Volume 3 (2012) - Issue 3, March
A TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO HERBAL NOOTROPIC AGENTS: AN OVERVIEW
Nootropic drugs used as a memory enhancer can improve thinking, memory, and alertness in people with Alzheimer’s disease andother disease that affect the mind. Memory is perhaps the most vital of all aspects that differentiates human beings from other animals. However, memory can become faulty due to several reasons, and in that case the person is not able to make full use of his or her potentia...
COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW ON NOVEL APPROACHES
Article reviews the research focus on potential opportunities and challenges available in new area of colon targeted drug delivery system. Colon was considered as “BLACK BOX” as, most of drugs are absorbed from upper part of GIT tract. Targeted drug delivery to the colon would ensure direct treatment at the disease site, lowering of dose and lesser systemic side effects. In addition, the colon...
STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and applica...
A DETAILED REVIEW ON ORAL MUCOSAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Oral mucosal drug delivery system is widely applicable as novel site for administration of drug for immediate and controlled release action by preventing first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation due to GI microbial flora. Oral mucosal drug delivery system provides local and systemic action. In this review, attention is focused to give regarding physiology of oral mucosal including tissue pe...
ETHOSOMES AS ELASTIC VESICLES IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY: AN OVERVIEW
Ethosomes are as novel vesicles in transdermal drug delivery show significant effects of drug penetration through the biological membrane with slight modification of well established drug carrier liposomes. Ethosomes are soft, malleable vesicles composed mainly of phospholipids, ethanol and water. The size of ethosome vesicles can be modulated from tens of nanometer to microns. The ethosomes can b...
AQUASOMES: A NOVEL CARRIER FOR DRUG DELIVERY
Nanobiopharmaceutics involves delivery of biopharmaceutical product through different biomaterials like multifunctional nanoparticles, quantum dots, aquasomes, superparamagnetic iron oxide crystals, and liposomes dendrimers. Nanotechnology has emerged fields of biomedical research in the last few decades the presents context is an attempt to present the brief information about nanobiotechnological...
REDUCTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN BACTERIA: A REVIEW
Drug resistant bacteria have been posing a major challenge to the effective control of bacterial infections for quite some time. One of the main causes of antibiotics drug resistance is antibiotic overuse, abuse, and in some cases, misuse, due to incorrect diagnosis. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a significant issues faced by various industries, including the food and agricultural industries,...
FERULIC ACID – A COMPREHENSIVE PHARMACOLOGY OF AN IMPORTANT BIOFLAVONOID
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is an phenolic compound and an antioxidant found in many staple foods, such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, coffee and in plant constituent exhibiting a wide range of therapeutic effects such as anticancer, antidiabetic, cardio protective and neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory activity. The present review summarizes the most recent literature on FA i...
PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS AND SYNBIOTICS
The benefits of Probiotics have been recognized and explored for over a century. Probiotics consist of bacteria or yeasts and can be considered functional foods that can re-colonize and restore the microflora symbiosis of the intestinal tract. Several health benefits associated with the Probiotics in various diseases includes Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Colon Cancer, Rotavirus-associated dia...
FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS RECENT ADVANTAGES: A REVIEW
Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route of drug delivery. Novel technologies with improved performance, patient compliance, and enhanced quality have emerged in the recent past. The fast dissolving drug delivery system started gaining popularity and acceptance as a new drug delivery system because they are easy to administer and lead to better patient compliance. Fast dissolving drug delive...
PLANTEROSOMES: A POTENTIAL PHYTO-PHOSPHOLIPID CARRIERS FOR THE BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF HERBAL EXTRACTS
Planterosomes, term “PLANTERO” means plant while “SOME” means cell-like. A novel emerging technique applied to phytopharmaceutical for the enhancement of bioavailability of herbal extract for medicinal applications. Since the two major limiting factors for molecules to pass the biological membrane for their absorption in the blood stream mainly includes lipid solubility and molecular sizes...
ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER: A REVIEW
The plant kingdom plays a major role in the life of human beings and animals. A great deal of Pharmacological research has considerably improved the quality of herbal drugs in cancer treatment. Phytochemical tests in Pharmacognosy, structure elucidation in medicinal chemistry and various screening procedures in pharmacology helped to boost immune system in the body against cancer as breast cancer ...
GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CYP2B6 G516T AND THEIR IMPACT IN EFAVIRENZ BASED HAART: A META-ANALYSIS
Background: The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is recommended as part of first-line therapy in HIV-infected patients and prescribed at a standard dose of 600 mg once daily. EFV is extensively metabolized primarily by hepatic CYP2B6 with partial involvement of CYP3A4 and CYP2A6. The aim of the study was to assess CYP 2B6 G516T polymorphism and their impact in efavirenz bas...
THE IMPORTANCE OF DOMINANT HAND AT PLACEBO EFFECT OF INERT SPRAY TO MUSCULAR FATIGUE INDUCED EXPERIMENTALLY
Purpose: Placebo effect is a phenomenon where the patient's symptoms can be relieved by a false treatment in pharmacological aspects, most likely because of the patient expectations or believes that the treatment will have success. So, it is a psychological response to the treatment, without being accompanied by the improvement of physical condition. Placebo is often defined as: “Substance or pr...
NOVEL IN-SITU GEL TO PROVIDE SUSTAIN RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY FOR OCULAR FUNGAL KERATITIS
Ocular deliveries possess a challenging pharmaceutical approach due to poor absorption index through the corneal appendages and washing away of the drug through tears and lachrymal secretion. The ocular appendages lead to provide lesser bioavailability of conventional dosage forms; hence, frequent dosing is advised to get the optimum effect of the medicine. Therefore, in-situ gel offers a promisin...
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXICITY POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TWO BANGLADESHI BEAN LABLAB PURPUREUS (L.) SWEET WHITE AND PURPLE
This study was subjected to investigate in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of methanol extracts of two Bangladeshi bean pods namely Lablab purpureus L. sweet ‘white’ and ‘purple’. Protease Inhibition method was used to determine in-vitro anti-inflammatory properties. DPPH free radical scavenging method, total flavonoids, Total antioxidants and reducing power o...
A FACTORIAL STUDY ON FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF EFAVIRENZ TABLETS EMPLOYING Β CYCLODEXTRIN- POLOXAMER 407- PVP K30
Efavirenz, a widely prescribed anti retroviral drug belongs to class IΙ under BCS and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. Its oral absorption is dissolution rate limited and it requires enhancement in the solubility and dissolution rate for increasing its oral bioavailability. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of formulating ef...
ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH
The present study was carried out to illustrate the relative evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaves of Eclipta alba and Aphanamixis polystachya and bark of Premna integrifolia in two different solvents. A preliminary phytochemical analysis was done and concluded that the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and glycoside in both extracts of the above pl...
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTATANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM, OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL, CANDESARTAN, HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CHLORTHALIDONE – APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS
A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-hypertensive drugs Atorvastatin Calcium, Olmesartan Medoxomil, Candesartan, diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone. The separation was achieved on Cosmosil PAQ (Length 150 mm × Diameter 4.6 mm Particle size 5 μm) column with gradient flow. The mobile phase ...
PHENOLIC ACIDS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF ALCHEMILLA JUMRUKCZALICA PAWL
Comparative study of free radical scavenging activity and phenolic acid content of Bulgarian endemic Alchemilla jumrukczalica and the commercial herbal - Alchemilla vulgaris complex was carried.The methanol extracts of studied samples showed significant antiradical activity. The concentration of the extracts needed for 50% inhibition of DPPH was found to be 12,09 µg/ml and 19,62 µg/ml for A. jum...
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF SELECTIVE CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS: USING PHARMACOPHORE – BASED AND DOCKING SIMULATIONS
In the present study, 3-D QSAR analysis was performed on the previously synthesized and evaluated derivatives of novel 2-arylthiazolidinones as selective analgesic N-type calcium channel blockers. Calcium Channel blockers is the molecular target responsible for the treatment of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. The 3D-QSAR study based on the principle of the alignment of pharmacophoric features b...
EFFECT OF FUROSEMIDE (LOOP DIURETIC) ON INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR, BODY WEIGHT AND CERTAIN HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ADULT WISTAR RATS
The present experiment was aimed to examine the effect of furosemide (loop diuretic) on ingestive behavior & some hematological parameters. The adult Wistar rats (n=6/ group) were divided into control group (n =6; Group I) and experimental group (n =6; Group II). The experimental group received furosemide intraperitonially (40mg/kg BW) for a duration of 30 days. The control group of rats was...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC AND HOT WATER EXTRACTS OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED RAT
The aim of present study was to investigate the potential roles of ethanolic and hot water extracts of Andrographis paniculata on reducing the blood sugar level (BSL) in alloxan- induced rats. Oral administration of ethanolic (2 g/kg b. w.) and hot water (0.8 g/kg b. w.) extracts of Andrographis paniculata showed the antidiabetic properties and decreased the blood glucose level by 33.71% (p<0.0...
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATIONS OF THE LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA
Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual. The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium sized spiny tree. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, a...
CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FRACTIONS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND STEMS OF BACCAUREA RAMIFLORA (LOUR.).
The purpose of the study was to find out the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.). Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora were subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning using n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride to obtain n-hexane leaves ...
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ZOLEDRONIC ACID
A rapid and reproducible reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of zoledronic acid in its pure form as well as in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on an ODS C18column (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 m length),using a mixture of methanol and 0.01M phophate buffer (pH-3) (60:40 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate o...
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF CRATAEVA NURVALA BUCH HAM
Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the chloroform extract of the stem bark of Crataeva nurvala (Bengali name- Borun; Family- Capparidaceae) were studied. Antibacterial activity was determined against two Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium,) and four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Shigella boydii) human pathogenic bacteria by disc d...
FLAVONE AND FLAVONE GLYCOSIDE FROM CICHORIUM INTYBUS LINN
Cichorium intybus Linn (Compositae) contains UV-absorbing metabolites. Studies on methanol extract of Cichorium intybus Linn by means of HPLC-UV, NMR, HPLC-MS resulted in isolation and identification of three previously unknown flavones glycosides: 5, 6, 7, 3′, 4′, 7′-hexahydroxy flavones-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3, 5, 7 – trihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-flavone-7-O-β-D-galactopyranos...
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ONDANSETRON ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS AND ITS OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
Ondansetron is the first of a new class of drugs, selective serotonin receptor antagonist (5 hydroxy tryptamine type 3) used as an anti emetic associated with cancer chemotherapy. Its Orally Disintegrating Tablet has been developed for patients who find swallowing difficult by freeze dried technology by RP Scherer Corporation and Scherer DDS. The aim of this study was to design a new orally disint...
CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CASSIA AURICULATA LINN., PETAL EXTRACT ON ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN MALE ALBINO RATS
Protective effect of Cassia auriculata Linn., floral extract was examined against Isoproterenol induced Myocardial infarction in male albino rats. The oral administration of aqueous extract of Cassia auriculata, afforded protection against Isoproterenol induced alterations in Cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TG, Protein, AST, ALT, LDH, Catalase and GPx. The protective effect was further supported by t...
MAPPING OF NATURAL KAPOSI SARCOMA INHIBITOR USING NETWORK BIOLOGY APPROACH
Identification of protein-ligand interactionnetworks on a proteome scale is crucial to address a wide range of biological problems such as correlating molecular functions to physiological processes and designing safe and efficient therapeutics. In this study we have developed a novel computational strategy to identify ligand binding profiles of proteins across gene families and applied it to predi...
ANESTHETIC POTENTIAL OF LIGNOCAINE / PRILOCAINE CREAM (EMLA) VERSUS LIGNOCAINE INFILTRATION FOR RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION OF WARTS
The development of topical anesthetics can serve as a better alternative to infiltration anaesthesia for short dermatosurgical procedures. EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics), a topical local anesthetic cream has been shown to penetrate intact skin and provide analgesia of superficial layers. Very few comparative studies are available and therefore data regarding the efficacy and pa...
DEVELOPMENT OF FAMOTIDINE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM USING NATURAL POLYMERS
In the present study,FDDS of Famotidine, a copmpetative inhibitor of histamine H2 receptors were prepared by using natural gums viz. xanthan gum and guar gum at different drug to gum ratio using sodium bicarbonate and citric acid as gas generating agents and lactose as diluent.FDDS tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using PVP K30 as granulating agent. The prepared FDDS tablets were...
ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF A FEW MEDICINAL FERNS AGAINST ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT PHYTO PATHOGEN
Centella asiatica is a medicinal plant. It is severely affected by leaf spot disease caused by a harmful, antibiotic resistant phyto pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. centellae (X. c. pv. c). Farmers used synthetic pesticides to control the disease. When pesticides are applied to control this pathogen, pesticides may cause environmental hazards and health problems in man. But traditionally plant...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF NARINGI CRENULATA (ROXB) NICOLSON AGAINST CCl4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
The present study was designed to screen and evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of Naringi crenulata (Roxb) Nicolson (NCL, NCB) against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver functions were assessed by the activities of liver marker enzymes, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total protein, albumin, globulin, total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin...
ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANT KALANCHOE PINNATA
The phytochemical analysis of the medicinal plant Kalonchoe pinnata was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Alcoholic extracts of the leaves was subjected to in vitro antioxidant activity screening models such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide ,superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard for superoxide anion rad...
ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF THE WHOLE PLANT EXTRACTOF MELISSA OFFICINALIS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupt the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethnopharmacological information of the plant, the methanol and aqueous extract of the whole plant of MELISSA OFFICINALIS was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity in Swiss Albino Mice .Antiepileptic activity was assessed...
IN VITRO STUDY OF SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG SPIRONOLACTONE
The main objective of study was to formulate SEDDS of Spironolactone in order to achieve a better dissolution rate which would further help in enhancing oral bioavailability. SEDDS are isotropic mixtures of oils and surfactants, sometimes containing cosolvents. The present research work describes a Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) of Spironolactone using oils (Arachise oil, Oleic Ac...
EVALUATION OF ANTIPEROXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF ASCORBIC ACID ON BUSULFAN-INDUCED LIPID PEROXIDATION USING 4-HYDROXY-2-NONENAL AND NITRIC OXIDE AS MODEL MARKERS
The study was designed with an aim to evaluate the antiperoxidative potential of ascorbic acid on busulfan-induced lipid peroxidation. The study was performed in vitro using goat liver as lipid source. This evaluation was done by measuring the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and nitric oxide (NO) content of liver tissue homogenates as markers of lipid peroxidation. The study reveals the lipid peroxida...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME CHALCONE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR COPPERCOMPLEXES
In the present investigation, 4-chloro acetophenone on condensation with 2-nitro benzaldehydes in methanolic NaOH solution yielded the corresponding chalcone. These chalcone were further reacted with Isonicotyl hydrazide and semicarbazide in ethanol which led to the formation of chalcone Isonicotyl hydrazone and chalcone semicarbazone derivatives respectively. The newly synthesized derivatives...
PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DETERMINATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF RUTIN-PHOSPHOLIPID COMPLEX
Rutin belongs to a class of plant secondary metabolites called flavonoids. Rutin is believed to be a vital nourishing supplement as it is able to make the capillaries stronger. But when administered orally it shows poor absorption because of less lipophilicity. To overcome this limitation, the present study was aimed to develop Rutin- phospholipid complex in different ratio to improve the lipoph...
BIO-ANALYTICAL STUDIES ON THE PROCESS OF DETOXIFICATION AND SAFETY EVALUATION OF ACONITUM LACINIATUM AND ABRUS PRECATORIUS FOR USE IN AYURVEDIC PREPARATIONS
Objective: The aim of the study was to have bio-analytical approach for detoxification process of two poisonous plant materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root) and Abrus precatorius (seed) which are used in Ayurvedic preparations. Materials and Methods: For both the species proximate analysis was carried out. For the same plants HPTLC fingerprinting was compared , before and after detoxificatio...
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
The synthesis of benzimidazoles derivative involves subsequent synthesis of 4-(2-chloro-ethoxy)-benzaldehyde, 4 methyl benzaldehyde followed by benzimidazoles derivative by reaction between amines derivatives and o-phenylenediamine in dimethyl farmamide (DMF) as solvent in the presence of iodine as a catalyst. Iodine is a commercial and environmentally benign catalyst. The yield of all benzimidazo...
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM MATRIX TABLETS WITH NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
The objective of the study was to formulate controlled release matrix tablets of losartan Potassium by using a combination of hydrophilic synthetic polymer like poly (ethylene oxides) and natural gums like xanthan gum, karaya gum and guar gum. A combination of synthetic hydrophobic polymers like methacrylates with synthetic hydrophilic polymer like poly (ethylene oxide) was also used in the prepar...
DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF FLOATING MICROSPHERES OF 5-FLUOROURACIL
Objective of the present study was to prepare and evaluate floating Microspheres using different ratio of ethylcellulose to control the release rate of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) which was taken as a model drug. The microspheres were prepared by the modified emulsion solvent diffusion technique using different ratio of ethanol (ETN) and acetone (ACTN) as solvent system. To study the morphology of micro...