Volume 4 (2013) - Issue 9, September
Biofilms are multicellular communities of bacteria. The ability to form biofilm is a universal attribute of bacteria and as bacteria can form biofilm in medical, industrial and environmental settings, it impacts human lives in many different ways. Bacteria undergo profound physiologic, morphologic and genetic changes as the transit from planktonic (free swimming, non-biofilm) form to surface attac...
, 3-Benzodioxole ring system present in various naturally occurring molecules. Various synthetic molecules having 1, 3-Benzodioxole ring system have shown various biological activities. Stiripentol and Antiepilepserine are recently developed antiepileptic drugs which contain 1, 3-Benzodioxle rings system in core moiety. In the present work I have focused on the anticonvulsant activity of 1, 3-Benz...
Medicinal plants form the backbone of traditional system of medicine in India. Biotechnological and Pharmacological studies have acknowledged the value of medicinal plants as potential source of bioactive compounds. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants serve as lead compounds in drug discovery and design. Medicinal plants are rich source of novel drugs that forms the ingredients in traditional sys...
Pharmaceutical product and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can be contaminated by other pharmaceutical products or APIs, by cleaning agents, by microorganisms or by other materials e.g. air borne particle, dust, lubricants, raw materials, intermediates. Mainly cleaning is performed to remove product and non-product contaminating material. Ineffective cleaning can lead to adulterated produ...
Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by intense memory loss enough to interfere with social and occupational execution.It is the most general form of dementia, affecting more than 20 million people worldwide. The treatments of Alzheimer's disease are through cholinesterase inhibitors or NMDA-receptor antagonists, while doubts remain about the therapeutic efficacy of...
Herbal medicines are represented as the most potential field of alternative medicines all over the world for a number of diseases in which allopathic medicines have no or little solution. For this reason, a large proportion of the Indian population for their physical and psychological health depends largely on traditional system of medicines. Doxorubicin is an anticancer drug used in the treatment...
HVAC maintain both comfort and safety of indoor air quality. The challenge of maintaining high product quality while simultaneously reducing production costs can often be met through investments in energy efficient technologies and energy efficiency practices. The greatest opportunities for energy efficiency exist at the design stage for HVAC systems in new industrial facilities. By sizing compone...
The Bt brinjal is a suite of transgenic Brinjals created by inserting a crystal protein gene (Cry1Ac) from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into the genome of various brinjal cultivars. The dispute over Bt Brinjal still continues and a proper decision has not yet been reached neither by the Ministry of Environment and Forests nor by the general public and scientists. Currently farmers rel...
The past decade has witnessed intense interest in nutraceuticals in which phytochemical constituents have long-term health promoting or medicinal qualities. Secondary products have a variety of functions in plants; it is likely that their ecological function have some potential medicinal effects for humans. Between 1990 and 2020, deaths from non-communicable diseases and injury are expected to ris...
A VALIDATED, STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF FELODIPINE AND ITS RELATED SUBSTANCES
An HPLC method was developed and validated to determine felodipine and related substances. A C18 column (5μm, 250 ×4.6 mm) was used for the separation at room temperature, with methanol: acetonitrile: water (50:15:35%, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0mLmin−1. The detection wavelength was 238 nm. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, specificity, lineari...
In present work, a new vanishing cream using a natural base from palm oil and palm kernel oil and standard vanishing cream using stearic acid were prepared. The creams were o/w emulsions containing suitable combination of oil phase and aqueous phase along with preservatives. Both creams were white, non-greasy and smooth on application. They were subjected to various parameters such as; pH, viscosi...
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF SIMVASTATIN ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS CONTAINING SOY POLYSACCHARIDE AND POTASSIUM POLACRILLIN AS NOVEL SUPERDISINTEGRANTS
Oral bioavailability of Simvastatin is very low (5%) due to bad solubility and effect of first pass. The aim of this work is to enhance its solubility and reformulating it as orodispersible tablet to overcome the two problems. Simvastatin solid dispersions in β- cyclodextrin, hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and hydroxylbutyl-β-cyclodextrin were prepared in different drug: polymer ratios namely 1...
The present study was an attempt to investigate the feasibility of the matrix based sustained release unit dosage formulation of cefixime trihydrate. Matrix tablets were prepared by using xanthan gum along with the other polymer combinations (Guar gum, sodium alginate and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose). Effect of different formulation variables like polymer concentration, ratio of polymer combinat...
EFFECT OF pH OF ENTERIC POLYER ON DISSOLUTION PROFILE OF DULOXETINE HCl DELAYED RELEASE PELLETS AT VARIOUS pH RANGES
The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of pH of enteric polymer [methacrylic acid ethyl acrylate copolymer dispersion (Eudragit L30 D-55)], on dissolution profile of Duloxetine HCl delayed release formulation with the Tlag of 2hrs. The said formulation was formulated using fluidized bed process in three separate layers, the drug layer, the barrier layer and the enteric l...
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESMENT OF QUINAZOLONE BASED AMIDE LINKAGE CONTAINING THIAZOLIDINONE AND THEIR DERIVATIVES
A number of substituted quinazolones are well known for their pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and analgesic etc. The present work deals with synthesis of quinazolone based thiazolidinone in order to enhance the biological properties. A Series of (2-(substituted phenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl) -4- (4-oxo-2-phenyl quinazolin-3(4H)-yl) benzamide (6a-6h) were synthesi...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM HYDRATE RESIDUE BY USING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETER
A new, simple and sensitive spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Atorvastatin calcium hydrate residue by using swabbing technique. In the proposed method the absorbance was measured 245.0nm corresponding to the absorbance maxima of Atorvastatin calcium in the ratio methanol and water as 90:10 as a solvent. Shimadzu-2450 UV-Visible spectrophotometer with UV Prove 2.31 softw...
EFFECT OF ZINC AND VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION ALONG WITH INTER-TUBERCULAR TREATMENT IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN NORTH INDIAN PATIENTS
Tuberculosis is the major public health problem in throughout the world caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Result indicates that micronutrient deficiency is common in patients with tuberculosis. As per in this study patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients were divided into four groups. One group (n=41) received a placebo, second group (n=47) received 5000 IU vitamin A as retinyl ace...
SPREADING OUT OF ACECLOFENAC SUSTAINED RELEASE MICROCAPSULES BASED ON HPMC 50 CPS BY EMULSION SOLVENT EVAPORATION TECHNIQUE
Sustained released Aceclofenac microcapsules based on synthetic hydrophilic polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were developed in this study in an attempt to design a dosage form that would manifest desirable release profile. W/O emulsion solvent evaporation technique was employed. Various release retarding agents were used to provide the analgesic and anti-inflammatory action of aceclof...
Asthma isa disease of the human respiratory system. The ethanolic extract of the roots of Picrorhiza kurroa was evaluated for antiasthmatic activity by using in-vivo and in-vitro model in guinea pigs. Animal studies used the histamine induced broncho-constriction in guinea pigs. The extract showed a maximum degree of protection of 52.16 % which was comparable to that of salbutamol 65.83 %. The eff...
Fluvastatin sodium (FVS) is the first fully synthetic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. It shows extensive first pass metabolism with short plasma half-life (3 hrs). The iontophoresis approach was used to determine the permeability of drug through isolated rat skin. In-vitro permeation of drug was determined by using ...
SALICYLIC ACID AND CHITOSAN MEDIATED ABIOTIC STRESS IN CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURM.F.) NEES. FOR ANDRO-GRAPHOLIDE SYNTHESIS
Quantitative and qualitative improvement of rare and valuable bioactive plant products is promisingly possible using In-vitro cell culture techniques. The present investigation was conducted with the aim to elicit the synthesis ofandrographolide by subjecting cultured cells of Andrographis paniculata to Salicylic acid (SA) and Chitosan mediated abiotic stressCell suspension culture of Andrographis...
Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson is an entomopathogenic fungus capable of producing a variety of enzymes including proteases and chitinases. Protease derived from microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and yeast has established wide spread applications in fields such as in the food, detergent and other industries. This study investigates the strategy for partial purification and characterization o...
Background: Medicinal plants in Tripathi hills and other developing countries have been scientifically demonstrated to have medicinal benefits but few or none have been translated to products for clinical use. Most herbal products developed by local herbalist and sold to the public are not standardized and lack efficacy and safety data to support use. Objective: to evaluate the medicinal plants...
Back ground: Alcoholic cirrhosis is a condition of irreversible liver disease due to the chronic inflammatory and toxic effects of ethanol on the liver. Acute alcoholic hepatitis occurs in habitual drinkers, often a period of increased alcohol intake. Although, the clinical features may mimic acute viral hepatitis. Progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis is dangerous as well as potentially life...
Plants have been used as a source of natural products for various therapeutic processes from a long time. The proposed work illustrates the study of the importance of natural products in terms in-vitro approaches. On account of this study the phytochemical constituents of various extracts of Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) are evaluated. The plant was traditionally known for its wound healing activit...
The aim of this study was to develop a fast releasing oral polymeric thin film, prepared by solvent casting method, with good mechanical properties, instant disintegration and dissolution. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride, an antihistamine drug belonging to BCS class I was used for oral thin film preparation. The formulations from the preliminary trial were analyzed which was applied to optimize the ...
The present investigation deals with development of fast dissolving tablets of Domperidone to produce the intended benefits. Domperidone is an antiemetic and a prokinetic medicine. Domperidone is water insoluble drug with problems of variable bioavailability and bio-inequivalence. As precision of dosing and patient’s compliance become important prerequisite for quick relief from emesis, there is...
ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION OF DEGRADATION PRODUCTS OF SITAGLIPTIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF VALIDATED STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC ASSAY METHOD FOR SITAGLIPTIN API AND TABLETS
The degradation pathway of sitagliptin in bulk and tablet has been investigated during stress study. Major degradation products were isolated in pure form and characterized using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Three previously unreported impurities were found to be, 3-(trifluoromethyl)-6, 7-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4, 3-a]pyrazin-8(5H)-one, (2E)-1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5, 6-dihydro[1, 2, 4]triazolo[4, 3-...
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OVERLAPPING GENES IN THE GENOMES OF MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND MYCOPLASMA PENETRANS
Overlapping genes are pairs of adjacent genes whose coding regions are partially or entirely overlapping. Overlapping genes in prokaryotes are a means to minimize genome size and increase the density of genetic information. Overlapping genes play an important role in genome reduction of Mycoplasmas during the course of their degenerative evolution. In this study overlapping genes in the genomes of...
Aim: To compare the immunomodulatory effect of Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum basilicum in mice. Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed as per OECD -23 guidelines. Maximum dose level of 2000 mg/kg was selected for toxicological evaluation. Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction were carried out for assessment of cell mediated immune functions Result: Administration of Ocimum sanctum and ...
Allium sativum linn (Garlic) belong to family Liliaceae has been widely known since ancient times for medicinal use and for flavouring food. It contains large amount of sulphur containing compounds like Alliin, Allicin, Ajoene, Diallyl sulphide, Diallyl disulphide Diallyl trisulfide, Vinyldithiines which has beneficial activity including Antithrombotic, Anticancer, Antiviral, Antifungal and Antimi...
In the present work in mathematical modeling, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed on some quinolone derivatives as a potential antibacterial agent using statistical work. The regression analysis of the data has shown that the activities of the compound can be modeled excellently in bi-parametric model.A heurisimatedtic algorithm selects the best multiple line...
Sodium alginate and combinations of sodium alginate-pectin were used to study the effect on the loading efficiency and the radical scavenging activity of the polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peels (Punica granatum). The results indicate that the polyphenol content was less when the microbeads were prepared with a single type of polymer in comparison of the microbeads prepared with two types ...
AMPLIFICATION AND SEQUENCING OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA (HVR-I) EXTRACTED FROM 1200 YEARS OLD HUMAN BONE SPECIMEN
Ancient DNA help in better understanding the evolution and migration pattern of humans throughout the world. The present work is a preliminary effort, to extract and amplify the ancient DNA from human bone samples provided by the Anthropological survey of India collected from the Himalayan region in 1952. Many technical difficulties arise during DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing w...
Marine organisms possess an inexhaustible source of useful chemical substances for the development of new drugs. The present project focused to identify the bioactive compounds from the seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii. The experimental samples were collected from the sea coast of Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu, in the form of fresh living sample. The fresh solvent extracts of K. alvarezii were found to be ...
EVALUATION OF THE HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF AVERON®, A HERBAL FORMULATION, AGAINST CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE-INDUCED IMMUNOMODULATED MALE RATS
The study was carried out to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity and the effect on the biochemical parameters of Averon®, an herbal formulation, on cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression in rats. Haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated after 21 days on blood samples collected by retro-orbital puncture at sacrifice. Results showed that death occurred in the immunosuppress...
ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY ASSESSMENT OF THE AQUEOUS METHANOLIC AND PET-ETHER EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF MESUA FERREA
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of methanolic and pet-ether extract of leaves of Mesua ferrea. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against eight pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species at three concentrations (100, 300, 500 µg/disc) by using disc diffusion method. Both extracts showed moderate antibacterial activity aga...
QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF UNANI POLYHERBAL FORMULATION “HABB-E-AZARAQI” BY CONTEMPORARY SCIENTIFIC PARAMETERS
Demand of the Unani herbal drugs is becoming universal as the people are becoming more and more cognisant about the natural benefits of medicines with plant origin. Herbal drugs being easily affordable are becoming the first preference for the common man over purchasing the expensive modern pharmaceuticals. The WHO estimates that 80% of the world population rely on the medicines of plant origin fo...
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET BY USING FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY
The present study involves in the preparation and evaluation of floating tablets of Salbutamol sulphate by direct compression method by using the hydrophilic polymer such as hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, Dextrin and Carbopol. Sodium bicarbonate, Tartaric acid and citric acid were incorporated as gas generating agent. The study aims to achieve different fo...
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF OCTOPUS AEGINA AND OCTOPUS DOLFUSII IN GULF OF MANNAR COAST
Antibacterial activity and protein content was studied in two species of octopus belonging to the family Octopoda. The highest zone of inhibition of about 34mm and 28mm were obtained against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and theprotein content was 107.16µg/L and 136.20µg/Lin Octopus dolfusii and Octopus aegina, respectively. SDS profile revealed bands of molecular weight of about 32.83 KDa to 72.36 KD...
NEW POTENTIAL ANTIMALARIAL AGENTS: SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME SCHIFF BASE LIGAND AS ANTIMALARIAL AGENTS
Plasmodium falciparum is the protozoan parasite responsible for the majority of life-threatening cases of human malaria, causing more than one million deaths a year. The global emergence of drug-resistant malarial parasites necessitates identification and characterization of novel drug targets. At present, α-carbonic anhydrase (CA) genes are identified in limited numbers of parasites in both prot...
Fioria vitifolia L. (Linn.),(Malvacae) has been extensively used in folk medicine for the treatment of common cold, flu, and upper respiratory infections and also used as an immune system booster. The methanolic extract of whole plant of Fioria vitifolia was taken underphytochemical investigation. The methanolic extract was partitioned with different solvent system by increasing their polarities u...
The core moiety of ritonavir (2S, 3S, 5S)-5-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)amino-2-amino-3-hydroxy-1,6-diphenylhexane (7) on condensation with oxirane of carbazole (8) in isopropyl alcohol at reflux and deprotected with mineral acid gave compound 10. Coupling of compound 10 with carbamate amino acid (11a-15c) in the presence of EDAC.HCl and HOBt at room temperaturegave ritonavir analogues containing carba...
IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF STEMS OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR.
This research aims to detect the in-vitro antioxidant activity of the methanolic and aqueous stem extract of Rotula aquatica lour and to estimate its phenolic and flavonoid content. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), superoxide radical scavenging capacity and reducing power assay (RPA) were carried out to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity. Phytochemical screening was carried out accordin...
MICROWAVE-ASSISTED RAPID GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING SARACA INDICA LEAF EXTRACT AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL
The present study reports an environmentally friendly, microwave-assisted rapid green synthetic method using Saraca indica leaf extract makes a fast and convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and can reduce most of the silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 180 sec of reaction time with the aid of microwave. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visib...
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIFUNGAL STUDIES OF Cu (II) HALIDE COMPLEXES OF SOME STERYL DERIVATIVES OF SUBSTITUTED BENZIMIDAZOLES
Complexes of Copper (II) halides with steryl derivative of 2- methylbenzimidazole (stmbz), 2-ethylbenzimidazole (stebz) and 2-benzylbenzimidazole (stbbz) of composition CuL2X2 (L = stmbz, stebz and stbbz and X = Cl, Br) have been prepared and characterised. The magnetic susceptibility e.p.r. data, electronic absorption pattern and i.r. spectral studies of complexes indicated distorted octahedral e...
SCREENING AND ISOLATION OF FIBRINOLYTIC PROTEASE PRODUCING MESOPHILIC BACTERIA FROM SLAUGHTER HOUSES IN BANGALORE
This work has been undertaken for the screening and isolation of fibrinolytic protease producing mesophilic bacteria from ten soil samples, collected from slaughter housesvarious regions of Bangalore and used to screen for fibrinolytic protease production by using fibrin plate assay. In the present study, an attempt was made to isolate efficient fibrinolytic protease producin...
LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF TELMISARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
An accurate, simple and precise RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation of two drugs was achieved on a Kromasil C18, (250x4.6nm, 5µm) column by using the mobile phase consisted of methanol, tetrahydrofuran and water in the ratio 55:05:40 at a flow rate of 1mL/min...
Simple, sensitive and convenient spectrophotometric methods (method A and method B) are developed for the determination of diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA) in pure form and in formulations. Method A is based on the oxidation of drug by Fe(III) followed by the complex formation between reduced form of Fe(III) with 1,10-phenantroline. The resulting red colored chromogen is measured at 510 nm. Method B...
To assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by antitubercular drugs used in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) from previously reported 8 articles from referred sources. Articles related to adverse drug reactions induced by first line anti- tuberculosis drugs in DOTS therapy published during 2002 to 2012 were searched. The incidence rate of each type of ADR from entire ADRs we...
ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF INDIGOFERA TRIFOLIATA LEAVES ON REPRODUCTIVE ABILITIES OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS
The present work deals with antifertility effect of the aqueous extract of Indigofera trifoliata leaves in female albino rats. Pregnant rats weighing 120 to 200 gm were randomized into 4 groups. From day 11 upto day 15 of pregnancy, rats were laprotomised on 10th day of pregnancy and live fetuses were observed in both the horns of the uterus. Rats in group 1 (control) were orally administered, wit...
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF BROMOCRIPTINE AND METFORMIN IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Bromocriptine mesylate quick release formulation has recently been approved by FDA for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Till now it has been mainly known for its use in Parkinsonism and for suppression of lactation. Present study evaluates and compares the antihyperglycemic effect of the combination of bromocriptine and metformin with either of the two drugs taken alone. For this fasting blood ...
IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF PLANTS NEAR THERMAL POWER PLANT, METTUR, SALEM
The present study was undertaken to know about the free radical scavenging activity of plants located near Thermal power plant, Mettur, Salem. In this study, Polyalthia longifolia, Derris indica, Holopetela integrifolia, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia tomentosa, Psidium guajava, Nerium indicum, Azadirachta indica, Calotropis gigantea, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Ficus benghalensis, Embilica of...
Kamrup District of Asasm is bounded by Udalguri and Baksa districts in the north, Meghalaya in the south, Darrang and Kamrup Metropolitan in the east and Goalpara and Nalbari district in the west. The rural part of kamrup district is mostly inhabitated by different tribes such as Boro, Khoronia Kochari, Rajbonghi, and Nepalis. An ethno botanical survey was conducted during the year 2011-2012 in so...
Emesis is a clinical condition which requires immediate treatment. The present work is aimed to formulate Orodispersible Tablet (ODT) of BCS class II drug Domperidone using Kyron T-314 as superdisintegrant and Avicel 102 as disintegrant by direct compression method. The drug-excipients compatibility study was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (D...