Volume 5 (2014) - Issue 3, March
A toxic substance is one which can produce its adverse effects in biological systems by interfering with their structure and function, which may lead to mortality. From the biological point of view, it can be consider that no chemical is either completely safe or harmful .The safe or harmful nature of toxic substance depends on the doses, duration and the time when animal is exposed to the particu...
Microbial fibrinolytic proteases are of considerable interest in view of their specific activity and stability at biological pH. This review describes different isolation methods which enable the screening and selection of promising organisms for industrial production. Further, strain improvement using mutagenesis and/or recombinant DNA technology can be applied to augment the efficiency of the pr...
Free radicals play an effective role in the pathogenesis of different pathological diseases together with cancer. Potential biological targets for free radical attack comprise lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Free radical induced lipid peroxidation causes a loss of cell homeostasis by modifying the structure and functions of cell membrane. The most important characteristic of lipid peroxidation...
The chemistry of β-lactams has taken an prestigious place in organic and medicinal chemistry so the review on recent methods in the synthesis of 2-Azetidinone derivatives rendered as a lead molecule for designing potential bioactive agents and it accompanying additional various synthetic information and its orientations would encompass great deal of help to researchers, chemists and pharmacologis...
Liver, the largest gland functioning as an organ of storage, manufacturing and biotransformation is a vulnerable target for injury. Chronic alcohol consumption, exposure to toxic chemicals and certain drugs like paracetamol, tetracycline, antitubercular drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, NSAIDS, damage the liver cells (hepatocytes) in long run. Drug induced liver injury is a major health problem, the...
THE CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF E6 & E7 GENES OF HIGH-RISK HPV COMPARED WITH E6, E7 GENES OF LOW-RISK HPV IN HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER: A REVIEW
Human papillomavirus is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted disease in both men and women worldwide. Genital HPV types are divided into high and low-risk types, on the basis of oncogenic gene potential. Molecular & epidemiologic studies have confirmed the interaction between high risk HPV types (especially HPV-16 & 18) and cervical squamous cell low risk strain. In high g...
Diabetes is a growing health concern worldwide and now emerging as an epidemic world over. The management of diabetes is still a major challenge. Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), up to 90%...
Exploration of biological diversity for identification of novel bioactive molecules or therapeutically more potential than the marketed products is a continuous ongoing process for drug development research. Indian traditional therapies have been a part of our lifestyle since ages. Due to their knowing ability and applications, this knowledge has long been used as thriving sources for discovery of...
SHATAVARI (ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILD): A REVIEW ON ITS CULTIVATION, MORPHOLOGY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE
Asparagus racemosus, a climbing Ayurvedic plant, is known for its numerous activities such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, angina, dysmenorrhea, anxiety disorders, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), leucorrhoea and urinary tract infections. This plant possesses a wide range of secondary metabolites inclusive of steroids, alkaloids, dihydrophenanthrene derivatives, flavonoids, furan derivatives a...
Hepatic diseases (Liver diseases) are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. Hepatic disease is a term for a collection of conditions, diseases, and infections that affect the cells, tissues structures, or functions of the liver. Liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemical necessary for dig...
Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with Proteins are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for site specific targeting. Particulate systems like nanoparticles have been used as a physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-dynamic pr...
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ASPIRIN AND ISOSORBIDE 5-MONO-NITRATE SUSTAINED BILAYER TABLETS
In this study, aspirin (AS) and isosorbide 5-mononitrate(ISM) sustained bilayer tablets were developed by wet granulation and compression technique, the influence of the contents of PVPP on the dissolution of AS from the tablets was investigated. An orthogonal experiment design was used to optimize ISM sustained release layer. The tablets were tested for their drug content, hardness, thickness, fr...
Peperomia pellucida L. (H.B.K.)is an arboreal species occurring in the secondary vegetation in Amazonia. This study aims to perform anatomy analysis by light microscopy and microchemistry analysis of leaves and petiole of P. pellucida. It was observed that the cells, on the adaxial surface, are juxtaposed with irregular shape and heterodimensional and straight walls and, the abaxial surface is for...
Nocturnal Enuresis treatment activity in rabbits by measuring the changes in urine volume and concentrations of electrolytes as well as bladder capacities. In addition, antioxidant activity was measured using free radical scavenging (DPPH method) and antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogens using agar diffusion technique. Pandanus Odoratissimus L. peduncle showed no toxic effect wi...
EXTRACTS OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS, RHEUM RHAPONTICUM, AND ORIGANUM MAJORANA EXHIBIT SIGNIFICANT ANTI-STAPHYLOCOCCAL ACTIVITY
Background: Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is on the rise and this is causing serious complications resulting in increased morbidity and mortality of bacterial infections. There is a need for new antimicrobial molecules in order to fight against Multi-Drug-Resistant Organisms. The Mediterranean area is rich in a variety of medicinal plants and this may represent a potential for new c...
NEUROPROTECTIVE EVALUATION OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF DALBERGIA SISSOO IN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS
Neurodegenerative disorders are heterogeneous group of diseases of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that have many different etiologies. Due to the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of the neurodegenerative diseases, they represent significant medical, social, and financial burden on the society. Dalbergia sissoo (family: Fabaceae) is an Asian deciduous...
EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CALLUS CULTURES OF AN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL TREE SPECIES, HILDEGARDIA POPULIFOLIA (ROXB.) SCHOTT & ENDL.
Protocol for efficient callogenesis in Hildegardia populifolia has been developed by using leaf, node, internode and petiole explants. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and quantitative estimation of flavonoids, phenols and tannins were made along with the evaluation of antioxidant properties by DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays in in vitro callus cultures of the same species. It is an indigenous endan...
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CHOLINE FENOFIBRATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY RP-HPLC
A simple, precise, accurate and stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of choline fenofibrate in delayed release tablet dosage form. Separation was achieved under optimized chromatographic conditions on an inertsil ODS column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5µ particle size). The mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer pH 2.5 and acetonitrile ...
ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF SALMONELLA TYPHI AMONG PATIENTS IN THREE HOSPITALS IN KUMASI, GHANA
Salmonella typhi, causative agent of typhoid fever, a predominantly human communicable disease, is endemic in Africa and Asia. S. typhi is of clinical importance partly due to its mode of infection and partly due to the fact that human activities such as poor hygienic conditions are essential in the transmission and perpetuation of the pathogen. More so antibiotic resistant strains of S. typhi hav...
Antihypertensive agents are class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) as well as other CVS disorders. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischemic heart disease by 21%, an...
EVALUATION OF RATIONAL USAGE OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN THE MEDICINE DEPARTMENT AT TERTIARY TEACHING CARE HOSPITAL, GUJRAT
Background: Prescription of drugs which needs to be continuously assessed and refined according to disease progression. It is not only reflects the physician’s knowledge about drugs but also know the pathophysiology of diseases and attitude towards rational prescribing. Methods-: Retrospective study was carried out by collecting 350 prescriptions containing antimicrobial agents of the indoor ...
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO OPTIMIZATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS OF PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE
The main aim of the extended release tablets is to reduce the dose frequency and to improve the patient compliance. The objective of the present study was to formulate and optimize the extended release tablets of Pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate for 24hrs, which made the advantage of this formulation as once daily with more patient compliance. The combination of different hydrophilic polyme...
INVESTIGATION OF MICROSCOPICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS WITH ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY
Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world, due to their long historical clinical usage and comparatively less side effects. Standardization of herbal drugs and their quality control is needed with proper integration of modern scientific techniques and traditional knowledge. The analysis and quality control of herbal medicines are moving towards an integrative and comp...
The pet ether and chloroform extracts of Durenta repens leaves was screened for antidepressant action in tail suspension model. Both the extracts showed antidepressant action at the dose of 200mg/kg. Chloroform extract produced significant (p<0.001) mobilisation of the animals when compared with that of the standard drug Imipramine (10mg/kg) and acts as a potent centrally acting antidepressant ...
Acetylcholine satisfies all criteria for a transmitter substance. Its most widely recognized action sites are the endings of vertebrate motor nerves, the endings of the automatic pre ganglionics and the parasympathetic post ganglionics. It appears also to be the transmitter of motor nerves in all advanced invertebrate animals except the arthropods where it seems to separate at the endings of senso...
IN VIVO ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF EMU OIL (DROMAIS NOVAEHOLLANDIAE) AND VIRGIN COCONUT OIL (COCOS NUCIFERA) ON PHORBOL ESTER INDUCED ACUTE INFLAMMATORY MODEL
Inflammation is a cellular reaction to injury and plays a central role in pathophysiology of a variety of diseases.Oil derived from Emu (Dromais novaehollandiae) fat, is reported to have healing property. The present investigation was performed to demonstrate in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Emu oil using phorbol ester induced acute inflammatory ear edema model. Also, the efficacy of Emu oil wa...
The aim of the present work is to increase the gastric residence time of Lamivudine by preparing it into gastro retentive floating tablets whereby making it available at its site of absorption and to achieve an extended action for a time period of 24hrs and to reduce the dosing frequency to once a day, using release retardant polymers METHOCEL, POLYOX and CARBOPOL. The compatibility of the drug wi...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ESOMEPRAZOLE MAGNESIUM TRIHYDRATE, ITOPRIDE HYDROCHLORIDE AND MOSAPRIDE CITRATE BY RP-HPLC METHOD: OPTIMIZATION, DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND APPLICATION TO LABORATORY SAMPLE.
A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and economical RP- HPLC method with UV detection was optimized, developed and validated as per ICH-Q2 guideline for the simultaneous estimation of Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate (ESO), Itopride hydrochloride (ITO) and Mosapride citrate (MOSA) in laboratory sample. An optimum condition of separation and detection was developed on a reverse-phase Supelco 516 C18...
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTEIS OF VARIOUS LEAVES EXTRACTS OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI
The study was carried out to assess the antibacterial & cytotoxic activities of extracts from leaf parts of the plant, Averrhoa bilimbi. Ethanol, methanol and water were used as solvents and antibacterial & cytotoxic effects were measured using disc diffusion test & brine shrimp lethality bioassay (BSLB). The susceptibility of the microorganisms to the extracts of this plant was compar...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING REVERSE-PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PRASUGREL HYDROCHLORIDE AND ITS RELATED SUBSTANCES
A gradient reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the determination of Prasugrel hydrochloride and its related substances. The well chromatographic separation of prasugrel from its seven related substances and degradation products was achieved on Sunfire C18, 5mm (250mm x 4.6mm) column temperature maintained at 45°C with a mobil...
APPLICATION OF SURFACE RESPONSE METHODOLOGY FOR SPRAY DRIED- FLUID BED PROCESSED TECHNOLOGY OF MOUTH DISSOLVING PLATFORM FOR SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN PULMONARY HYPERTENSION
Now day’s formulation research is breaking barriers of conventional methods. Today, active ingredients can be delivered with a level of convenience, performance and bioavailability never seen in the market place. Fast disintegrating or Mouth dissolving tablet (MDTs) is one such novel approach to increase consumer acceptance by virtue of rapid disintegration, self-administration without water or ...
A SYNERGISTIC APPROACH TO KINETIC AND MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF REGENERATION OF β-CAROTENE FROM TERT-BUTOXYL RADICAL INDUCED β-CAROTENE RADICAL CATION BY CHLOROGENIC ACID
The rates of oxidation of β-carotene and chlorogenic acid by tert-butoxyl radicals (t-BuO·) were studied by measuring the absorbance of β-carotene at 491 nm and chlorogenic acid at 328 nm spectrophotometrically. Radicals (t-BuO·) were generated by the photolysis of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in presence of tert-butyl alcohol to scavenge OH·radicals. The rates and the quantum yields (f...
ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF PARACETAMOL 500mg TABLETS USED IN HYDERABAD, USING ULTRA VIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC (HPLC) METHODS
The study involves quantitative analysis of seven different brands (samples) of Paracetamol 500mg tablets used in Hyderabad (India), using Ultra Violet Spectrophotometric and High Performance Liquid Chromatographic methods, in which the samples were dissolved in 0.1M NaOH and distilled water and their various absorbances determined at wavelength of 257nm and in HPLC by using methanol, water (60:40...
INFLUENCE OF INCREASING CONCENTRATIONS OF MAGNESIUM STEARATE AND TALCUM ON DISSOLUTION PROFILE AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF METOPROLOL TARTRATE EXTENDED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS
Metoprolol tartrate (MT) is cardio-selective β1 receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of chronic heart diseases like in the management of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction and heart failure. It is only available as prescription drug. The objective of this study was to prepare sustained release matrix tablets of MT using hydrophilic polymer an...
Kidneys are the excretory organs of our body that serves the important functions such as elimination of waste products, regulation of fluid volume and electrolyte content of the extracellular fluid. Picrorrhiza kurroa (Scrophulariaceae) is a small perennial herb growing in the hilly parts of the north-Western Himalayas region in India and Nepal. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a...
Opportunity is envisaged by some astute pharmaceuticals manufacturers to increase product portfolio and widen the spectrum of treatment of pains to cover analgesia, pyrexia and inflammation using one product. In this research work, paracetamol – ibuprofen combination tablet was designed and formulated, developed and profiled to address this anticipation thus satisfying the requirement of one pro...
CORRELATION OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN TO THE THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE OF PATIENT WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION CAUSED BY ESCHERICHIA COLI
The choice of an antibiotic depends solely on the identification of the species by determination of the sensitivity characteristics of the microorganism. Along with the determination of sensitivity pattern, understanding the susceptibility pattern of particular strain isolated from patient is equally important. Variation in patient and microorganism is known to be key factor for predicting the out...
In Catharanthus roseus, Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempferol are the most important phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. For simultaneous determination of Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempferol in Catharanthus roseus a simple and rapid HPLC method was developed. Phosphate buffer (pH=5.8) and solvent Acetonitrile are used in ratio of 55: 45 as mobile phase. Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempferol were determi...
Delonix elata bark was collected, authenticated, dried, coarse-finely powdered and extracted using 70% alcohol and subjected for preliminary phytochemical screening. Total phenolic and flavonoidal contents were determined using UV/ visible spectrophotometer. In addition the silica column chromatographic separation was carried out to separate the phytochemicals of D. elata bark extract. Prelimina...
Natural products have great potential against microbes and can be used to overcome the problem of drug resistant pathogens. They are helpful in reducing the toxicity of existing antifungal compounds. This present in vitro study demonstrated the synergistic effectiveness of Cassia fistula (CF) leaves extracts and fluconazole (Flu) against isolated Flu resistant strains (FRSs) of Candida albicans (C...
Cyanobacteria or blue green algae have an extraordinary potential of producing secondary metabolites which can be an ultimate source of newer drugs for future. The purified strain Anabaena showed best photoautotrophic growth at 28oC with specific growth and generation time were 0.098 and 10.0 hr respectively. The better biomass production and antibacterial activity on 30th days of culture. 16 cyan...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF BRINZOLAMIDE AND TIMOLOL BY HPLC FROM OPHTHALMIC PREPARATION
A fast, sensitive and accurate reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Brinzolamide and Timolol maleate from ophthalmic preparation. Chromatographic separation of these two drugs were achieved on Zorbax Eclipse Plus, Agilent Technology (150mm x 4.6mm, 5μm) as stationary phase with a mobile phase comprising of triethylamine...
Cephalexin remain as one of the most versatile class of compounds against microbes and therefore, are useful substructures for further molecular exploration. A novel series of Schiff bases of cephalexin were synthesized. Thus condensation of 5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-[(amino phenyl acetyl) amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo, monohydrate with appropriate aldehydes afforded the S...
CHRONOMODULATED CHEMOTHERAPY AND CONCOMITANT RADIOTHERAPY, FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF LOCALLY ADVANCED, HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and toxicity of chronomodulated concomitant chemotherapy using weekly Cisplatin at 0600 hour and 1800 hour along with radical external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the management of locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Material and method: Previously untreated, histopathologically proven 60 patients of LAHNC (stage III-IVB) were taken for definitive ...
POTENTIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GUM ARABIC AGAINST DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Gum Arabic (GA) is a water-soluble polysaccharide, obtained from stems of Acacia senegal trees as gummy exudates. It is a beneficial adjunct to the low-protein diet for chronic renal failure patient because it reduces serum urea nitrogen level. It is also have a good protective activity against CCl4 and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats but it failed protect kidney from gentamicin-induc...
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES BY SOLVENT DIFFUSION- EVAPORATION METHOD FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY
The aim of the present study was to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for the topical delivery. Tristearin was used as solid lipid with soya lecithin by using surfactant, Poloxamer 188 (1%) and Tween 80 (0.5%). Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with Flucanazole were prepared by solvent diffusion- emulsification method. The properties of the SLNs such as particle size, zeta potential (Z...
PREPARATION & PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG BY USING SPRAY DRYING AND SOLVENT EVAPORATION METHODS
Solid dispersions have attracted considerable interest as an efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and hence the bioavailability of a range of hydrophobic drugs. The various preparation techniques for solid dispersion and compiles some of the recent technology transfers. This research article investigates enhancement of the dissolution profile of atorvastatin using solid dispersion wit...
KLF proteins are highly conserved among mammals from human to mouse, with many KLFs also having homologs in Gallus gallus (Chicken), Danio rerio (Zebra fish), and Xenopus laevis (Frog). On the basis of functional characteristics, KLF proteins can be divided into three distinct groups. KLFs in group 1 (KLFs 3, 8, and 12) serve as transcriptional repressors through their interaction with the carboxy...
PRESCRIBING PATTERNS OF ANTIMICROBIALS IN SURGICAL DEPARTMENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA
Background: Antimicrobials form an important group of drugs. Increasing prevalence of infections and emergence of resistance to antimicrobials has led to polypharmacy with respect to antimicrobial prescription. Aims and Objectives: To study the prescribing patterns, approval status, adherence to NLEM and WHO-EML and cost of antimicrobials prescribed in surgical departments. Methods: Data was...
Disastrous effects of tobacco consumption on health remain in the focus of preclinical and clinical research. Exposures to tobacco smoke are closely connected to acute and chronic smoke lung dysfunctions and the effects are not restricted to airway inflammation processes. The facts that smoke exposure result in aberrant gene expression and changes in cellular phenotype resulting in clinical patter...
ABSTRACT: Background: Coronary artery disease /coronary vascular disease (CAD/CVD) remains the first killer and common silent disease in the world. The lipid profile plays the essential role in CAD development with lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation, which accepted as an important element of arterial plaque formation and atherosclerosis, is involved in the patho physiology of CVD. Bilirubin...
Efficient in-vitro propagation of Tylophora ovata (Lind.) Hook. Ex. Steud was carried out in this present investigation. Nodal segments from the healthy grown plants were used as explants for culturing. Explants were cultured on standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration of benzyl amino purine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for primary shoot pro...
In the present study, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Thespesia populnea were investigated for their antipyretic activity. Suspension of subcutaneous administration of brewer’s yeast in albino rat leads to pyrexia. Oral administration of extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the elevated body temperature of rat. This antipyretic effect has been compared with ant...