Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 3, March
Obesity is a chronic disease and a major health problem which require long term treatment in developed and affluent society of developing countries. Pharmacotherapies for obesity have to be given for a long duration with lifestyle modifications. Anti-obesity drugs acts through various targets in the body which reduce the food intake, decrease absorption and increase metabolism. Many drugs were app...
Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, (Guduchi) is an evergreen perennial climber. This deciduous and dioecious plant belongs to the family Menispermaceae. It is a plant of significant medicinal importance in the Indian system and designated as Rasayana. Its efficacy has been also recognized by the modern system of medicine. The whole plant is used medicinally however; the stem is approved for us...
ATHEROSCLEROTIC RISK AMONG EPILEPTIC PATIENTS TAKING CARBAMAZEPINE, PHENYTOIN TREATMENT: BRIEF REVIEW
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder that requires long-term or sometimes lifetime therapy. Anticonvulsant drugs are used in large quantities during long-term antiepileptic therapy and the treatment may be associated with various metabolic abnormalities in connective tissues, endocrine system and the liver. Recent evidence indicates that prolonged use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) pa...
The effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Nail permeability is however quite low and limits topical therapy to early/mild disease states such as onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail). Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well ...
As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive pr...
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery and research. Due to their unique size dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer possibility to develop new therapeutics. The ability to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could use for drug t...
Crinum is an important and fascinating genus of the large and equally captivating Amaryllidaceae family. Owing to the valuable biological effects and therapeutic potentials of its chemical constituents, many Crinum species have a worldwide folkloric reputation. Additionally, Crinum species have been subjected to extensive chemical, cytological and pharmacological investigations. The present part o...
Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years.The effectiveness of any herbal medication is dependent on the delivery of effective level of the therapeutically active compound. Severe limitation exist...
Pulsatile Drug Delivery Systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right place at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery and increasing patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body. The principle rationale for the use of pulsatile release of the drugs is where a constant drug re...
Evolution of an existing drug molecule from a conventional form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, safety and efficacy. In the form of a Novel Drug Delivery System an existing drug molecule can get a new life. An appropriately designed Novel Drug Delivery System can be a major advance for solving the problems related towards the rel...
In this study, the antioxidant capacity during UV exposure has been investigated by using a laser-based trace gas detector for the detection of gaseous ethylene as an indicator for lipid peroxidation. Biocream was used as a control and ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, phloroglucinol and hydroquinone were added as antioxidants in a mixing concentration of 2.5% (w/w). The experimental result...
The focus of this exploratory study was to determine if community pharmacists order laboratory tests, why they order the tests, type of tests they order and what they do with the outcome of such tests. Self-administered pre-tested 34-item semi-structured questionnaires were used to carry out this study among superintendent pharmacists’ of registered pharmacy premises in two south-western states ...
Background: Cosmetics are articles applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering appearance. In the last few years, the consumption of cosmetics has touched new heights and the curve is shooting upwards. Along with this, cosmetics are causing alarming adverse reactions to consumers and hence studying their utilization pattern and impact besides beautify...
DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ONCE DAILY CARBAMAZEPINE MATRIX TABLET FROM HYDROPHILIC POLYMERS
The purpose of study was to develop and characterize once daily extended release matrix tablets of Carbamazepine (CBZ), an antiepileptic drug. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Methocel K15M CR and Methocel K100LV CR polymers were used as rate retarding agents in fourteen formulations. The granules were evaluated for angle of repose, loose bulk density, tapped bulk density, compre...
Protein drug delivery has emerged to be an important area of research in the field of novel drug delivery technology. The objective of the study was to prepare poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model drug and to evaluate the various physicochemical characteristics of the formulations, namely morphology, particle si...
The study was undertaken to find out the pharmacokinetic drug interaction of verapamil on pioglitazone in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats following single and multiple dose treatment. Human oral therapeutic doses of pioglitazone and verapamil were extrapolated to rats based on their body surface area. The serum pioglitazone concentrations were estimated by a sensitive reverse phase – hi...
ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND PRACTICE TOWARDS EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG FEMALE COLLEGE STUDENTS AT MEKELLE TOWN, TIGRAY REGION, ETHIOPIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Background: Death related to unintended pregnancy associated events is a series public health concern in Ethiopia. This is very common in young adolescents for whom life is full of adventure and temptation with very little knowledge about the consequences of their reckless activities. Emergency contraceptives are the only method that can be used within short time after sexual intercourse, offering...
DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF RAMIPRIL AND EVALUATION OF POLYMER EFFECT ON IN-VITRO RELEASE PATTERN
The objective of the current study was to design an oral sustained release matrix tablet of Ramipril and to evaluate the effect of polymer on release pattern of the drug. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method using Methocel (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose) K100MCR and Methocel (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose) K4MCR, as matrix forming polymer. Dissolution studies were carried out in ...
EFFECT OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME SELECTED WILD LEAFY VEGETABLES OF MEGHALAYA STATE IN INDIA
The antioxidant activities of five wild leafy vegetables e.g. Allium porrum, Carpesium cernuum, Tricyrtis pilosa, Spilanthes acmella, and Leea sambucina collected from Meghalaya state in India were determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power ability, estimation of total phenolic content, flavonoid content and flavonol content.. The result...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS
An accurate, precise and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative estimation of hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage forms. Chromatographic separation of the drug was achieved on a Kromasil C18 column (150 x 4.6 mm; 5µ) using a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The drug ...
EVALUATION OF CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS ON ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
Background: Black tea is rich in polyphenols which are antioxidants. The most abundant polyphenolic compounds are flavonols and catechins. Black tea antioxidants showed protective actions against chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases due to their antioxidant action. Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Camellia sinensis on isoproterenol ...
Endophytic fungi residing inside the medicinal plants are of gaining importance for their bioactive compounds. This present study is undertaken to isolate and identify the potential endophytic fungi from Moringa oleifera, a traditional medicinal plant. A total of 24 segments each 12 from leaf and stem were collected, surface sterilized and was inoculated on to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) plates....
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FRESH AND DRY RHIZOMES OF CURCUMA ZEDOARIA
Oxygen is an element obligatory for life. Biological combustion produces harmful intermediates called free radicals. Free radicals are continuously produced by the body’s aerobic life and our metabolism. Antioxidants are the substances, which act against oxidative compounds. Under normal conditions the body’s antioxidants convert ROS to prevent the over production of free radicals. Recently, n...
Background: Two primary species of Mimusops are Mimusops elengi and Mimusops hexandra. Leaves of both species are traditionally used in several ailments. However, it is difficult to distinguish the leaves of the species. Objectives: The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical study of the leaves of the two species and establishment of its quality parameters. Method...
STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CANDESARTAN IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGES FORM
Candesartan was degraded together under different stress test conditions prescribed by International Conference on Harmonization. The samples so generated were used to develop a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the candesartan. The drug was well separated from degradation products using a reversed-phase (C-18) column and a mobile phase comprising of Ac...
ASSESSMENTS OF ADHERENCE TO HYPERTENSION MANAGEMENTS AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS AMONG HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS ATTENDING BLACK LION HOSPITAL CHRONIC FOLLOW UP UNIT, ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA-A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Background: In Ethiopia 10.6% and Addis Ababa, 30% of the population has been estimated to have hypertension. Adherence to medication therapy and lifestyle change is an aspect of patients’ care that is often overlooked and should be evaluated as a crucial part of cardiovascular management. Objective: The aim is to assess adherence and influencing factors of adherence to hypertensive managemen...
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Co(II) AS A COMPLEX WITH 1, 2 – PROPANEDIONE, 1- PHENYL – 1 – ( 2 – HYDROXYL – 5 – BROMO – BENZILIDINEAZINE)-2-OXIME [PDPHBBAO]
The reagent was synthesized and characterization was carried out by FTIR, NMR, elemental analysis as well as Mass spectrometry. This reagent was then applied for the development of the analytical method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of Cobalt (II). Cobalt metal forms yellow coloured complex, which can be extracted in chloroform at pH 9.0 having absorption maxima at 430 nm. Be...
COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH FOR DESIGNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF POTENT DRUG INHIBITOR FOR APP GENE IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, reasoning, planning, language, and perception, and eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. Many scientists believe that Alzheimer's disease results from an increase in the production or accumulation of a specific protein (beta-amyloid protein) in the brain ...
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plantused as a food additive. It has been reported that rhizome of this plant have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor property. Methanol extract of Rhizome of Curcuma longa was investigated here to see the antimicrobial actions and anti-inflammatory effect. During the extraction process a purified...
With respect to Chhattisgarh, rice is the principal crop of the state. India Covers 66% of cultivable land and mostly grown under kharif cropping season. To increase sustained productivity without decreasing soil quality, algal bio fertilizers are used widely now days in the state. Use of local isolates as algal inoculants is being stressed due to their competitiveness in the field for establishme...
A simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of risperidone (RSP) in pure and solid dosage forms. The method involves oxidative coupling of risperidone with MBTH in presence of ferric chloride dissolved in HCl and apple green chromogen is formed and exhibits absorption maxima at 595.8nm. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlation in the...
ANTI-ULCER EFFECT ON THE ETHANOL EXTRACT OF THE BARK & ROOT OF FICUS RELIGOISA LINN. IN DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL ULCER MODELS IN RATS
Ficus religiosa L (Moraceae) is widely distributed in northern part of India has traditionally been used in India as medicinal plant for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. In the present study ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa L was used for investigation of antiulcer activity by using pylorus ligation as antisecretory model and ethanol induced ulceration models as cytoprotective model. ...
ASSESSMENT OF CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS USING BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL
Solanum sisymbriifolium (Solanaceae) and Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) have long been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the plants and to make available the process of data analysis of cytotoxic studies to the researchers. A general toxicity of the extracts was assessed by a simple an...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TRIMETAZIDINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
A simple and sensitive UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of trimetazidine in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms (tablets). Trimetazidine exhibited absorption maximum at 269 nm in 0.1 N HCl and obeyed Beer’s law in concentration range 5-25 µg/ml. The result of analysis in this method has been validated statistically and by recovery studies. Th...
Jasminum multiflorum belongs to the Oleaceae family. It is used as a traditional medicine from ancient times. It is a large evergreen twinner shrub found throughout India. Present study reports the phytochemical properties which have been carried out on the leaves extract using ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone and n-hexane. The phytochemicals analysis show the presence of Phenols, Saponin...
The present investigation highlighted the formulation and release characterization of Ketorolac Tromethamine loaded matrix tablet. Various formulations of tablets were prepared by direct compression method along with Kollidon SR and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) as release retardant polymers. Each of the formulated tablets contains 50mg Ketorolac Tromethamine. The evaluation involved phys...
EVALUATION OF THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF STEMS OF TINOSPORA CRISPA
Tinospora crispa, a plant belonging to the family of Menispermaceae is a well-known traditional medicinal plant used in Bangladesh. The methanolic extracts of stems of the plantwere evaluated for their thrombolytic and preliminary cytotoxic activities. The thrombolytic activity was evaluated using the in vitro clot lysis model while while the screening of cytotoxic activity was done using brine sh...
The present investigation is mainly on the synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial screening of certain new curcuminoid analogues containing imidazole, pyrrole and thiophene rings and their metal complexes. The ability of such heterocyclic β-dicarbonyl compounds and their metal ions to influence many of complex reaction upon which the vital processes of micro-organisms depends is the motiv...
The aim of this research is to observe the cytotoxic activities of methanolic crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum (Family: Lamiaceae). The leaves of Ocimum sanctum was extracted with organic solvent (methanol) and the extracts were fractionated by using solvent-solvent partition. The n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic crude extract of Ocimum sanctum were screened ...
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF TRIMETAZIDINE BY EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
Rapid, simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of Trimetazidine in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Various methods were developed for estimation of trimetazidine .but a simple extractive photometric method using has not been developed .This method is based on the formation of chloroform soluble ion pair complex of Trimetazidine with...
Ofloxacin is an antibacterial agent used to treat infections. It is extremely bitter in taste and taste should be masked to formulate it in a palatable form. The purpose of present research work was to formulate tasteless complexes of ofloxacin with indion 204 ion exchange resin. The drug loading onto ion-exchange resin was optimized for mixing time, activat...
PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF MENTAL DISTRESS AMONG LEPROSY PATIENTS AT ALERT HOSPITAL OUT PATIENT CLINIC ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA, 2011
Background: Leprosy is one of the infectious diseases of public health importance; it is the leading cause of permanent physical disability as aresult of nerve damage. Individuals with leprosy have emotional stress and anxiety, which may lead to both psychological and psychiatric co-morbidity. Objective: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of mental distress among leprosy patien...
A series of some new Isoxazoline derivatives derived from 3-(4’-dimethylamino-phenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-Propenone(chalcone) derivatives using hydroxylamine hydrochloride is reported. These newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial potencies which reflect moderate to good activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi employed. The promising feature of this rea...
In the present study, three medicinal plants Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers, Cassia tora Linn. and Cassia alata Linn having significant anti-inflammatory potential were selected to be formulated as polyherbal gels. The gels were prepared using the dried methanolic extract of Cassia tora Linn, Cassia alata Linn and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Polyherbal gel formulations were evaluated for its pH, appea...
Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been carried out to study the electronic structure and the UV absorption spectra of Triamterene. The UV spectra have been investigated with inclusion of solvent effect. The B3LYP functional with a 6-31G(d, p) basis sets have been used to compute absorption energies. The solvent effects have been described within the polarizable con...
Different doses of Ethanolic fraction of Ribes nigrum fruit were evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in Alloxan induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of Ethanolic extract at a dosage of 100mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weight exhibited significantly reduced the serum glucose level in both acute (1, 3, 5 h) and sub-acute (1, 3, 5, 7 days) treatments. Perform the Histopathological study of pancre...
A COMPREHENSIVE ETHNOMEDICINAL DOCUMENTATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, REGION, BANGLADESH
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out through semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method in Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh to document the utilization of medicinal plants by local people for general ailments. A total of 87 species belonging to 51 families with their local names, useable parts and mode of application were recorded for their usages for curing at least...
The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; taneth...
NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF MYCOFLORA AND DETERIORATION OF TOTAL ALKALOIDS AND GLYCOSIDES AMOUNTS IN STEREOSPERMUM CHELONOIDES DC. ROOTS UNDER STORAGE
In the present study, total 15 fungal species isolated from roots of drug Stereospermum chelonoides DC. such as: Fusarium solani, F. lateritum, F. semitectum, F. oxysporum, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. niger, A. terreus, Theilavia terricola, Papulaspora immerse, Scytallidium thermophilum, Didymostilbe sp., Cunningamella elegans, Aphanomyces sp., Sordaria fimicola and Mucor praini. Species of Fu...
The methanolic extract (MeOH) of the bark of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch and its partitions namely n-hexane (Hx), ethyl acetate (EtOAC), butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) was screened for various in vitro biological activities including general cytotoxicity (brine shrimp lethality assay), phytotoxicity (lemna minor bioassay), nematicidal and insecticidal (Tribolium castaneum H., Rhyzoperth...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY-INDICATING RP-HPLC ASSAY METHOD FOR ENTACAPONE IN ENTACAPONE TABLETS
A new, simple, precise, rapid, accurate and stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Entacapone in presence of its degradation products or other pharmaceutical excipients. Stress studies were performed on Entacapone tablets and it was found that it degrades sufficiently in acidic, alkaline and oxidation conditions, while negligible degradation was observed in...
ASSESSMENT OF ANALGESIC AND ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF STEPHANIA JAPONICA STEM
The different fractions of crude methanol extract of stem of Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers (Menispermaceae) was screened for its analgesic and antidiarrhoeal activities. The different fractions of crude extract produced significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing in mice at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium at the do...