Volume 3 (2012) - Issue 9, September
LIPID BASED PARENTERAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Lipid-based drug delivery systems in the form of triglyceride emulsions, micellar systems and liposomes have been used for parenteral administration for the last few decades. Large number of new chemical entities (NCE) presents formulation and bioavailability problems because of the dose and poor solubility in solvent and co-solvent systems. In addition, high drug concentrations can lead to irrita...
CURRENT ADVANCES IN SUSTAINED-RELEASE INJECTABLE PREPARATIONS
In recent years, there has been a great deal of interests in developing sustained-release systems which can prolong the therapeutic effect, decrease adverse side effects, and reduce administration frequency. Nowadays, the oral sustained-release preparations account for a larger market share comparing to other sustained-release forms, mainly because of its noninvasive pain-free administration. Howe...
TRANSDERMAL PATCHES: A SYNERGISTIC APPROACH OF DRUG DELIVERY FOR NSAIDs
Transdermal drug delivery system has been accepted as potential non-invasive route of drug administration, with advantages of prolonged therapeutic effect, reduced side effects, improved bioavailability, better patient compliance and easy termination of drug therapy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represents the most commonly used medications for the treatment of pain and inflammat...
MITOCHONDRIA: INSIGHT TARGET OF DRUG DEVELOPMENT IN CANCER CELLS
Mitochondria are involved in different physiological and pathological processes that are crucial for tumor cell physiology, growth and survival and its dysfunction leads to many human abnormalities, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancer. The present review is focused on the different experimental and therapeutic cancer strategies addressed t...
MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS: AN OVERVIEW
The gold standard in pharmaceutical industry is the oral delivery because it is the easiest, safest, economical and convenient method for the drug delivery. Mouth dissolving tablets have becomes the most demanding application during last decades and in the pharmaceutical industry this field has become a rapidly area. Mouth dissolving tablets during insertion in the mouth should have to dissolve or...
MICROSPONGES AS THE VERSATILE TOOL FOR TOPICAL ROUTE: A REVIEW
The drug delivery technology landscape has become highly competitive and rapidly evolving. More and more developments in delivery systems are being integrated to optimize the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the therapy. Conventional topical formulations are intended to work on the surface of the skin. Normally, upon application such formulations release their active ingredients and producing a ...
A NOVEL OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: IN-SITU GEL
The ophthalmic in-situ gels now days proved an palpable sustained drug delivery in various eye diseases. The formulation of in-situ gels for eye which carries the advantages like easy for administration, reduces frequency of dose and improves patient compliance. The formation of in-situ gels depends on phase transition system or sol-gel transition system. The formulation approaches like temperatur...
IMPORTANCE OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY: A REVIEW
Heterocyclic compounds are of very much interest in our daily life. Heterocyclic compounds have one or more hetero atoms in their structure. They may be cyclic or non cyclic in nature. Heterocyclic compunds have a wide range of application. They are predominantly used as pharmaceuticals, as agrochemicals and as veterinary products. They also find applications as sanitizers, developers, antioxida...
AN UPDATED REVIEW ON MOLECULAR GENETICS, PHYTOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF BLACK NIGHTSHADE (SOLANUM NIGRUM)
This article reviews, connected the gap between the folkloric use of Solanum nigrum and the results of evidence based experiments. Although Solanum nigrum is a rich source of one of plants most dreaded toxins solanine, it has appreciably monstrated its potential as a reservoir of antioxidants having hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, cytostatic, anti-convulsant, anti-ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory.e...
STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW
High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most accurate methods widely used for the quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of drug product and is used for determining drug product stability. Stability indicating HPLC methods are used to separate various drug related impurities that are formed during the synthesis or manufacture of drug product. This article discusses the strategie...
REVIEW ON ADVANCES IN COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
The colon is the terminal part of the GIT which has gained in recent years as a potential site for delivery of various novel therapeutic drugs, i.e. peptides. However, colon is rich in microflora which can be used to target the drug release in the colon. Colon is a site where both local and systemic drug delivery can take place. Local delivery allows the topical treatment of inflammatory bowel dis...
HERBS IN PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: A REVIEW APPRAISAL
Pregnancy can be the most paranormal and exciting time for expectant mother. Nature provides us with many tools for supporting both the mother and baby through this time of growth and renewal, to strengthen the spirits and body to promote a healthy pregnancy and birthing process. Pregnant and lacting mother need to be educated on the need for caution when using herbs during pregnancy and lactation...
AN OVERVIEW OF PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS VALIDATION AND PROCESS CONTROL VARIABLES OF TABLETS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN INDUSTRY
Validation is an integral part of quality assurance; the product quality is derived from careful attention to a number of factors including selection of quality parts and materials, adequate product and manufacturing process design, control of the process variables, in-process and end-product testing. Recently validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industry’s most recognized and discuss...
GENERIC DRUG USER FEE: AN OVERVIEW
The globalization of generic drug manufacturing, supply and testing, and a growing workload that has far outpaced USFDA’s resources has created new challenges. USFDA & Industry propose generic drug user fee to address the need for globalization of the inspection process, and to speed the timely review of generic product applications. The Generic Drug User Fee (GDUF) proposal is agreed by gen...
LANTANA CAMARA: OVERVIEW ON TOXIC TO POTENT MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
Lantana camara is more popular as toxic weed rather than medicinal plant in most of the countries responsible for infesting pastures, grazing lands, orchards and crops like, tea, coffee, oil palm, coconut and cotton, and reduces the economic viability of the crops. This plant can grow even in extreme harsh climatic conditions of tropical and sub-tropical areas and has become naturalized worldwide ...
BIOMARKERS FOR THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE IN CERVICAL CANCER
Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Despite the tremendous progress that has been achieved in the screening and management of cervical cancer, there is still a need for clinically relevant prognostic biomarkers to monitor the response of patients to various therapies and to predict the chances of recurrence and recovery....
ANGIOGENESIS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: A REVIEW
Angiogenesis is process of new blood vessel formation that occurs under both normal and pathological conditions. In the normal state, two distinct processes can be seen. One utilizes endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and the second utilizes existing vasculature to generate new vessels. The healthy body controls angiogenesis through a series of "on" (angiogenesis-stimulating growth factors) and "o...
THE CONCEPT OF MICROBUBBLE AS A DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW
Micro bubbles are small spherical type of bubble which consists of a gas, they are separated from each other, so they cannot agglomerates. Actually, they have size range in micrometers usually 1-100 micrometer. They are capable of penetrating even into the smallest blood capillaries & releasing drugs or genes, incorporated on their surface, under the action of ultrasound. Microbubbles in gen...
IN VITRO ANTIHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS: A REVIEW
Helminthiasis is infestation with one or more intestinal parasitic worms roundworms, whipworms , or hookworms in humans and animals. Presently, many synthetic drugs are available to treat Helminthiasis infection effectively, but suffer from number of side effects like abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, or temporary hair loss. Moreover, drug resistance is also another fac...
MICROBIAL L-ASPARAGINASE: A REVIEW ON CURRENT SCENARIO AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
L-Asparaginase (E.C. 188.8.131.52.), also known as L-asparagine amidohydrolase is the enzyme with anti-tumor activity and is well accepted as a chemotherapeutic agent against the acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphosarcoma. This article has briefly touched nearly all the industrial and clinical aspects of L-Asparaginase and provides the recent update of the topic. The article includes a brief introd...
CRINUM; AN ENDLESS SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE PRINCIPLES: A REVIEW, PART II. CRINUM ALKALOIDS: CRININE-TYPE ALKALOIDS
Crinum is a genus of about 130 species belonging to family Amaryllidaceae with wide geographical distribution throughout the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate regions of the world. These plants are not only showy ornamentals but they possess significant folkloric and commercial reputation as well. Long ago, Crinums have been subjected to extensive chemical, cytological and pharmacological inv...
THE IN-VIVO EFFECTS OF PARTIALLY PURIFIED SUB-FRACTION (TAF2) OF THE CRUDE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA ROOTS ON THE HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGY PARAMETERS
Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) Jack has been widely used in traditional medicine for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and anticancer activities. As yet, no study has been done on biosafety of partially purified sub-fraction (TAF2) of the crude methanolic extract of E. longifolia roots. This study aims to evaluate, in vivo, the effects of TAF2 on the ha...
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EVALUATION OF POLY (CAPROLACTONE FUMARATE) NANOPARTICLES
Retraction Note : Shokri N, Azizi E, Akbari Javar H, Fouladdel Sh, Khalaj A, Dinarvand R. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of poly (caprolactone fumarate) nanoparticles. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2012; 3(9):3106-3115. It has come to the attention of the IJPSR Editors that there are substantial overlaps between the text of the above article and the foll...
ROSIN MICROSPHERES AS TASTE MASKING AGENT IN ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Natural resources in general and plant materials in particular are receiving more attention due to their safety as pharmaceutical excipients. Present work assessed the combination potential of natural hydrophobic resin, rosin, and synthetic polymer ethyl cellulose to mask the abhorrent inherent taste of ambroxol hydrochloride, by microencapsulation technique, and its possibility to formulate as a ...
ROLE OF BISOPROLOL ADDING TO ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) INHIBITOR AND FUROSEMIDE COMBINATION ON THE LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION IN SYSTOLIC HEART FAILURE PATIENTS
Background: β-blocker is an established therapeutic strategy for stage C systolic heart failure based on the American Heart Association guideline, nonetheless limited studies analyzed the role of β-blocker primarily Bisoprolol adding to ACE inhibitor and furosemide combination on the left ventricular function in systolic heart failure patients. Objectives: This study was designed to analyze t...
AN EVALUATION OF ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC TOXICITIES OF A NIGERIAN POLYHERBAL ANTIDIABETIC REMEDY
The acute and subchronic toxicities of Nigerian polyherbal antidiabetic remedy, prepared from Gongrenema latifolium and Allium cepa (1:1) leaves was investigated in Swiss albino mice and rats of both sexes. For acute toxicity study, 1000-5000mg/kg of the combined extract were administered orally to rats and observed for 24 hours for obvious toxic symptoms and mortality. The median lethal dose of t...
PRELIMINARY TOXICITY STUDY, ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF EXTRACTS FROM SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA L. (MALVACEAE)
Background: Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) is in flora of Asian medicinal herbs and used traditionally in West of Burkina Faso for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, fever, pain and possesses analgesic properties. The aim of the study was to access the biological activities of extract (acetone/water extract) and alkaloid extracts from Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) in the carrageenan-induce...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND INDAPAMIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
A simple, specific, accurate and precise reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine Besyltate and Indapamide in tablet dosage form by reversed phase C18 column (Phenomenex C18, 5μ, 250 mm x 4.6 mm). The sample was analysed using Methanol: Water in the ratio of 95:5 as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min an...
A VALIDATED LC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CHIRAL PURITY OF (R)-3-((1-METHYLPYRROLIDIN-2-YL) METHYL)-5-(METHYLSULFONYLMETHYL)-1H-INDOLE: A KEY RAW MATERIAL OF ELITRIPTAN HYDROBROMIDE
A simple and accurate normal phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of chiral purity of (R)-3-((1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl) methyl)-5-(methylsulfonylmethyl)-1H-indole, R-isomer used as key starting raw material in the manufacturing of Elitriptan hydrobromide bulk drug. Chromatographic separation between (R)-3-((1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl) methyl)-5-(methylsulfonylmethyl)...
IMPACT OF TRADE AND TRIPS ON AFFORDABILITY OF MEDICINE IN TANZANIA
To meet healthcare demands and costs, Tanzania depends largely on imports and financial aid from foreign countries. Current research analyses the impact of market competition on the cost and availability of medicine in Tanzania. Product approvals granted by Tanzanian drug regulatory authority were analyzed on the basis of exporting countries, molecules and therapeutic categories. The market compet...
BIOSYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ASPERGILLUS CONCIUS, PENICILLIUM JANTHINELLUM AND PHOMOSIS SP.
The present study of seventy one endophytic fungi isolated from Avicennia marina, Suaeda monica and Rhizophora mucronata plant leaf. Among 34 genera and 71 species was identified by Lactophenol cotton blue mounting techniques. To induce the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNO3) using Aspergillus conicus, Penicillium janthinellum and Phomosis sp. And evaluate their antimicrobial potential. T...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
A simple, economic, sensitive, precise and accurate UV spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for quantification of Metformin hydrochloride in bulk and in tablet dosage form. Adequate drug solubility and maximum assay sensitivity was found in 0.01N sodium hydroxide at 233nm. Calibration graph constructed at 233nm was linear in concentration range of 1-25μg/ml with correlation coeff...
IMPACTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF FATTY LIVER IN RATS
The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the d...
BINDING EFFICACY AND ELUCIDATION OF QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP OF ACETANILIDE AND ITS DERIVATIVES WITH BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN AND THEIR INHIBITION AGAINST COX1
Serum albumins are the most abundant proteins in plasma with many physiological functions. Among them, BSA has a wide range of functions involving the binding, transport and delivery of fatty acids, porphyrins, bilirubin, steroids, etc and it is home to specific binding sites for metals, pharmaceuticals and dyes. Recently, nanotechnology has become a popular term in the current science and technol...
α-GLUCOSIDASE AND α -AMYLASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS LINN.
Herbal medicine has been used for many years by different cultures around the world for the treatment of diabetes. There has been an enormous interest in the development of alternative medicines for type 2 diabetes, specifically screening for phytochemicals with the ability to delay or prevent glucose absorption. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the invitro antidiabetic activity of Rap...
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALLIUM CEPA LINN. (LILIACEAE) IN RATS
In the present study, we have chosen a plant named Allium cepa Linn(Liliaceae) to evaluate its hepatoprotective activity in experimental animals. Different pharmacological activities are reported with different parts of this plant. Some of its medicinal properties reported are as stimulant, diuretic, anti-tubercular, anthelmintic, and used for various diseases like diabetes, skin diseases, rheum...
INHIBITION STUDIES OF TERPENE BASED NATURAL PRODUCTS WITH CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 (CDK4 MIMIC CDK2)
Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are known as cell cycle regulators in eukaryotic cell cycle. Different CDKs (CDK2, CDK4 etc.) are having structure homology among them. Using computer based molecular modeling tools, interactions between naturally occurring terpene based compounds with crystal structure of CDK4 mimic CDK2 enzyme having PDB ID : 1GII. Using In-silico techniques, the binding energies ...
EFFECT OF GARLIC ADMINISTRATION ON RAT HEART MITOCHONDRIAL ENZYMES AFTER NOISE STRESS EXPOSURE
Background: Noise has been recognized as one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Garlic is one of the oldest medications used in human culture. Garlic is used in herbal medicine for thousands of years and also as one of the main food ingredient. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of garlic after noise exposure in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Anim...
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PUSH-PULL BASED OSMOTIC DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ROPINIROLE
Ropinirole hydrochloride is indicated in Parkinson’s disease and Restless leg syndrome. In advanced Parkinson’s disease the usual dose of Ropinirole hydrochloride is 0.25 to 5 mg three to four times a day. Hence, an attempt was made to develop a once-a-day controlled release Osmotic drug delivery system. This may offer significant patient benefits by providing enhanced efficacy and reduced sid...
WOUND HEALING POTENCY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEUCAS URTICIFOLIA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
The present study was planned to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Leucas Urticifolia on resutured incision, excision and burn wounds in Wistar rats. Resutured incision, excision and dead space wounds were inflicted under light ether anaesthesia aseptically. In incision wound model the control animals receive only distilled water and all test animals were treated with different doses ...
PREVALENCE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND AYURVEDIC MEDICINES’ INTAKE BY PATIENTS TAKING PRESCRIBED ALLOPATHIC MEDICINES AT LUCKNOW
Aim: Present study was done to know the prevalence of the use of dietary supplements and ayurvedic drugs by patients taking allopathic drugs. Introduction: Allopathic drugs are likely to act with ayurvedic drugs and dietary supplements and concurrently used. This concept is usually not recognized by the patients and physicians. Sometimes this may prove dangerous. Present study was done to find ...
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE
An in vitro study was conducted for screening antibacterial activities of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek)and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), in their different forms viz. aqueous extracts, essential oils and powders against some common food borne pathogens. Bacterial strains involved in the study were Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430), Enterococcus feacalis (MTCC 439), Escheric...
ESTIMATION OF NELFINAVIR MESYLATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY SPECTROFLUORO- PHOTOMETRY
A new specific, selective and inexpensive spectrofluorophotometric method has been developed for determination of Nelfinavir mesylate in bulk drug and its dosage form. Fluorescence spectrum of Nelfinavir mesylate in methanol showed excitation wavelength at 253 nm and emission wavelength at 508 nm. The calibration curve for Nelfinavir mesylate was found to be linear over the concentration range of ...
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TIZANIDINE SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS USING HYDROXY PROPYL METHY CELLULOSE
Tizanidine is a muscle relaxant agent, with the half life of 2.5 hours and requires daily doses to maintain adequate plasma concentrations. The present study was undertaken to with an aim to formulation development and evaluation of Tizanidine hydrochloride sustained release tablets using hydrophilic polymer to sustain the action of Tizanidine. Different batches of Tizanidine hydrochloride were pr...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PRICKLY CHAFF (ACHYRANTHES ASPERA) SEED TRYPSIN INHIBITOR
Trypsin inhibitor (AATI) was purified from the seeds of Achyranthes aspera to homogeneity by conventional methods and its antimicrobial activity was tested on selected pathogenic microbes. The inhibitor significantly affected the growth of Proteus vulgaris followed by Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia with zones of inhibition recorded as 28mm, 26mm...
QSAR STUDY TO PREDICT ANTI-AMOEBIC ACTIVITIES OF PYRAZOLINE AND DIOXAZOLE DERIVATIVES WITH THE HELP OF PM5-BASED DESCRIPTORS
In quest of better anti-amoebic agents, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed on a series of pyrazoline & dioxazoles derivatives with the help of PM5 calculations and geometry optimizations using CAChe software. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis was performed to derive QSAR models using the descriptors, molecular weight (MW), conformation minimum en...
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF RENAL ISCHEMIA
The ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Ocimum canum (OC) were studied for its antioxidant activity and its role to prevent renal ischemia. The in vitro antioxidant models used were DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl peroxide radical scavenging method, reducing power assay & FRAP assay. The study was carried out at different concentration (250, 500, 1000, 2000 µg/ml). Further, the an...
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE, ROSIGLITAZONE AND SITAGLIPTIN – APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS
A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-diabetic drugs Metformin hydrochloride (MT), Rosiglitazone (RT) and Sitagliptin (ST). The separation was achieved on ACE 3 150 mm X 4.6mm, 3.5µm column using gradient method. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1 consisted of 10 mM sodium hexane sulphonate mo...
EARLY CO-ADMINISTRATION OF VITAMIN E ACETATE AND METHYLCOBALAMIN PREVENT PROGRESSION OF NEUROPATHIC COMPLICATION IN DIABETIC RATS
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the eiteology of diabetic neuropathy (DN) and anti-oxidants have shown to ameliorate this condition. Previous studies have indicated that early treatment with vitamin E acetate (VE) and methylcobalamin (MCA) attenuated surgery induced neuropathy in rats. The aim of this study was to test the effect of early co-administration of VE (50 mg/kg) and MCA (500µg/...
FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED, MICROBIALLY TRIGGERED COLON TARGETED SYSTEM USING FACE CENTERED CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN
The purpose of present investigation was to achieve successful delivery especially to colon using microbially triggered, osmotically controlled approach. Prednisolone was chosen model drug for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prednisolone-β-cyclodextrin complex were prepared and phase solubility study was carried out. Cellulose acetate solution containing chitosan was used to prepar...
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF VERAPAMIL HYDROCHLORIDE XANTHAN GUM MICROCAPSULES AS CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
In the present study, the microspheres containing Verapamil hydrochloride xanthan complexes encoated with ethyl cellulose by emulsion solvent evaporation method. DSC shown absence of any new endothermic peak, disappearance of no shift of endothermic peak confirmed that there is no any interaction between drug, excipients and the drug was thermally stable. Drug polymer ratio was altered while the o...
PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L. THAT ATTRIBUTE TO ITS MEDICINAL VALUE AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY
Cyperus rotundus L. is a medicinal herb widely used in the ancient Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicine. In the earlier investigations it has been primarily studied for its antioxidant properties. The present study explores the various phytochemicals present in the plant so as to substantiate its antioxidant property and also unravels the several phytoconstituents that contribute to its vari...
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE FROM DOLICHOS LAB-LAB AND ITS INVITRO DEPHOSPHORYLATION ACTIVITY ON NUCLEIC ACIDS
Phosphatase serves several functions in plant metabolism including growth governance, phosphorous level control, starch breakdown etc. Alkaline phosphatases, acting at an alkaline pH 8, are a significant class of enzymes that catalyze release of phosphate esters especially. This enzyme study is so far limited only to animal source and partly to microbial sources, in terms of clinical research. Alt...
DIRECT SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SATRANIDAZOLE
A direct spectrophotometric method was developed by the authors for the detection and determination of satranidazole in pure form as well in pharmaceutical formulations in the form of tablets and capsules. The method was based on the formation of a reddish-purple color dye, due to the diazotization reaction between the nitro group of the drug sample, sulphanilamide and NEDA. The drug sample dissol...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN UPLC METHOD FOR IN-VITRO STUDY OF GLIPIZIDE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS
A Reversed Phase Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method was developed for the determination of glipizide (GLI) in in-vitro study during formulation development. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) column, with a mixture of 55 volumes of methanol and 45 volumes of buffer contain 0.001M sodium dihydrogen phosphate in iso...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CENTELLA ASIATICA LEAVES
The methanol extract of Centella asiatica (Family:Umbelliferae) was studied for its phytochemical and pharmacological Activities. This study of the extracts indicates the presence ofReducing Sugar Tannins, Alkaloids, Sapponins and.The pharmacological study include Antimicrobial activities.The extract of the plant showed activity against a wide a variety of microorganism’s .All the activities w...
A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT HUMAN CLINICAL SPECIMENS AGAINST MULTIPLE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE (MAR) INDEX IN BAREILLY (INDIA) REGION
To analyse the situation of antibiotic resistance, a total of 77 E. coli isolates from urine, pus, sputum and endo-tracheal aspirate were screened for their antibiograms for antibiotic resistance, multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for evaluating the spread of resistance and plasmid profiles for the presence and characterization of plasmids. Very high resistance level (>90%) was detecte...
IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF TWO MARKETED BRANDS OF PARACETAMOL TABLETS USING QUALITY CONTROL TESTS
Paracetamol is a widely used non-prescription analgesic and antipyretic medicine. The study was conducted to assess the comparative in-vitro quality control parameters through the evaluation of weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile between the commercially available tablet brands of paracetamol. Tablets of two manufacturers of the formulation were eval...
IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL MUCOADHESIVE AGENT ISOLATED FROM OCIMUM AMERICANUM SEED
Aim of present investigation was to isolate natural mucoadhesive agent from Ocimum americanum seeds and characterize through in vitro mucoadhesion methods, FTIR and DSC studies. Mucoadhesion force of isolated natural mucoadhesive agents and synthetic polymer Carbopol 934P was determined using in vitro mucoadhesion methods viz. Wihelmy’s method, falling sphere method and modified physical balance...
A SENSITIVE RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE AND LEVO-CETIRIZINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A simple, sensitive and reproducible method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Diethylcarbamazine and Levocetirizine in its tablet formulation by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography using Waters1515 HPLC with Diethylcarbamazine and Levocetirizine simultaneously. HPLC-PDA detector at the λmax of 253nm, using Hypersil-BDS C18 (250×4.6 mm. 5 μ) column. ...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM STEROIDAL AND TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FRACTION
Allium sativum L. (Liliacea) is a perennial bulb with a tall, erect flowering stem. The bulb of the plant has been used in many parts of the world as a stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, anthelmintic and diuretic. This study has been planned to assess the diuretic activity of fresh garlic bulb extract targeting the steroidal and triterpenoidal saponin content. The rats were randomly ...
ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE) and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE) against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level ...
DEVELOPMENT AND BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF OLANZAPINE 10mg TABLETS
Generic drugs are lower-cost versions of patent-expired original brand-name medications. According to guidelines of regulatory agencies of the Canada, US and European Union, a generic drug must be “identical, or bioequivalent to a brand name drug in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics and intended use”. Bioequivalence is decreed when the...
ESTIMATION OF MANIDIPINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE BY A NEW RP-HPLC METHOD
A rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of Manidipine dihydrochloride in its pure form as well as in tablet dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on an phenomenex C18 column (250´4.6mm, 5 µm), using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (80: 20 v/v) with pH adjusted to 3.5 with ortho phosphoric acid (0.1 % v/v) as the mobile ph...
ASSESSMENT OF BIOTHERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PIMENTA DIOICA (ALLSPICE) LEAF EXTRACT
All-spice (pimenta) is one of the under-utilized resources available in the tropical regions of the globe. It is a variety of sweet pepper used as a spice and its leaves are used for traditional culinary purpose. Researchers have studied the antioxidant potentials of the berries of the plant, but no documented work is reported on its stem, leaf and roots for antimicrobial properties. Thus, the pre...
DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE GEL FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF QUETIAPINE USING BOX- BEHNKEN DESIGN
The purpose of this work was to develop and characterize a vesicular drug carrier for topical delivery of Quetiapine to overcome the problems related with oral route that is high first pass metabolism and fluctuating drug plasma concentration. The effects of key formulation variables on entrapment efficiency (EE %), vesicle size and in vitro drug permeation were studied using a Box- Behnken design...
ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF MURRAYA KONIGII AGAINST HUMAN CARIOGENIC PATHOGENS
This study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial efficacy of herbal crude extract of Murraya koenigii againsthuman Cariogenic pathogens. In this study Methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii were studied for phytochemical composition and GC-MS for active compound. Antioxidant potential assay by 1,1-Diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2’-azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic aci...
COMPARATIVE SAFETY AND COST EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ACECLOFENAC, LORNOXICAM AND DICLOFENAC IN PATIENTS OF MUSCULO SKELETAL DISORDER
Newer NSAIDs like Aceclofenac and Lornoxicam are being marketed by pharmaceutical industries with claims of better efficacy and safety than conventional NSAIDs like Diclofenac. So this study aims to comparatively assess the safety, efficacy and cost of Aceclofenac, Lornoxicam and Diclofenac in patients of musculoskeletal disorders. Patients presenting with musculoskeletal disorde...
EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS
Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control. Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administrati...
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.
The present study was undertaken to investigate in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Family- Scrophularaceae. The total Phenolic content was determined using folin ciocalteau method while the total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated...
SYNTHESIS AND MICROBIAL STUDIES OF SOME NOVEL SCHIFF BASE CONTAINING PYRIMIDINE
6-chloro 2, 4-diamino pyrimidine reacts with various aromatic aldehyde. Finally, the product was characterized by conventional and instrumental methods. Their structures were determined and important therapeutic properties were studied....
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROSIGLITAZONE AND PIOGLITAZONE TO EVALUATE THE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HIGH FRUCTOSE DIET INDUCED HYPERTENSIVE RATS
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) were widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that TZDs have paradoxical effects on cardiovascular diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of TZDs (Rosiglitazone and Pioglitazone) in High Fructose Diet (HFD) induced hypertension in rats. HFD was given for 14 weeks. After 8 weeks of hypertension inductio...
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE AND NAPROXEN SODIUM BY REVERSE PHASE HPLC IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
This investigation describes a new precise, sensitive and accurate RP-HPLC method for the Simultaneous estimation of Sumatriptan succinate and Naproxen Sodium in Bulk and Tablets. The resolution of two drugs was achieved on XTerra C18 (150mm x 4.6mm i.d., 3.5mm particle size) column with UV detection at 284nm and the mobile phase consists of Buffer and Acetonitrile (25:75 v/v). Using chromatograph...
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON
Diospyros melanoxylon is a medium-sized tree or shrub which belongs to the family Ebenaceae. The whole plant is medicinally important and cures several diseases. Therefore, in this context the detailed pharmacognostic study of various parts like leaf, stem, petiole and root has been carried out with the aim to establish its Pharmacognostical standards. The parameters selected were microscopical st...
MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM: FORMULATION AND EVALUATION
Losartan potassium is an angiotention receptor antagonist, used in the management of hypertension. The objectiveof the proposed research work is to prepare and evaluate the mouth dissolving/disintegrating tablets (MDTs) of losartan Potassium, which avoid the first-pass metabolism, improved the dissolution rate and enhance the bioavailability. Mouth dissolving tablets (MDTs) were prepared by direct...
PREVALENCE OF SERUM THYROID HORMONES AND MENSTRUAL IRREGULARETIES WITH INFERTILITY IN UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA
It is important to predict the serum thyroid hormones level in females during infertility to prevent its occurrence later on. In this study, we studied serum thyroid hormones and menstrual irregularities during infertility. A case control study was performed in 75 infertile patients with menstrual irregularities and 50 healthy matched women. Three biochemical parameters were measured in serum, hor...
ESTIMATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT IN AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE BARK OF ACACIA NILOTICA
Plant polyphenols have been studied largely because of the possibility that they might underlie the protective effects afforded by fruit and vegetable intake against cancer and other chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to estimate the total polyphenolic content in aqueous and methanolic extract prepared from the bark of Acacia nilotica plant species. Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd....
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-VISIBLE SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN RIBOFLAVIN
The present study describes a simple, accurate, precise and cost effective UV-Visible spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Riboflavin raw material. The Riboflavin is water soluble vitamin, so the solvent used throughout the experiment was 0.1N NaOH, the absorption maxima of drug was found at 445 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 5ppm-30ppm. the developed method was successfull...
DASHAMULARISHTA: PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING AGAINST EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Pollution have a serious impact on human health and environment. The incidences of various diseases are becoming prominent with the increase in rate of population. The diseases mainly include respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, throat inflammation, skin infections etc. In the present study, widely claimed crude drug Dashamularishta, have been screened for their antibacterial activit...
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF GARCINIA SPECIES FROM SONITPUR DISTRICT, ASSAM, NORTH EAST INDIA
The fruits of Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham., G. xanthochymus Hook. f. and G. morella (Gaertn.) Desr. collected from Sonitpur district of Assam, India were evaluated for the antioxidant potential and total phenolic content. The methanolic extract of these fruits were subjected to DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay for determining the free radical inhibition property and Folin Cio...
BIOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES OF CASSIA NODOSA BUNCH.
Cassia nodosa Bunch.is an ornamental tree belonging to family Leguminosae, popularly known as Pink Shower is a perennial tree. Laboratory evaluations were made to asses the study of primary metabolites in different plant parts of Cassia nodosa Bunch. The highest amount of soluble sugars (10.27mg/ gdw), lipids (32.36mg/gdw), phenols (20.0mg/gdw), DNA (11.78mg/gdw) and Chlorophyll- a+b (0.94mg/gdw) ...
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALKALOIDS OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS L. AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENS
Tridax procumbens L. is a well known medicinal plant. In the present study alkaloids from pedicle and buds of the plant were extracted and evaluated for antimicrobial activity by ‘Disc Diffusion Assay’ against selected bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes). Min...
A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA
Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic r...
ORAL AND SYSTEMIC SIDE EFFECTS OF CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND EFFECT OF BENZYDAMINE MOUTHWASH IN ORAL MUCOSITIS
Aim: To check the effectiveness of 0.15% Benzydamine hydrochloride on oral mucositis secondary to cancer chemotherapy Methods: In the past few years, multiple cases were referred to our department for the management of oral manifestations of cancer chemotherapy for various malignancies. Out of these patients, we selected 5 patients and used a simple, inexpensive treatment modality in considerat...
PREPARATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF MICRO EMULSION OF ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG: VALSARTAN
Valsartan is an orally administered ACE inhibitor for the treatment of hypertension and cardiac failure, but its solubility and oral bioavailability are poor. The objective of investigation is to formulate a microemulsion drug delivery system of valsartan using minimum surfactant concentration that could improve its solubility and oral bioavailability. Valsartan microemulsion were prepared by ...
ANTI-GLYCATION EFFECT OF WHITTON ROOT (EULOPHIA NUDA) IN-VITRO CONDITION
Non enzymatic glycation takes place when elevated levels of reduced sugars react with amino groups of proteins and is called as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are responsible for Diabetes Mellitus. Hydroalcoholic extract of Whitton root (Eulophia nuda) was tested for in-vitro inhibition of non-enzymatic glycation of Immunoglobin G. Plant extracts have their own importance and now being s...
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE FLOATING TABLETS BY USING TWO VISCOSITY GRADE OF HPMC
Metoprolol is a beta1-selective (cardio selective) adrenergic receptor blocking agent used in the treatment of Hypertension. The purpose of this investigation is to improve bioavailability by preparing a gastroretentive drug delivery system. Floating tablets of Metoprolol Succinate were prepared by employing two different grades of HPMC K4M and HPMC E15M in different concentrations by effervescent...
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFUROXIME SODIUM AND SULBACTAM SODIUM IN INJECTON
Cefuroxime is a 2nd-generation cephalosporin and Sulbactam is a β-Lactamase inhibitor. The combination formulation is used for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infection. Two new, simple, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Cefuroxime Sodium (CEF) and Sulbactam Sodium (SUL) in their combined dosage form...
AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF HYGROPHILA AURICULATA (K. SCHUM) HEINE ON LIPID PEROXIDATION IN A RAT MODEL OF N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA
This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect effect of Hygrophila auriculata (H. auriculata) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) in N-nitrosodiethylamine induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in rats. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, N-Nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular Carcinoma bearing rats, H. auriculata treated hepatocellular carcinoma bearing ra...
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF BMP-NLC ENRICHED GEL
NLC are innovative vehicles introduced to overcome some limitations of SLN. Particularly, NLC, composed of a solid lipid and a certain content of liquid lipid (oil), show improved drug entrapment efficiency and an increased stability during storage with respect to SLN. Furthermore, NLC, maintaining their solid state, can control the API release from the matrix. To formulate Nanostructure lipid car...