annual weed occurring all over the country. Roots, leaves and seeds have been reported to possess antibacterial, antidysentric, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and hypotensive activities. Extracts of this plant is used in southern Africa to cure...
A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE AND MACROBIOTIC APPROACH OF CANCER AMONG THE MALE TRIBAL POPULATION OF SHILLON
Incidence of cancer in northeast is the highest in India. Nutrition intervention plays a vital role in the management of postponement of cancer. Objectives: To find out the prevalence rate of different types of cancer among the selected male tribal population of Shillong and dietary habits of these tribes the present study was carried out. Methods: Three hospitals from the city of Shillong was fol...