Volume 3 (2012) - Issue 8, August
AUTHENTICATION METHODS FOR DRUGS USED IN AYURVEDA, SIDDHA AND UNANI SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE: AN OVERVIEW
Traditional systems of medicine in India include Ayurveda,Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani and Siddha. Among them Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems (ASU) use plants, minerals and animal products as main drugs to cure various ailments. There has been a boom in the usage of ASU drugs and export is appreciably high in the last two decades. ASU drugs may vary in composition and properties, unlike conventiona...
Transdermal drug technology specialists are continuing to search for new methods that can effectively and painlessly deliver larger molecules in therapeutic quantities to overcome the difficulties associated with the oral route. Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Skin is an effective medium ...
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of several cardiovascular risk factors that include glucose intolerance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The public health impact of this syndrome is weighty; given it is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, obstructive sleep apnea, and type II diabetes. This current plight is further underscored by recently emerging evidence that Meta...
Modified Release (MR) Formulations have a modification in the release mechanism. Modified release dosage forms are developed by altering drug absorption or the site of drug release in order to achieve predetermined clinical objectives. Modified drug release from dosage forms is complemented by the allied processes of drug design, of dosage administration, and of membrane transport and absorption o...
Peptic ulcer is a worldwide health problem because of its high morbidity, mortality and enormous financial implication. An estimated 15,000 deaths per year occur as a consequence of complicated PUD.A large number of drugs for peptic ulcer disease are available in mainstream medicine but they are associated with numerous side effects like arrhythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia and haematopoietic cha...
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) is topically administered dosage form in the form of patches which deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enha...
From the dawn of civilization, medicinal plants are known to be part of human society to combat diseases. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and various evidences have been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimat...
Vitex negundo Linn. belong to family Verbenaceae. It is an important medicinal plant.Literaturesurvey of V. negundo revealed the presence of different classes of natural products including essential oil,triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignan, flavonoids,flavones glycosides, iridoid glycosides, and stilbene derivative. The plant is traditionally reported for its use for the treatment of ...
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. (NAT) is well known Indian medicinal plant. The plant is used in Ayurveda for various pharmacological actions such as anti-arthritic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antiarthritic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihelmintic, antileishmanial, antiviral, CNS depressant. The present review discusses phar...
The oral delivery of lipophilic drugs presents a major challenge because of the low aqueous solubility and less bioavailability. Self-micro emulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) have gained exposure for their ability to increase solubility and bioavailability. SMEDDS, which are isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents/surfactants, can be used for the design of formul...
Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problems and occurs when body is exposed to a drug or toxin. A number of therapeutic agents can adversely affect the kidney resulting in acute renal failure, chronic interstitial nephritis and nephritic syndrome because increasing number of potent therapeutic drugs like aminoglycoside antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents and NSAIDS. Nephroprotective ...
Mucoadhesion is a field of current interest in the design of drug delivery systems. Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system may be designed to enable prolonged residence time of the dosage form at the site of application or absorption and facilitate an intimate contact of the dosage form w...
The emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis makes it necessary for the discovery of new drugs, and also implement other modalities of treatment. Eperezolid and linezolid are oxalidinones which are in phase II clinical trials. Other oxalidinones like AZD5847 and PNU100480 are being evaluated in a phase I trials. Regimens based on a higher dose of rifampin in humans ...
Dillenia Indica, commonly known as elephant apple and locally known as outenga, is the handsome evergreen tree grows in the moist forest of sub-Himalayan region to Assam. The fruit grows in abundance and due to lack of knowledge and technical knowledge; most of these fruits are wasted. In Assam, traditionally the unripe fruits are used to make curries because of its sour taste and ripe fruits are ...
Over the past decades, herbal medicine has become a thing of global significance with medicinal and economic implications. Wide spread use of herbs throughout the globe has raised serious concerns over its quality, safety, and efficacy. Our investigation showed that these investigated medicinal plants could prevent ulcer in a dose-dependent manner. Histological studies revealed that these medicina...
Argemone mexicana Linn has been reported to posses anti microbial, cytotoxic, anti malarial and other pharmacological activity. Alkaloids, amino acids, phenolicsand fatty acids are the main constituents isolated from the plant. The present article reviews the pharmacological and phytochemical work done on the plant and determines a scientific base for novel study for future research to establish t...
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) in comparison to conventional system offers sustained drug release as well as decrease the intensity of action and decrease in the side effects associated with conventional therapy. Presently only about 40 products of more than 20 drug molecules are available in market. The barrier property of the stratum corneum is the main obstructer in the release of drug...
INHIBITION OF 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL COENZYME A (HMG Co-A) REDUCTASE IN LIVER MICROSOMES BY MORINGA OLEIFERA L. POLYPHENOLS
Phytochemicals are the bioactive components present at micro level in our daily diet, especially the phenolic antioxidants, contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves polyphenols effect on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase was studied using a spectrophotometric assay based on the stoichi...
VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF OLOPATADINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK DRUG FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
The voltammetric behavior of olopatadine was investigated at hanging mercury drop electrode using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The drug under study exhibited a single, well-defined reduction peak owing to the reduction of carbon-carbon double bond. The electrode and reaction conditions which yielded maximum peak current were established using differential pulse voltammetr...
The aim of the present study was to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Aloe vera (AV) in alloxan induced diabetes in albino rabbits. Experimental Diabetes was induced in rabbits with alloxan(80mg/Kg body weight)and animals showing fasting blood glucose levels more than 250mg/dl were considered as diabetics and divided into four groups of six each (n=6). Group I: Normal cont...
INTRODUCTION OF INTEGRATED TEACHING AND ITS COMPARISON WITH OTHER TEACHING METHODS IN PHARMACOLOGY FOR UNDER GRADUATES
Background and Purpose: Integrated teaching is new in pharmacology. In the present study, evaluation and comparison of integrated teaching, conventional theory teaching and tutorial has been done. Material and methods: Ten pre and post tests were conducted each for integrated teaching, theory class and tutorial for 126 students. Student’s attitude towards these teaching methods and bedside cl...
CARDIO-PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS RHIZOME ON ISOPROTERENOL-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL NECROSIS IN RATS
The study was designed to scientifically evaluate the effect of alchoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes, a traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induce myocardial necrosis in rats model. The albino wistar rats were divided into five different groups with six animal in each group. Group I serves as a control group, group II were given isoproterenol (85 mg/kg s.c) for 2 days while Gro...
The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plan...
Panchagavya, a classical Ayurvedic preparation, was evaluated for its antioxidant potential by HPTLC-DPPH bioautography method as well as assays for Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH – free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and Superoxide radical scavenging activity. In addition total phenolic content was also estimated which was in fairly good amount. HPTLC-DPPH bioautography stud...
OPTIMISATION OF TYROSINE-BASED LEAD MOLECULES CAPABLE OF MODULATION OF THE PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone has recently been withdrawn from the European market and its use has been restricted in the US due to its undesirable effects which were considered to outweigh its benefits. Literature indicates that there are two agonist bound conformations of the PPARγ as exemplified by its binding to rosiglitazone (PDB ID; 1F...
In the present study, ethanolic nanovesicles of Aceclofenac developed for the site specific delivery to joints for effective treatment of osteoarthritis. Ethanolic nano-vesicles were prepared by solvent dispersion method. Vesicles were characterized for vesicular size, surface morphology, size and size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency. Formulations were also evaluated for drug-v...
Objectives: The study was designed to evaluate hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic leaves extract of Jasminum grandiflorum (JG) in Isoniazid (INH) induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: Mature leaves of JG were collected, authenticated and subjected to successive ethanolic extraction. Hepatic damage was induced in wistar rats by administering INH (54mg/kg, p.o...
A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2) are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DUAL WAVELENGTH UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND DESLORATADINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN THEIR COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical dual wavelength spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Desloratadine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. The principle for dual wavelength method is “the absorbance difference between two points on the mixture spectra is directly proportional t...
VALIDATION OF ABACAVIR SULFATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE BY REVERSE PHASE HPLC WITH INTERNAL STANDARD METHOD
A rapid, specific and accurate isocratic HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay of abacavir sulfate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The assay involved an isocratic – elution of abacavir sulfate in Grace C18 column using mobile phase composition consists of (38:62 v/v) of methanol and 10ml of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. The wavelength of detection is 255nm.The method showe...
World Health Organization (WHO, Geneva) has appreciated the importance of medicinal plants for public health care for use in developing nations. Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. is having important role in the traditional Ayurvedic and Unani systems of holistic health and herbal medicine of the East. The leaves of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. are reported to have good medicinal values in traditional sys...
Asthma is a major public health burden that affects a large number of individuals. The prevalence of this chronic disease is very high in Bangladesh. This study is intended to understand the causes of disease and factors that contribute to its progression and to develop improved treatment strategies. The study population included severe acute attack of asthma patients admitted to National Institut...
EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS TO DETERMINE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
Herbal drugs play an important role in health care dynamics especially in developing countries. The key step in isolation of biologically active compounds is extraction, which is expressed as total extractive yield, yields of metabolites of interest or intensity of biological activity. Extraction of phytoconstituents from plant materials has been of tremendous interest and potential. Extractive va...
SYNTHESIS OF NEW TWO DERIVATIVES OF 6-MERCAPTOPURINE (6MP) 6-[5-PYRIDINE-4-YL- 1, 2, 3, 4-OXADIAZOLE-2-YL)DITHIOL]-9H-PURINE (38) AND 9H-PURINE-6-YL-BENYLDITHIOCARBAMATE (45) WITH CYTOTOXICITY RESULTS FROM THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE’S ANTICANCER DRUG SCREEN
6-[(5-pyridine-yl-1, 2, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2-yl)dithiol]-9H-purine (38) and 9H-purine-6yl-benzyldithiocarbamate (45) are synthesized as possible prodrugs for 6-mercaptopurine(6-MP). The generation of the compounds 38, 42, 45 and 48 were accomplished following multistep reaction procedures. The reaction and purity of the products were checked by TLC, the structure of the final compounds and their inte...
Diabetes is a debilitating metabolic disorder characterized by chronically elevated blood glucose level above the normal range and affects mostly all kind of populations epidemiologically. Objectives: In clinical situations, diabetic patients already on prescription of Rosiglitazone are prone to bacterial infection. To cure such infection Clarithromycin is prescribed particularly in Respiratory...
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities that has close association with cardiovascular mortality. MetS has becoming a major challenge for public health. To get insight knowledge about the MetS in diabetes, this population-based study was designed. Here we assessed the MetS in diabetes from a coastal region of Bangladesh. MetS was estimated by using the modified definit...
IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND CYTOTOXICITY EFFECT OF CHEMICALLY SYNTHESIZED ZnO NANOPARTICLE
Nanoparticles, generally considered as particle with a size of upto 100nm, exhibit completely new or improved properties as compared to the larger particles of the bulk material that they are composed of based on specific characteristics such as size, distribution and morphology. In this study ZnO nanoparticle was synthesized by a simple and easy chemical method from ZnCl2. The synthesized nanopar...
The aim of present investigation is to study the effect of oral administration of drug acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) on female albino rat, Rattus norvegicus. The female rats (n=24) were allocated into 2 groups as control (n=12) and treated (n=12). The treated rats were given oral dose of aspirin 100 mg/ kg body weight for 15 days (n=6) and 30 days (n=6). Tissues enzymological estimations suc...
APPLICATION OF ELECTRON DENSITY AND MOLAR VOLUME AS DESCRIPTORS IN QSAR STUDY OF THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS
QSAR study of lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibitory activity of 18 flavonoids belonging to four classes namely flavones, isoflavones, flavonols and flavanones has been made with the help of PM3 calculations and geometry optimizations using CAChe software. Quantum-chemical descriptors were calculated by the same software using MOPAC 2002 engine. Two quantum-chemical descriptors, molar volume (M.V.) a...
The aim of the study is to observe the cytotoxic activitiy of methanolic crude extracts of root of Justica adhatoda a plant belonging to the family Acanthaceae. The root of Justica adhatoda was extracted with organic solvent and the extracts were used for the observation of cytotoxic activitiy. Crude extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fraction) of Justica adhatoda, we...
SIMULTANEOUS & STABILITY INDICATING METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CETRIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN SYRUP
A simple isocratic HPLC method has been developed and validated as per ICH Guidelines for simultaneous and stability indicating determination of Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical liquid oral dosage form syrup. Separation was achieved in Hypersil BDS C18 column, 5 μ, and 250 mm x 4.60 mm id with flow rate of 1.5 ml/minute and the detection at 230nm. 0.2 molar Am...
EVALUATION OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CEIBA PENTANDRA FOR ANTI-OBESITY AND HYPOLIPIDAEMIC ACTIVITY IN CAFETERIA DIET (CD) TREATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Ceiba pentandra (C. pentandra) has been traditionally used in the ayurveda system of medicine for the treatment of obesity and atherosclerosis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of C. pentandra in Cafeteria diet (CD) treatedWistar albino rats. Obesity was induced in Wistar albino rats by feeding CD daily for twelve w...
Hypertensive disorders are important causes of premature delivery, IUGR and intra uterine fetal death. It accounts for 15% to 20% of maternal deaths in developing as well as developed nations. An association of serum uric acid with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The main objective of the present study was measuring and evaluating serum uric acid values in normal pregnant and preeclamptic and...
PHYSICOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF PARACETAMOL TABLETS FORMULATED WITH THE GUM FROM THE FRESH LEAVES OF CORCHORUS OLITORIUS
Corchorus olitorius L. belongs to the family Tiliaceae. It is a plant with diverse medicinal uses. Its leaves when used to cook, give rise to a ‘slimy, viscous’ soup, hence the interest in investigating its binding properties. Gum was extracted from its leaves using standard procedures. The extracted gum was then used to prepare paracetamol tablets using concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4% and 6% res...
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM (LINN.) STEM BARKS IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The present study was designed to evaluate antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium (SA) stem barks in normal and alloxan induced diabetes rats. The antidiabetic effect of extract was evaluated investigated by measuring fasting blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and alloxan induced diabetes animal models. Here metformin (150 mg/kg) was us...
The present study describes the antifungal activity of Durenta erecta L. against some phytopathogenic fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. For this purpose, methhanolic extract of leaf, stem and root were prepared and tested by “Disc Diffusion Method”. The methanol extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis. Alkaloids, saponins, and polyphenols...
The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small inte...
Celosia argentea is a medicinal herb belonging to the family Amaranthaceae has been used traditionally in Ayurveda for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. Extensive studies have been carried out to substantiate its various claimed pharmacologic activities. Present communication records the Pharmacognostic evaluation like Macroscopic and Microscopic characters and Physiochemical evaluation li...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CINNARIZINE AND DOMPERIDONE MALEATE IN PURE AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
The method for the simultaneous estimation of Cinnarizine and Domperidone maleate from tablet dosage form has been developed, based on simultaneous equation method at two selected wavelength 254nm and 284nm respectively, and also absorbance ratio method at two selected wavelengths 274.0nm (Iso-absorptive point) and 254.0nm (λmax of cinnarizine). The linearity was obtained in the concentration ran...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF THE HPLC METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DOXAZOSIN IN BULK DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
A simple, economic, selective, precise, and accurate High Performance liquid Chromatographic method for the analysis of Doxazosin in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated in the present study. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of Methanol and Potassium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate in the proportion 60: 40. And adjust the pH to 5.0 ± 0.05 with sodium hydroxide sol...
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING ON EXTRACTS OF THE AERIAL PARTS OF GALIUM SPURIUM (SUBSPECIES- AFRICANUM)
The common usage of Galium spp. in the Ethiopian traditional medicine, as described in few documentations, are generally related to diseases associated with the nervous system, the immune system, infections and inflammation. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening on extracts of the aerial parts of Galium spurium (subspecies africanum) was done in order to partly rationalize some of ...
Three simple sensitive, rapid, accurate and economical methods were developed for simultaneous estimation of Ciprofloxacin & Ornidazole in bulk and its pharmaceutical formulations. First method was based on the simultaneous equation, second method was based on Q-Analysis (Absorbance ratio method) and third method was based on multicomponent mode. The absorption maxima for Ciprofloxacin and Orn...
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don is distributed in the Himalayan region with great ethnic uses. Leaves of P. pashia are consumed as butter tea beverages by the Monpa community of Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh (India). The pulverized leaves were extracted using accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) in different organic solvents with increasing polarity. The leaf extracts of P. pashia were evaluated for ...
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF STEPHANIA JAPONICA (THUNB.) MIERS. TENRIL IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE
The present study was carried out to investigate the antihyperglycemic, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and antihyperlipidemic (Total cholesterol and triglycerides) effects of the methanolic extract of Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers. tenril (MSJT). The MSJT was administered orally as a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats and found to reduce blood gluco...
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE BILAYERED BUCCAL TABLETS OF ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM
The purpose of this research work was to establish mucoadhesive buccal device of Rosuvastatin Calcium(RC) in the form of bilayered tablet. The tablets were prepared using natural gums like Xanthan gum, Tamarid gum, Gellan gum and Chitosan as bioadhesive polymers to impart mucoadhesion as well as permeation enhancement property to the formulation. Ethyl cellulose & magnesium stearate were added...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the applicability of liquisolid technique in improving the dissolution properties of Valsartan in a solid dosage form. This study was designed to optimize and evaluate the effects of different formulation variables: amount of liquid vehicle (X1), ratio of carrier to coating material(X2) and amount of magnesium oxide(X3) on angle of repose (Y1), har...
Indigofera linifolia Retz(Fabaceae) is herb which spread throughout the India and found to be used by the tribal to cure inflammations. Based upon the review the present study focused on screening of Ant-inflammatory and Anti-bacterial activity of Indigofera linifolia Retz. The coarse powder of whole plant was extracted by cold maceration method using various solvents successively. Preliminary phy...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING ASSAY METHOD OF PYRIMETHAINE BY USING DIFFERENT STRESS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS
The aim of the present work is to develop simple accurate, precise and cost effective UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for the estimation of pyrimethamine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form and determination of percent degradation by using different stress condition. The solvent used was methanol and distilled water (40:60) and λmax of the drug was found to be 272.5nm. A linear response was o...
EVALUATION OF N-(6-CHLOROBENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL)-2-(SUBSTITUTEDAMINO)ACETAMIDE FOR ITS ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY
In the present study, a series of some novel benzothaizole derivatives (BZT 1-10) were screened for their antibacterial activity against S. typhi, S. dysenterae, E. coli, S.aureus and B. subtlis employing Disc Diffusion method and taking Agar as culture media. Streptomycin (25µg/ml) was used as a standard drug. The solvent, DMSO used for the preparation of compounds did not show inhibition agains...
Objective of the present work is to develop orodispersible tablets of Salbutamol sulphate to improve bioavailability, disintegration time, dissolution efficacy and patient compliance. Orodispersible tablets are the fast growing and highly accepted drug delivery system in now days mainly to improve patient compliance. Orodispersible tablets have number of advantages over conventional dosage forms, ...
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL FLAVONOIDS AND TANNIN CONTENTS OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA ROOT
The crude ethanolic extract of the root of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley (Family: Cucurbitaceae), was evaluated for its possible anti-inflammatory activity and determination of total flavonoids and tannin contents growing in Bangladesh. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of...
Matrix tablets of timolol maleate were prepared using hydrogel forming natural polysaccharides like sodium alginate, xanthan gum and guar gum alone and with hydrophobic polymers like ethyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose by direct compression method. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of drug-polymer and polymer-polymer was studied and revealed the compatibility of drug and polymer. ...
Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, approach and behavior towards medication storage & self-medication practice amongst the youth in Karnataka, India. Methodology: A pre-cross sectional survey was conducted, administering a pre-piloted questionnaire among the target population. Sample size of 150 was analyzed using the percentage method. Results: Out of 150 respond...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING MICROSPHERE H2 RECEPTOR BLOCKER RANITIDINE HCl BY IONIC GELATION METHOD
The present study involves preparation of floating microspheres of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with Sodium alginate, Guargum and Xanthan using ionic gelation method. Floating microspheres were aimed to achieve an extended retention in the upper gastrointestinal tract, which may result in enhanced absorption and thereby improved bioavailability. The formulations were evaluated for FTIR, drug loading, ...
The compound drug Jawarish-e-Bisbasa is a polyherbal Unani formulation. It is used in the ailments of general weakness of the stomach, flatulence in the stomach, indigestion, blind piles and nausea etc. Therefore the scientific validation for development of SOP, pharmacopoeial standards, TLC studies and safety parameter is very much essential to provide the quality medicine to the needy mass. The ...
Methanolic extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Juniperus communis and Solanum xanthocarpum, were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethno medicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to...
This paper deals with the significance and importance of medicinal plants.New flavone glycoside A, m.p. 222-224oC, m.f. C34H42O20, [M+] 770 (FABMS) has been isolated from the stems of Sesbania aculeata Pers. along with three known compounds Kaempferol 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1®2)-b-D-glucopyranoside, (B) and Mearnsetin-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (C) Gehuain(isoflavone) (D). The compound A was ch...
The scientific basis of medicinal plants often claimed that the valuable ethnobotanical medicinal-related information was true. Hence, researchers always develop deep interest in finding natural resources like medicinal plants to combat infectious diseases instead of using modern pharmaceutical drugs that can lead to vast antibiotic resistance issues. In this present study, various leaf extracts o...
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INCLUSION COMPLEX OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID (ASPIRIN) AND β- CYCLODEXTRIN BY SOLVENT EVAPORATION & ITS COMPARATIVE STUDY TO ASPIRIN ALONE
The aim of present study was to determine whether pharmaceutical and pharmacological activity of aspirin would enhance in form of inclusion complex with β–cyclodextrin or not.Aspirin (Acetyl salicylic acid) a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was formulated in to inclusion complex with β–cyclodextrin (β–CD) by solvent evaporation. The phase-solubility curve was AL type and Kst was fou...
Anti-ulcer activity of the Solanum nigrum L. extracts was studied in rats by using pylorus ligated ulcer model. Rantidine was used as the standard drug for comparison. The animals were sacrificed after 19 hrs after the ligation. Stomach was dissected out and contents were drained into tubes and were centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10min and volume was noted. The PH of gastric juice was recorde...
The objective of this study is to induce experimental diabetes mellitus using Alloxan monohydrate in normal adult albino rats and study the anti‐diabetic activity of changes in body weight, consumption of food and water, volume of urine and levels of glucose between normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disorder. Hypoglycemic agents from natural and synthetic sou...
PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF THE EXTRACT OF VOLVARIELLA VOLVACEA (BULLIARD EX FRIES) SINGER. AGAINST CARBONTETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY
Carbon tetrachloride is a xenobiotic that produces hepatotoxicity. Aqueous extract Volvariella volvacea (500, 1000 mg/kg, p.o) showed significant hepatoprotective activity against carbontetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats by normalizing the levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and total bilirubin. The extract improved the activity of Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and hepatic g...
EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMITOTIC POTENTIAL OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA FRUIT USING ONION ROOT MODEL
Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Many of the cucurbitaceae plants traditionally reported to possess antitumor activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer activity for different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria Fruit. The present research work had carried out on laboratory level assay to avoid the use of different animal models. Preliminary phyto...
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF BRASSICA JUNCEA AND CORIANDRUM SATIVUM
In the present study, Phytochemical and in vitro Antioxidant potential of aqueous leaf extracts of Brassica juncea and Coriandrum sativum leaves was determined qualitatively. The Phytochemical screening of plants studied showed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, tannin and reducing sugar in aqueous extract of Brassica juncea. Alkaloids and glycosides were absent in it. Aqueous extract of Cori...
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM MANGROVE ENVIRONMENT OF KARANKADU, RAMANATHAPURAM DISTRICT
Antioxidant property of Phomopsis amygdali culture filtrate extracted with ethanol, was evaluated in vitro. ABTS and DPPH radicals were used to evaluate their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant components like total phenol and flavonoid were also determined. The ethanolic extract of Phomopsis amygdali showed potent antioxidant activity against both ABTS and DPPH radicals with the EC50 value of 58...
India is a landmark for traditional system of medicine from past few centuries. Most of the medicines are effective but only one major drawback is lack of standardization. So, there is a need to develop a standardization technique to mingle this system of medicine in the main stream of health science. Standardization of herbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, base...
EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF EXTRACT OF HALELA SIYAH (TERMINALIA CHEBULA RETZ) ON CHEMICALLY INDUCED CATALEPSY IN MICE
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticataleptic effect of Halela siyah (Terminalia chebula Retz) extract, on haloperidol induced catalepsy in swiss mice which were divided into four groups of six animals each. Animals in different groups were administered distilled water, scopolamine (1.0 mg/kg p.o) and hydroxy alcoholic (3:7) extract of Halela siyah (Terminalia chebula Retz)...